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tinct for the purpose of separating the syntactical portions of the structure, are not equate to the object of marking all the audible pauses, which sense and feeling require, in reading aloud. Hence we find, that intelligible and impressive reading depends on introducing many short rauses, not indicated by commas or other points, but essential to the meaning of phrases and sentences. These shorter pauses are, for distinction's sake, termed rhetorical'.
Powerful emotion not unfrequently suggests another species of pause, adapted to the utterance of deep feeling. This pause sometimes takes place where there is no grammatical point used, and sometimes is added to give length to a grammatical pause. This pause may be termed the 'oratorical', or the pause of 'effect'.
Note. The length of the rhetorical pause depends on the length of the clause, or the significance of the word which follows it. The full rhetorical pause' is marked thus 1, the half rhetorical pause', thus |, and the short rhetorical pause', thus ;
Rules for Rhetorical' Pauses.
The rhetorical' pause takes place, as follows:
RULE I. Before a verb, when the nominative is long, or when it is emphatic.—Ex. "Life is short, and art is long." RULE II. Before and after an intervening phrase.
Ex. "Talents without application are no security for progress in learning.'
RULE III. Wherever transposition of phrases may take place. Ex. "Through dangers the most appalling he advanced with heroic intrepidity."
RULE IV. Before an adjective following its noun.
Ex. "Hers was a soul | replete with every noble quality." RULE V. Before relative pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, or adverbs used conjunctively, when followed by a clause depending on them.-Ex. "A physician was called in Il who prescribed appropriate remedies." "The traveller be gan his journey in the highest spirits and with the most delightful anticipations.'
RULE_VI. Where ellipsis, or omission of words, takes place.
-Ex. "To your elders manifest becoming deference, to your companions | frankness, to your juniors || condescenson."
RULE VII. Before a verb in the infinitive mood, governed by another verb.-Ex. "The general now commanded his reserved force to advance to the aid of the main body."
Exercise on 'Rhetorical Pauses.
Industry is the guardian cf innocence." "Honor is the subject of my story."
The prodigal lose many opportunities for doing good." "Prosperity gains friends, adversity | tries them." 11 "Time once passed never returns."
"He that hath no rule over his own spirit, is like a city that is broken down, and without walls."
"Better is a dinner of herbs where love is, than a stalled ox and hatred therewith". "The veil which covers of succeeding years, is a veil Blessed are the poor in spirit." "Silver and gold I have I none."
from our sight | the events 1 woven by the hand of mercy."
"Mirth I consider as an act, cheerfulness || as a habit of the mind. Mirth is short and transient, cheerfulness || fixed and permanent. Mirth is like a flash of lightning, that glitters for a moment: cheerfulness || keeps up a kind of daylight in the mind."
"Some place the bliss in action, some I in ease:
Those call it pleasure, and contentment | these."
The habitual tendency of young readers being to hurry, in reading, their pauses are liable to become too short for distinctness, or to be entirely omitted. In most of the above examples, the precision, beauty, and force of the sentiment, depend much on the careful observance of the rhetorical pauses. The teacher may impart an idea of their effect, by allowing each sentence to be read, first, without the rhetorical pauses,-secondly, with pauses made at wrong places,thirdly, with the pausing as marked.
Rule on the 'Oratorical' Pause.
The oratorical' pause is introduced in those passages which express the deepest and most solemn emotions, such as naturally arrest and overpower, rather than inspire, utter
Examples. "" "The sentence was-DEATH ! "There is one sure refuge for the oppressed, one sure resting-place for the weary,-THE GRAVE!" [Application-See page 76.]
Emphasis distinguishes the most significant or expressive words of a sentence.
It properly includes several functions of voice, in addition to the element of force. An eriphatic word is not unfrequently distinguished by the peculiar 'time', 'pitch', 'stress', and 'inflection' of its accented sound. But all these properties are partially merged, to the ear, in the great comparative force of the sound. Hence it is customary to regard emphasis as merely special force. This view of the subject would not be practically incorrect, if it were understood as conveying the idea of a special force superadded to all the other characteristics of tone and emotion, in the word to which it applies.
Emphasis is either 'absolute' or 'relative'. The former occurs in the utterance of a single thought or feeling, of great energy: the latter, in the correspondence or contrast of two or more ideas.
