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4. "Though we cannot discern the reasons which regulate the occurrence of events, we may rest assured that nothing can happen without the cognizance of Infinite Wisdom."

5. "Despairing of any way of escape from the perils which surrounded him, he abandoned his struggles, and gave himself up to what seemed his inevitable doom."

6. 66 Had I suffered such enormities to pass unpúnished, I should have deemed myself recreant to every principle of justice and of duty."

Note and Exception.


Words and phrases of address'.Exercise. 'Listen, Amèricans, to the lesson which seems borne to us on the very air we breathe, while we perform these dutiful rights.-Ye winds, that wafted the pilgrims to the land of promise, fan, in their children's hearts, the love of freedom! Blood which our fathers shed, cry from the ground;-echoing arches of this renowned hall, whisper back the voices of other dàys ;-glorious Washington! break the long silence of that votive canvass ;-speak, speak, marble lips;-teach us THE LOVE OF LIBERTY PROTECTED BY

LAW !"

RULE III. Note. Poetic Series'.-Example 1. "Power, will, sensation, mémory, failed in turn."

2 "Oh! the dread mingling, in that awful hour,
Of all terrific sounds!-the savage tone

Of the wild horn, the cannon's peal, the shower
Of hissing darts, the crash of walls o'erthrown,
The deep, dull, tambour's beat!"


"All the while,
A ceaseless murmur from the populous town,
Swells o'er these solitudes; a mingled sound
Of jarring wheels, and iron hoofs that clash
Upon the stony ways, and hammer cláng,
And creak of engines lifting ponderous bulks,
And calls and cries,* and tread of eager feet
Innumerable, hurrying to and frò."

4. "Onward still the remote Pawnee and Mandan will beckon, whither the deer are flying, and the wild horse roams, where the buffalo ranges, and the condor soars,-far towards the waves where the stars plunge at midnight, and amid which bloom those ideal scenes for the persecuted såv

* See foot note on next page.

age, where white men will murder no more for gold,* nor startle the game upon the sunshine hills."

RULE IV. Questions which may be answered by Yes or No'.-Exercise 1. "Has not the patronage of peers incréased? Is not the patronage of India now vested in the crown? Are all these innovations to be made to increase the influence of the exécutive power; and is nothing to be done in favor of the pópular part of the constitution, to act as a counterpoise ?" 2. Your steps were hasty ;-did you speed for nothing? Your breath is scanty;-was it spent for nothing? Your looks imply concern ;-concern for nóthing?" Exception. Emphasis'.-Exercise 1. "Tell me not of the honor of belonging to a free country.-I ask, does our liberty bear generous fruits?"


2. "Was there a village or a hamlet on Massachusetts Bày, which did not gather its hardy seamen to man the gundecks of your ships of war? Did they not rally to the battle, as men flock to a feast?"

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3. 66

Is there a man amòng you, so lost to his dignity and his duty, as to withhold his aid at a moment like this?"


RULE V. Penultimate Inflection'.-Exercise 1. "All is dòubt, distrúst, and disgràce; and, in this instance, rely on it, that the certain and fatal result will be to make Ireland hate the connexion, contemn the councils of England, and despise her power."

2. 66

I am at a loss to reconcile the conduct of men, who, at this moment, rise up as champions of the East India Company's charter; although the incompetence of that company to an adequate discharge of the trust deposited in them, are themes of ridicule and contempt to all the world; and, although, in consequence of their mismanagement, connivance, and imbecílity, combined with the wickedness of their servants, the very name of an Englishman is detested, even to a proverb, through all Ásia; and the national character is become disgraced and dishonored."

3. "It will be the duty of the historian and the sage, in all ages, to omit no occasion of commemorating that illustrious màn; and, till time shall be no more, will a test of the progress which our race made in wisdom and in vírtue, be de

*The penultimate inflection of a concluding series, or of a clause that forms perfect sense, is the same in kind with that which precedes a period, except in verse and poetic prose, which, in long passages of great beauty, retain the suspensive slide.

rived from the veneration paid to the immortal name of



Emphasis'.-Exercise 1. "Let us bless and hallow our dwellings as the homes of freedom. Let us make them, too, the homes of a nòbler freedom,-of freedom from vice, from evil pàssion,-from every corrupting bondage of the soul!"

2. "If guilty, let us calmly abide the results, and peaceably submit to our sentence; but if we are traduced, and really be innocent, tell ministers the truth, tell them they are tyrants; and strain every effort to avert their oppression."


3. "Heaven has imprinted in the mother's face something beyond this world, something which claims kindred with the skies, the angelic smile, the tender look, the waking, watchful eye, which keeps its fond vigil/over her slumbering, babe. -In the heart of man lies this lovely picture; it lives in his sympathies; it reigns in his affèctions; his eye looks round, in vain, for such another object on earth."

FALLING INFLECTION. RULE I. 'Intensive Downward Slide.' Exercise 1. "Ur! all who love me! BLOW on BLÒW! And lay the outlawed felons Lòw!"

