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Gourting living Information, and contesting with the Sullenness of one, and the Roughness of another.

To furnish the Academicians della Crusca with Words of this Kind, a Series of Comedies, called la Fiera, or the Fair, was profeífedly written by Buonaroti ; but I had no such Assistant, and therefore was content to want what they must have want. ed likewise, had they not luckily been so supplied.

Nor are all Words which are not found in the Vocabulary, to be lamented as Omislions. Of the laborious and mercantile Part of the People, the Diction is in a great Measure casual and mutable; many of their Terms are formed for some temporary or local Convenience ; and though current at certain Times and Places, are in others utterly unknown. This fugitive Cant, which is always in a State of Increase or Decay, cannot be regarded as any Part of the durable Materials of a Language, and therefore must be suffered to perish with other Things unworthy of Preservation.

Care will sometimes betray to the Appearance of Negligence. He that is catching Opportunities which seldom occur, will suffer those to pass by unregarded, which he expects hourly to return; he that is searching for rare and remote Things, will neglect those that are obvious and familiar: Thus many of the most common and curfory Words have been inserted with little Illustration, because in gathering the Authorities, I forbore to copy those which I thought likeiy to occur whenever they were wanted. It is remarkable that, in reviewing my Collection, I found the Word Sea unexemplified.

Thus it happens, that in Things difficult there is Danger from Ignorance, and in Things easy from Confidence; the Mind, afraid of Greatness, and disdainful of Littleness, hastily withdraws herself from painful Searches, and pailes with scornful Rapidity

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over Talks not adequate to her Powers; sometimes too secure for Caution, and again too anxious of vi. gorous Effort ; sometimes idle in a plain Path, and fometimes distracted in Labyrinths, and dissipated by different Intentions.

'A large Work is difficult because it is large, even though all its Parts might singly be performed withi Facility ; where there are many Things to be done, each must be allowed its Share of Time and La. bour, in the Proportion only which it bears to the Whole; nor can it be expected that the Stones which form the Dome of a Temple, should be squared and polished like the Diamond of a Ring.

Of the Event of this Work, for which, having laboured it with fo much Application, I cannot but have fome Degree of parental Fondness, it is natural to form Conjectures. Those who have been perfuaded to think well of my Design, require that iť should fix our Language, and put a Stop to those Alterations which Time and Chance have hitherto

With this Consequence I will confess that I flattered myself for a while ; but now begin to fear that I have indulged Expectation, which neither Reafon nor Experience can justify. When we fee Men grow old and die, at a certain Time, one after another, from Century to Century, we laugh at the Elixir that promises to prolong Life to a thousand Years; and with equal Justice may the Lexicographer be derided, who being able to produce no Èxample of a Nation that has preserved their Words and Phrases from Mutability, shall imagine that his Dictionary can embaim his Language, and secure it from Corruption and Decay; that it is in his Power to change sublunary Nature, or clear the World at once from Folly, Vanity, and Affectation.

With this Hope, however, Academies have been insticuted, to guard the Avenues of their Languages,


to retain Fugitives, and repulse Intruders ; but their Vigilance and Activity have hitherto been vain ; Sounds are too volatile and subtle for legal Reftraints; to enchain fyllables, and to lash the Wind are equally the Undertakings of Pride, unwilling to measure its Desires by its Strength. The French Language has visibly changed under the Inspection of the Academy: the Stile of Amelot's Translation of Father Paul is observed by Le Courayer to be un . peu passé ; and no Italian will maintain, that the Diction of any modern Writer is not perceptibly different from that of Boccace, Machiavel, or Caro.