'Absolute' emphasis is either 'empassioned' or 'distinctive'. The former expresses strong emotion.-Example. "False wizard, AVAUNT!"*-The latter designates objects to the attention, or distinguishes them to the understanding. -Ex. "The fall of man is the main subject of Milton's great poem.
'Relative' emphasis occurs in words which express comparison, correspondence, or contrast.-Example. "Cowards die many times; the brave, but once.'
Rules on Emphasis.
RULE I. Exclamations and interjections usually require 'empassioned' emphasis, or the strongest force of utterance. Examples. "Woe to the traitor, WOE!"—"UP! comrades, UP!" "AWAKE! ARISE! or be for EVER FALLEN!" "Ye icefalls!
Motionless torrents! silent cataracts!
Who made you glorious as the gates of heaven,
* Three degrees of emphasis are usually thus denoted in type: the first, by Italic letters; the second, by small capitals; and the third, by large capitals. Thus, "You shall DIE, BASE DG! and that before yon cloud has passed over the sun!"-Sometimes a fourth, by Italic capitals, thus, "NEVER, NEVER, NEVER!”
GOD! GOD! the torrents, like a shout of nations,
RULE II. Every new incident in a narration, every new object in a description, and every new subject in a didactic passage, requires distinctive' emphasis, or a force of utterince sufficient to render it striking or prominent.
Examples. "Their frail bark was, in a moment, overset, und a watery grave seemed to be the inevitable doom of the whole party. "The eye rested with delight on the long, low range of beautifully tinted clouds, which skirted the horizon."" The power of faith was the subject of the preacher's discourse."
RULE III. All correspondent, and all antithetic, or conrasted words, require a force sufficient to distinguish them from all the other words in a sentence, and to make them stand out prominently. When the comparison or contrast is of equal force, in its constituent parts, the emphasis is exactly balanced, in the words to which it is applied: when one of the objects compared or contrasted, is meant to preponderate over the other, the emphasis is stronger on the word by which the preponderance is expressed.
Examples. "The gospel is preached equally to the rich and to the poor."-"Custom is the plague of wise men, and the idol of fools."—"The man is more KNAVE than fool."
Exercises in Relative' Emphasis.
is better than riches."
2. "Study not so much to show knowledge, as to acquire it."
Why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's
NOTE. Emphatic clauses, (those in which every word is emphatic,) are sometimes pronounced on a lower, sometimes on a higher key, but always with an intense force.
1. "Heaven and earth will witness,
MUST FALL, that zoe
2. "This state had then not one ship,-NO, NOT } ONE WALL !
3. "But youth, it seems, is not my only crime: I have been accused of acting a THEATRICAL part."
4. "As to the present ministry, I cannot give them my confidence. Pardon me, gentlemen: Confidence is a plant of SLOW growth."
General Remark. Young readers are commonly deficient in emphasis, and, hence, feeble and unimpressive, in their style of reading. Teachers should exert much vigilance on this point. At the same time, an overdone emphasis is one of the surest indications of defective judgment and bad taste. Faults which result from study are always the most offensive. [Application-See page 87.]
§ VIII.-CORRECT INFLECTIONS.
'Inflection' in elocution, signifies an upward or downward 'slide' of voice, from the average, or level of a sentence.
There are two simple 'inflections', or 'slides',—the upward or 'rising', and the downward or 'falling'. The former is usually marked by the acute accent, [']—the latter, by the grave accent, [`].
The union of these two inflections, on the same syllable, is called the circumflex', or 'wave'.-When the circumflex commences with the falling inflection, and ends with the rising, it is called the rising circumflex',-[marked thus V,]when it begins with the rising, and ends with the falling, it is called the falling circumflex',-[marked thus, ^].
When the tone of the voice has no upward or downward slide, but keeps comparatively level, it is called the 'monotone',-[marked thus -].
EXAMPLES: RISING INFLECTION,- Intensive', or high, upward slide, as in the tone of surprise, "Há! Is it possible!" -in the usual tone of a question that may be answered by Yes or No," Is it really so?"-Moderate' rising inflection, as at the end of a clause which leaves the sense dependent on what follows it. "If we are sincerely desirous of advanc