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more or fewer, the Restriction of five Acts being accidental and arbitrary. This Shakespeare knew, and this he practised: His Plays were written, and at first printed, in one broken Continuity, and onght now to be exhibited with short Pauses, interposed as often as the Scene is changed, or any confiderable Time is required to pass. This Method woüld at once quell a thousand Absurdities,
In restoring the Author's Works to their Integritys I have considered the Punctuation as wholly in my Power: For what could be their Care of Colons and Commas, who corrupted Words and Sentences ; Whatever could be done by adjusting Points is therefore filently performed, in some Plays with much Diligence, in others with less : It is hard to keep a busy Eye stedfastly fixed upon evanescent Atoms, or a discursive Mind upon evanescent Truth.
The fame Liberty has been taken with a few Para ticles, or other Words of flight Effect. I have some: times inserted or omitted them without Notice. I have done that sometimes, which the other Editor's have done always, and which indeed the State of the Text may sufficiently justify.
The greater Part of Readers, instead of blaming us for passing Trifles, will wonder that on mere Trifles so much Labour is expended, with such Importance of Debate, and such Solemnity of Diction. To these I answer with Confidence, that they are judging of an Art which they do not understand yet cannot much reproach them with their Ignorance, nor promise that they would become in general, by learning Criticism, more useful, happier, or wiser.
As I practised Conjecture more, I learned to trust it less ; and after I had printed a few Plays, resolved to insert none of my own Readings in the Text. Upon this Caution I now congratulate myself, for every Day, encreases my Doubt of my Emendations. Since I have confined my Imagination to the Margin, it must not be considered as very reprehensible, if I have suffered it to play some Freaks in its own Dominion. There is no Danger in Conjecturé, if it be proposed as Conjecture ; and while the Text remains uninjured, those Changes may be safely offered, which are not considered, even by him that offers them, as necessary or safe.
If my Readings are of little Value, they have not been oftentatiously displayed, or importunately obtruded. I could have written longer Notes, for the Art of writing Noles is not of difficult Attainment. The Work is performed first, by railling at the Stupidity, Negligence, Ignorance, and asinine Tasteleffness of the former Editors, and shewing, from all that goes before, and all that follows, the Inelegance and Absurdity of the old Reading; then by proposing something, which, to fuperficial Readers, would seem fpecious, but which, the Editor rejects with Indignation; then by producing the true Reading, with a long Paraphrase, and concluding with loud Acclamations on the Discovery, and a sober Wish for the Advancement and Prosperity of genuine Criticism.
All this may be done, and perhaps done sometimes without Impropriety. But I have always sufpected that the Reading is right, which requires many Words to prove it wrong; and the Emendation wrong, that cannot, without so much Labour, appear to be right. The Justness of a happy Re-, storation strikes at once, and the moral Precept may be well applied to Criticism, quod dubitas ne feceris.
To dread the Shore which he fees spread with Wrecks, is natural to the Sailor. I had before my Eye so many critical Adventures ended in Miscar: riage, that Caution was forced upon me. I encountered in every Page Wit struggling with its own Sophistry, and Learning coufused by the Multiplicity of its Views. I was forced to censure those VOL. II.
whom I admired, and could not but reflect, while
fame Fate might happen to my own, and how many of the Readings which I have corrected may be, by some other Editor, defended and established.
« Criticks, I saw, that other's Names efface, « And fix their own, with Labour, in the Place; 6 Their own, like others, soon the Place resign'd, • Or disappear'd, and left the first behind.'
Pope. That a conjectural Critick should often be mistaken cannot be wonderful, either to others or to himself, if it be considered, that in his Art there is no System, no principal and axiomatical Truth, that regulates subordinate Positions. His Chance of Errour is renewed at every Attempt; an oblique View of the Passage, a slight Misapprehension of a Phrase, a casual Inattention to the Parts connected, is sufficient to make him not only fail, but fail ridi. culously; and when he succeeds best, he produces perhaps but one Reading of many probable ; and he that suggests another will always be able to difpute his Claims.