Total and sudden Transformations of a Language seldom happen ; Conquests and Migrations are now very rare ; but there are other Causes of Change, which, though slow in their Operation, and invisible in their Progress, are perhaps as much superior to human Resistance, as the Revolutions of the Sky, or Intumescence of the Tide. Commerce, however necessary, however lucrative, as it depraves the Manners, corrupts the Language; they that have frequent Intercourse with Strangers, to whom they endeavour to accommodate themselves, must in Time learn a mingled Dialect, like the Jargon which ferves the Traffickers on the Mediterranean and Indian Coasts. This will not always be confined to the Exchange, the Warehouse, or the Port, but will be communicated by Degrees to other Ranks of the People, and be at last incorporated with the current Speech.

There are likewise internal Causes equally forcible, The Language most likely to continue long without Alteration, would be that of a Nation raised a little, and but a little, above Barbarity, secluded from Strangers, and totally employed in procuring the Conveniences of Life: either without Books, or, like some of the Mahometan Countries, with very few : Men thus busied and unlearned, having only VOL. II.


such Words as common Use requires, would perc haps long continue to express the fame Notions by the same Signs. But no such Constancy can be expected in a People polished by Arts, and claffed by Subordination, where one Part of the Community is sustained and accommodated by the Labour of the other. Those who have much Leisure to think, will always be enlarging the stock of ideas, and every Increase of Knowledge, whether real or fancied, will produce new Words, or Combinations of Words. When the Mind is unchained from Neceffity, it will range after Convenience ; when it is left at large in the fields of Speculation, it will shift Opinions ; as any Custom is disused, the Words that expressed it must perish with it ; as any Opinion grows popular, it will innovate Speech in the same Proportion as it alters Practice.

As by the Cultivation of various Sciences a Lan. guage is amplified it will be more furnished with Words deflected from their original Sense; the Geometrician will talk of a Courtier's Zenith, or the excentrick Virtue of a wild Hero ; and the Physician of fanguine Expectations, and philegmatick Delays. Copiousness of Speech will give Opportunities to capricious Choice, by which some Words will be preferred, and others degraded ; Viciffitudes of Fa. Thion will enforce the Use of new, or extend the Signification of known Terms. The Tropes of Poetry will make hourly Encroachments, and the metaphorical will become the current Sense : Pronunciation will be varied by Levity or Ignorance, and the Pen must at length comply with the Tongue; illiterate Writers will at one Time or other, by publick Infautation, rife into Renown ; who, not knowing the original Import of Words, will use them with colloquial Licentiousness, confound Distinction and forget Propriety. As Politeness increases, some Expressions will be considered as too gross and vul


gar for the Delicate, others as too formal and cere- . monious for the Gay and Airy; new Phrases are therefore adopted, which must, for the same Reasons, be in Time dismissed., Swift, in his petty Treatise on the English Language, allows that new Words must sometimes be introduced, but proposes that none should be suffered to become obsolete. But what makes a Word obsolete, more than general Agreement to forbear it ? And how shall it be continued, when it conveys an offensive Idea, or recalled again into Mouths the Mankind, when it has once by Disuse become unfamiliar, and by Unfamiliarity unpleasing.

There is another Cause of Alteration more prevalent than any other, which yet, in the present State of the World, cannot be obviated. A Mixture of two Languages will produce a Third, diftinct, from both, and they will always be mixed, where the chief Part of Education, and the most conspicuous Accomplishment, is Skill in ancient or in foreign Tongues. He that has long cultivated another Language, will find its Words and Combinations croud upon his Memory; and Haíte and Negligence, Refinement and Affectation, will obtrude borrowed Terms and exotick Expressions.

The great Pest of Speech is Frequency of Tranfation. No Book was ever turned from one Language into another, wtthout imparting something of its native Idiom ; this is the most mischievous and comprehensive Innovation ; single Words may enter by Thousands, and the Fabrick of the Tongue continue the same, but new Phraseology changes much at once ; it alters not the single Stones of the Building, but the Order of the Columns. If an Academy fhould be established for the Cultivation of our Stile, which I, who can never with to see Depende ance multiplied, hope the Spirit of English Liberty will hinder or destroy, let them, instead of conG2


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