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sparkled with celestial fire, and the lip from which flowed irresistible eloquence."

Note 2. All series, except the plaintive, as by their form of numbers and repetition, they partake of the nature of 'climax', or increase of signification,-should be read with a growing intensity of voice, and a more prominent inflection on every member.

Example. "The splendor of the firmament, the verdure of the earth, the varied colors of the flowers which fill the air with their fragrance, and the music of those artless voices which mingle on every trée; all conspire to captivate our hearts, and to swell them with the most rapturous delight."

This remark applies, sometimes, even to the rising inflection, but, with peculiar force, to cases in which the language is obviously meant to swell progressively in effect, from word to word, or from clause to clause, and which end with a downward slide, on every member, as in the following in


"I tell you though you, though all the wÒRLD, though an angel from HEAVEN, should declare the truth of it, I could not believe it."

RULE V. All questions which cannot be answered by Yes or No, end with the falling inflection..

Ex.: 1. "When will you cease to trìfle ?"`

2. "Where can his equal be found?"

3. "Who has the hardihood to maintain such an assèr tion ?"

4. "Why come not on these victors pròud?"

5. "What was the object of his ambition?"
6. "How can such a purpose be accomplished?"

Exception. The tone of real or affected surprise, throws such questions, when repeated, into the form of the rising inflection.-Example. "How can such a purpose be accómplished!—To the diligent àll things are possible."

Both inflections,—the Rising and the Falling,—in connexion.

RULE I. When negation is opposed to affirmation, the former has the rising, the latter the falling inflection, in whatever order they occur, and whether in the same or in different


Examples: 1." He did not call mé, but you."

2. "He was esteemed not for wealth, but for wisdom." 3. "Study not for amúsement, but for improvement."

4. "He called you, not mé."

5. "He was esteemed for wisdom, not for wealth." 6. "Study for improvement, not for amúsement." 7. "This proposal is not a mere idle cómpliment. It proceeds from the sincerest and deepest feelings of our hearts."

8. "Howard visited all Europe, not to survey the sumptuousness of palaces, or the stateliness of témples; not to make accurate measurements of the remains of ancient grandeur; not to form a scale of the curiosities of modern art; not to collect medals or collate mánuscripts; but to dive into the depth of dùngeons; to plunge into the infection of hospitals; to survey the mansions of sorrow and pain; to take the gauge and dimensions of misery, depréssion, and contempt; to remember the forgotten, to attend to the neglected, to visit the forsáken, and to compare and collate the distresses of all men in all countries."

Note. A similar principle applies to the reading of concessions and of unequal antitheses, or contrasts. In the latter, the less important member has the rising, and the preponderant one, the falling inflection, in whatever part of a sentence they occur, and even in separate sentences.

Example: 1. "Science may raise you to éminence. But virtue alone can guide you to happiness."


I rather choose

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To wrong the dead, to wrong myself and you,
Than I will wrong such hónorable men."

Exception. When negation is emphatic or preponderant, it takes the falling inflection.-Example 1. He may yield to persuasion, but he will never submit to force."-2. "We are troubled on every síde, yet not distrèssed; perplexed, but not in despair; pérsecuted, but not forsaken; cast down, but not destroyed."

RULE II. In question and answer, the falling inflection ends as far below the average level of the sentence, as the rising ends above it. In this way, a certain exact corre spondence of sound to sound, in the inflections, is produced, which gives to the full downward slide of the answer, a decisive and satisfactory intonation, as a reply to the rising slide of the question.

Are they

Examples: 1. "Are they Hébrews ?-So am I. Israelites ?-So am `I."

2. "What would content you, in a political leader?— Tálent? Nò!--Enterprise? No!-Cóurage? No!--Repu

tátion? No!-* Virtue? Nò!-The man whom you would select, should possess not óne, but all of these."

RULE III. When a question consists of two contrasted parts, connected in syntax, by the conjunction Or, used in a disjunctive sense, the former has the rising, and the latter, the falling inflection.

Ex.: 1. "Does he mean you, or mè ?" 2. "Is this book yours, or mine?"

3. " Did you see hím, or his brother?"

4. "Are the people vírtuous, or vicious; intélligent, or ìgnorant; áffluent, or indigent ?"

Note. When Or is used conjunctively, the second inflection does not fall, but rises higher than the first.-Example. "Would the influence of the Bible,-even if it were not the record of a divine revelation, be to render princes more tyránnical, or subjects more ungóvernable; the rich more insolent, or the poor more disorderly; would it make worse párents, or children, húsbands, or wíves,-másters, or sérvants, fríends, or néighbors ?—ort would it not make men more vìrtuous, and, consequently, more happy, in èvery situation?"