It is an unhappy State in which Danger is hid under Pleasure. The Allurements of Emendation are scarcely resistible. Conjecture has all the Joy and all the Pride of Invention, and he that has once started a happy Change is too much delighted to consider what Objections may rise against it.
Yet conjectural Criticism has been of great Use in the learned World ; nor is it my Intention to depreciate a Study, that has exercised so many mighty Minds, from the Revival of Learning to our own Age, from the Bishop of Aleria to English Bentley. The Criticks on ancient Authours have, in the Ex: ercise of their Sagacity, many Aslistances which the Editor of Shakespeare is condemned to want. They
are employed upon grammatical and fettled Languages, whose Construction contributes so much to Pefpicuity, that Homer has fewer Passages unintelligible than Chaucer. The Words have not only a known Regimen, but invariable Quantities, which direct and confine the Choice. There are commonly more Manufcripts than one; and they do not often conspire in the same Mistakes. Yet Scaliger could confess to Salmafius how little Satisfaction his Emendations gave him. Illudunt nobis conjecturæ noftræ, quarum nos pudet, pofteaquam in meliores codices incidimus. And Lipfius could complain, that Criticks were making Faults, by trying to remove them : Ut oling vitiis, ita nunc remediis laboratur. And indeed, where mere Conjecture is to be used, the Emendations of Scaliger and Lipsius, notwithstanding their wonderful Sagacity and" Erudition, are often vague and difputable, like mine or Theobald's.
Perhaps I may not be more cenfured for doing wrong, than for doing little ; for raising in the Puplick Expectations, which at last I have not answered. The Expectation of Ignorance is indefinite, and that of Knowledge is often tyrannical. It is hard to satisfy thofe who know not what to demand, or those who demand by Design what they think impossible to be done. I have indeed disappointed no Opinion more than my own ; yet I have endeavoured to perform my Talk with no slight Solicitude. Not a single passage in the whole Work has appeared to me corrupt, which I have not attempted to restore ; or obscure, which I have not endeavoured to illustrate. In many I have failed like others; and from many, after all my Efforts, I have retreated, and confeffed the Repulse. I have not palled 'over;' with affected Superiority, what is equally difficult to the Reader and to myself, but where I could not instruct him, have owned my lgnorance. 'I' might eaGly have accumulated a Mass
of seeming Learning upon easy Scenes ; but it ought not to be imputed to Negligence, that, where nothing was neceffary, nothing has been done ; or that, where others have said enough, I have said no more,
Notes are often necessary, but they are neceffary Evils. Let him that is yet unacquainted with the Powers of Shakespeare, and who desires to feel the highest Pleasure that the Drama can give, read every Play, from the first Scene to the last, with utter Negligence of all his Commentators. When his Fancy is once on the Wing, let it not stoop at Correction or Explanation. When his Attention is strongly engaged, let it disdain alike to turn aside to the Name of Theobald and Pope. Let him read on through Brightness and Obscurity, through Integrity and Corruption ; let him preserve his Comprehension of the Dialogue, and his Interest in the Fable; and when the Pleasures of Novelty have ceased, let him attempt Exactness, and read the Commentators.
Particular Passages are cleared by Notes, but the general Effect of the Work is weakened. The Mind is refrigerated by Interruption ; the Thoughts are diverted from the principal Subject, the Reader is weary, he suspects not why, and at last throws away the Book, which he has too diligently studied.
Parts are not to be examined till the Whole has been surveyed; there is a Kind of intellectual Remoteness necessary for the Comprehension of any great Work, in its full Design and its true Proportions ; a close Approach fhews the smaller Niceties, but the Beauty, of the Whole is discerned no longer.
Ič is not very grateful to consider how little the Succession of Editors has added to this Authour's : Power of pleasing He was read, admired, studied, and imitated, while he was yet deformed with all the Improprieties which Ignorance and Neglect could