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real Life, but by comparing him with other Au. chours. It was observed of the ancient Schools of Declamation, that the more diligently they were frequented, the more was the Student disqualified for the World, because he found nothing there which he should ever meet with in any other place. The same Remark may be applied to every Stage but that of Shakespeare. The Theatre, when it is under any other Direction, is peopled by such Characters as were never seen, conversing in a Language which was never heard, upon Topicks which will never arise in the Commerce of Mankind. But the

Dialogue of this Authour is often so evidently de· termined by the Incident which produces it, and is

pursued with so much Ease and Simplicity, that it · seems scarcely to claim the Merit of Fiction, but to

have been gleaned by diligent Selection out of common Conversation, and common Occurrences.

Upon every other Stage the universal Agent is Love, by whose Power all Good and Evil is distributed, and every Action quickened or retarded. To bring a Lover, a Lady and a Rival into the Fable; to entangle them in contradictory Obligations, perplex them with Oppositions of Interest, and harrass them with Violence of Desires inconsistent with each other ; to make them meet in Rapture, and part in Agony ; to fill their Mouths with hyperbolical Joy, and outrageous Sorrow; to distress them as nothing human ever was distressed; to deliver them as nothing human ever was delivered, is the Business of a modern Dramatist. For this Probability is violated, Life is misrepresented, and Language is depraved. But Love is only one of many Paffons, and as it has no great Influence upon the Sum of Life, it has little Operation in the Dramas of a Poet, who caught his Ideas from the living World, and exhibited only what he saw before him. He

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knew that any other Paffion, as it was regular or excrbitant, was a Cause of Happiness or Calamity.

Characters thus ample and general were not eafily discriminated and preserved, yet perhaps no Poet ever kept his Personages' more diftinct from each other. I will not say with Pope, that every Speech may be assigned to the proper Speaker, because many Speeches there are which have nothing characteriftical ; but, perhaps, though some may be equally adapted to every person, it will be difficult to find

sent Poffeffor to another Claimant. The Choice is right, when there is Reason for Choice.

Other Dramatists can only gain Attention by hyperbolical or aggravated Characters, by fabulous and unexampled Excellence or Depravity, as the Writers of barbarous Romances invigorated the Reader by a Giant and a Dwarf; and he that should form his Expectations of human Affairs from the Play, or from the Tale, would be equally deceived. ShakeSpeare has no Heroes ; his Scenes are occupied only by Men, 'who act and speak as the Reader thinks that he should himself have spoken or acted on the fame Occasion: Even where the Agency is fupernatural, the Dialogue is level with Life. Other Writers disguise the most natural Passions and most frequent Incidents ; so that he who contemplates them in the Book will not know them in the World: Shakespeare approximates the Remote, and familiarizes the Wonderful ; the Event which he represents will not happen, but if it were possible, its Effect would be probably such as he has affigned; and it may be said, that he has not only shewn human Nature as it acts in real Exigencies, but as it will be found in Trials, to which it cannot be exposed.

This therefore is the Praise of Shakespeare, that


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mazed his Imagination, in following the Phantoms which other Writers raise up before them, may here be cured of his delirious Extasies, by reading human Sentiments in human Language ; by Scenes from which a Hermit may estimate the Transactions of the World, and a Confeffor predict the Progress of the Passions.

His Adherence to general Nature has exposed him to the Censure of Criticks, who form their Judgments upon narrower Principles. Dennis and Rhymer think his Romans not sufficiently Roman; and Voltaire cenfures his Kings as not completely royal., Dennis is. offended, that Menenius, a Senator of Rome, should play the Buffoon ; and Voltaire perhaps thinks Decency violated, when the Danish Usurper is represented as a Drunkard. But Shakespeare always makes Nature predominate over Accident ; and if he preserves the essential Character, is not very careful of Distinctions superinduced and adventitious. His Story requires Romans or Kings, but he thinks only on Men. He knew that Rome, like every other City, had Men of all Dispositions; and wanting a Buffoon, he went into the Senate-house for that which the Senate-house would certainly have afforded him. He was inclined to fhew an Usurper and a Murderer not only odious, but despicable; he therefore added Drunkenness to his other Qualities, knowing that Kings love Wine like other Men, and that Wine exerts its natural Power upon Kings. These are the petty Cavils of petty Minds ; a Poet overlooks the casual Distinction of Country and Condition, as a Painter, satisfied with the Figure, neglects the Drapery:

The Censure which he has incurred by mixing comick and tragick' Scenes, as it extends to all his Works, deserves more Consideration, 'Let the Fact be first stated, and then examined. .,

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Shakespeare's Plays are not in the rigorous or critical Sense either Tragedies or Comedies, but Compositions of a distinct Kind; exhibiting the real State of sublunary Nature, which partakes of Good and Evil, Joy and Sorrow, mingled with endless Variety of Proportion and innumerable Modes of Combination : and expressing the Course of the World, in which the Loss of one is the Gain of another ; in which, at the fame Time, the Reveller is hasting to his Wine, and the Mourner burying his Friend ; in which the Malignity of one is sometimes defeated by the Frolick of another; and many Mischiefs and many Benefits are done and hindered without Deo sign.

Out of this Chaos of mingled Purposes and Casualties the ancient Poets, according to the Laws which Custom had prescribed, selected some the Crimes of Men, and some their Absurdities ; some the momentous Vicissitudes of Life, and some the lighter Occurrences ; some the Terrours of Distress, and some the Gayeties of Prosperity. Thus rose the two Modes of Imitation known by the Names of Tragedy and Comedy, Compositions intended to promote different Ends by contrary Means, and considered as fo little allied, that I do not recollect among the Greeks or Romans a single Writer who attempted both.

Shakespeare has united the Powers of exciting Laughter and Sorrow, not only in one Mind, but in

between serious and ludricous Characters; and, in the successive Evolutions of the Design, fometimes produce Seriousness and Sorrow, and sometimes Levity and Laughter.

That this is a Practice contrary to the Rules of Criticism will be readily allowed; but there is always an Appeal open from Criticism to Nature. The End of Writing is to instruct ; the End of Poetry is to instruct by pleasing. That the mingled Drama


may convey all the Instruction of Tragedy or Comedy cannot be denied; because it includes both in its Alterations of Exhibition, and approaches nearer than either to the Appearance of Life, by shewing how great Machinations and flender Designs may promote or obviate one another, and the high and the low co-operate in the general System by unavoidable Concatenation.

It is objected, that by this Change of Scenes the Paflions are interrupted in their Progression; and that the principal Event, being not advanced by a due Gradation of preparatory Incidents, wants at last the Power to move, which constitutes the Perfection of dramatick Poetry. This Reasoning is fo fpecious, that it is received as true even by those who in daily Experience feel it to be false. The Interchanges of mingled Scenes feldom fail to produce the intended Vicissitudes of Passion. Fiction cannot move fo much, but that the Attention may be easily tranfferred ; and though it muft be allowed that pleasing Melancholy be fometimes interrupted by unwelcome Levity; yet let it be considered likewise, that Melancholy is often not pleasing, and that the Disturbance of one Man may be the Relief of another ; that different Auditors have different Habitudes; and that, upon the Whole, all Pleasure consists in Variety.

The Players, who in their Edition divided our Authour's Works into Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies, feem not to have distinguished the three Kinds by any very exact or definitive Ideas.

An Action which ended happily to the principal Persons, however serious or distressful through its intermediate Incidents, in their Opinion constituted a Comedy. This Idea of a Comedy continued long amongst us, and Plays were written, which, by changing the Catastrophe, were Tragedies to-day, and Comedies to-morrow.

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