2. "MACGREGOR! MACGREGOR!' he bitterly cried.” 3. "ON! countrymen, ÒN !—for the day,—

The proud day of glòry,-is come!"
4. "To ARMS! gallant Frenchmen, to ÀRMS?"

5. "Oh! SHAME on us, countrymen, shame on us ÀLL!
If we cringe to so dastard a race!


6. "TREMBLE, ye traitors! whose schemes

Are alike by all parties abhorred,

TREMBLE! for, roused from your parricide dreams,
Ye shall soon meet your fitting reward!"


RULE II. Full' Falling Inflection, in the cadence of a sentence.-Exercise 1. " The changes of the year impart a color and character to our thoughts and feelings."

2. "To a lover of nature and of wisdom, the vicissitude of seasons conveys a proof and exhibition of the wise and benevolent contrivance of the Author of all things.'



3. "He who can approach the cradle of sleeping innocence without thinking that of such is the kingdom of heaven,' or see the fond parent hang over its beauties, and half retain her breath, lest she should break its slumbers,without a veneration beyond all common feeling,-is to be avoided in every intercourse of life, and is fit only for the shadow of darkness, and the solitude of the desert."


Exception. Modified Cadence'.-Exercise 1. “This monument is a plain shaft. It bears no inscription, fronting the rising sun, from which the future antiquarian shall wipe the dúst. Nor does the rising sun cause tones of music to issue from its súmmit. But at the rising of the sun, and at the setting of the sun, in the blaze of noon-day, and beneath the milder effulgence of lunar light, it speaks, it acts, to the full comprehension of every American mind, and the awakening of glowing enthusiasm in every American heart."

2. "I speak not to you, sir, of your own outcast condition. -You perhaps delight in the perils of martyrdom. I speak not to those around me, who, in their persons, their substance, and their families, have endured the torture, poverty, and irremediable dishónor. They may be meek and hallowed men,-willing to endure."

3. "

The foundation on which you have built your hopes, may seem to you deep and fírm. But the swelling flood, and the howling blast, and the beating rain, will prove it to be but treacherous sand."

RULE III. Moderate' Falling Inflection, of complete sense. Exercise 1. "Animal existence is made up of action and slùmber nature has provided a season for each."

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2. "Two points are manifest: first, that the animal frame requires sleep; secondly, that night brings with it a silence, and a cessation of activity, which allow of sleep being taken without interruption, and without loss."

3. " Joy is too brilliant a thing to be confined within our own bosoms: it burnishes all nature, and, with its vivid coloring, gives a kind of factitious life to objects without sense or motion.'


4. "When men are wanting, we address the ànimal creation; and, rather than have none to partake our feelings, we find sentiment in the music of birds, the hum of insects, and the low of kine: nay, we call on rocks and streams and forests, to witness and share our emotions."

5. "I have done my dùty :-I stand acquitted to my conscience and my country:-I have opposed this measure throughout; and I now protest against it, as harsh, opprèssive, uncalled for, unjust, as establishing an infamous precedent, by retaliating crime against crime,-as tyrannous,cruelly and vindictively tyrannous."

Exception. Plaintive Expression'.

Exercise 1. "I see the cloud and the tempest near,
The voice of the troubled tide I hear;

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The torrent of sorrow, the sea of grief, The rushing waves of a wretched life." 2. "No deep-mouthed hound the hunter's haunt betrayed, No lights upon the shore or waters played, No loud laugh broke upon the silent air, To tell the wanderers man was nestling there." 3. "The dead leaves strow the forest walk,

And withered are the pale wild flowers;
The frost hangs blackening on the stålk,


The dew-drops fall in frozen shòwers :Gone are the spring's green sprouting bowers, Gone summer's rich and mantling vines; And Autumn, with her yellow hours, On hill and plain no longer shines." 4. "What is human life, but a waking dream,- -a long reverie, in which we walk as 'in a vain show, and disquiet ourselves for naught?' In childhood, we are surrounded by a dim, unconscious present, in which all palpable realities seem for ever to elude our gråsp; in youth, we are but gazing into the far future of that life for which we are consciously preparing; in manhood, we are lost in ceaseless activity and enterprise, and already looking forward to a season of quiet and repose, in which we are to find ourselves, and listen to a voice within; and in old age, we are dwelling on the shadows of the past,* and gilding them with the evanescent glow which emanates from the setting sun of life."


RULE IV. and Note 1. Simple Commencing Series.'
Ex. 1. "The old and the young are alike exposed to the

shafts of Death."

2. "The healthy, the temperate, and the vírtuous, enjoy the true relish of pleasure."

3. "Birth, rank, wealth, léarning, are advantages of slight value, if unaccompanied by personal worth."

4. "Gentleness, patience, kindness, cándor, and courtesy, form the elements of every truly amiable character."

5. "Sympathy, disinterestedness, magnanimity, generósity, liberality, and self-forgétfulness, are qualities which universally secure the esteem and admiration of mankind."

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Compound Commencing Series.'

Exercise 1. “In a rich soil, and under a soft climate, the weeds of luxury will spring up amid the flowers of art."

*Falling slide of contrast to the preceding clause.

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