Rule on the Circumflex, or Wave.

The circumflex, or wave, applies to all expressions used in a peculiar sense, or with a double meaning, and to the tones of mockery, sarcasm, and irony.

Examples: 1. “ You may avoid a quarrel with an îf.”"Your îf is the only peacemaker: much virtue in an îf.” 2. "From the very first night,-and to say it I'm bold,

I've been so very hot, that I'm sure I've caught côld!" 3. "Go hang a câlfskin on these recreant limbs !"

4. "What a beautiful piece of work you have made by your carelessness!"

5. "The weights had never been accused of light conduct."

Rule on the Monotone.

The tones of grand and sublime description, profound reverence, or awe, of amazement and horror, are marked by the monotone, or perfect level of voice.

* In successive questions, the rising inflection becomes higher a every stage, unless the last has, as in the above example, the falling ir flection of consummating emphasis.

The last Or is used disjunctively, and forms an example to the Rule, and not to the Note.

Note. A monotone is always on a lower pitch than the preceding part of a sentence; and, to give the greater effect to its deep solemn note,-which resembles the tolling of a heavy bell, it sometimes destroys all comma pauses, and keeps up one continuous stream of overflowing sound. Exam. 1. "His form had not yet lost

All her original brightness, nor appeared
Less than archangel ruined, and the excess
Of glory obscured. As when the sun, nēw-risen,
Looks through the horizontal misty air,
Shorn of his béams, or from behind the moon,
In dim eclipse, disastrous twilight sheds
On half the nations, and with fear of change
Perplexes monarchs."

2. "And I saw a great white throne and Him that sat on it, from whose face the heavens and the earth fled away; and there was fōund nō plāce for them."

3. "Upon my secure hōur thy uncle stole,

With juice of cursed hēbenon in a vial,
And in the porches of mine ears did pour
The leperous distilment: whose effect
Hōlds such an enmity with blood of män,
That swift as quicksilver it courses through
The natural gates and alleys of the body,
And, with a sudden vigor, it doth posset
And curd, like eager droppings into milk,
The thin and wholesome blood; so did it mine;
And a most instant tetter bārked about,
Most lazar-like, with vile and loathsome crust,
All my smooth bòdy."

Rule on 'Harmonic' Inflections.


Harmonic inflections, or those which, in emphatic phrases, are intended to prevent the frequent occurrence of emphasis in the same phrase, from becoming monotonous to the ear, are applied in clauses of which every word is emphatic, and is marked by a distinct and separate inflection.

Example. "He has been guilty of one of the most shameful acts that éver degraded | the NATURE or the NÁME | of MAN."

Note. In such cases the inflections usually alternate, in order to give the more vivid and pungent force to vehement emphasis.

Rule on Repeated Words, Phrases, and Sentences. Words, phrases, and sentences which are repeated for effect, rise higher, or fall lower in inflection, besides increasing in force, at every repetition.

Example 1. "From these walls a spirit shall go forth, that shall survive when this edifice, shall be 'like an unsubstantial pageant, faded.' It shall go fórth, exulting in, but not abusing, its strength. It shall go fórth, remembering, in the days of its prosperity, the pledges it gave in the time of its depression. IT SHALL GO FÓRTH, uniting a disposition to correct abuses, to redress grievances. IT SHALL GO FÓRTH, uniting the disposition to improve, with the resolution to maintain and defend, by that spirit of unbought affection, which is the chief defence of nations."

2. "What was it, fellow-citizens, which gave to Lafayette his spotless fame ?-The love of liberty. What has consecrated his memory, in the hearts of good men ?—THE LOVE OF LIBERTY. What nerved his youthful arm with strength, and inspired him in the morning of his days, with sagacity and counsel?—THE LIVING LOVE OF LIBERTY. Το what did he sacrifice power, and rank, and country, and freedom itself?—TO THE LOVE OF LIBERTY PROTECTED BY LÀW.”


RISING INFLECTION. RULE I.*-' High Rising Inflection'.1. "Há! say you só?"

2. "Whát!-confer a crown on the author of the public calamities?"

3. "Indéed!-acknowledge a tráitor for our sovereign ?" RULE II. Moderate Rising Inflection.'-Exercise 1. "In every station which Washington was called to fill, he acquitted himself with honor."

2. "As the evening was now far advánced, the party broke up."

3. "Where your treasure is, there will your heart be also."

*The pupil should repeat each rule from memory, before commenc ing the practice of the exercises adapted to it.

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