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quaintance with that translation As the Hebrew verbs have no and with the Hebrew, a man present time, the past is often cannot be a very accurate critic used for the present. The wriin the original language of the ters of the New Testament New Testament. The study of have, in some instances, written both may therefore be justly re- their Greek in the same mancommended to young gentle- ner. John tells us that, when men, who contemplate the min. Christ discovered himself to isterial profession.

Mary Magdalene after his resThe Hebrews often express urrection, he said to her, “ Touch the superlative degree by adding me not.” Mary, transported with the word God. Exceeding high joyat seeing her Lord alive mountains and trees are called again, fell down and would have mountains of God and trees of embraced his feet, according to God. This Hebrew idiom is in the custom of the east, when troduced into the Greek of the women saluted men of superior New Testament. Stephen says character, especially when they of Moses that, when he was wished to detain them. Thus born, he was fair according to the woman of Shunem saluted God, or divinely fair. Our trans- Elisha ; and thus the two Marys lators have judiciously rendered saluted Jesus. The Lord says it erceeding fair.

to her, “ Touch me not,” for I This observation gives an ea- am not yet, or have not yet assy sense to an obscure passage, cended, (anabebeka) i.

“ I do in 2 Cor. viii. 1. Paul exhort not yet ascend to my Father.” ing the Corinthians to send re

You need not detain me ; you lief to the persecuted saints in may have opportunity to see me Jerusalem, refers them to the again. “ Go, tell my brethren, example of the Macedonians. that I ascend to my Father and " Brethren, we do you to wit,” their Father.” 07 we make known to you“ the The Hebrew verbs, by a small grace of God, bestowed on the alteration in the radical letters, churches of Macedonia.” The

or in the points only, where grace of God, i. e. (according to points are used, give to actions the Hebrew idiom) the divine, different relations and qualities. the godlike, the abundant liberali. These various forms and powers ty, bestowed, (not on the church- are by grammarians called cones, but) by, in, among the jugations. The seventy, and the churches of Macedonia, for the New Testament writers have relief of the brethren in Judea. sometimes used the Greek verbs, To this, and only to this sense, as if they had these Hebrew conthe following

words agree; jugations. In Psalm cxix. the " How that in a great trial of af- Seventy use the neutral verb, fliction, the abundance of their zay, to live, in an active or tranjoy, and their deep poverty a- sitive sense, to quicken, or cause bounded to the riches of their to live. The same Hebrew liberality. For to their power, idiom we find in the New Tes. and beyond their power, they tament. Paul gives the Greek Were willing of themselves, &c.” word, vida, to know, the power Vol. II. No. 4.



of the Hebrew conjugation Hi- they are prepared of my Fa. phil to make known. He says to ther." They will be dispensed the Corinthians, “ I determined agreeably to the usual methods not to know,” i. e. not to make of Providence. known, or to preuch

any thing

This observation will explain among you, save Jesus Christ a passage in the 9th chap. to the and him crucified.” Thus the Romans. *“ He hath mercy on same word is probably to be un- whom he will have mercy, and derstood in Mark xiii. 32, where whom he will he hardeneth.” some erroneously suppose, that An antithesis, which is a freChrist disclaims a knowledge of quent figure in Paul's writings, future events. Speaking of the is naturally expected, and was destruction of Jerusalem, Jesus doubtless intended here. " He says, “ Of that day and hour bath mercy on whom he will knoweth none, neither the angels have mercy.” The antithesis in heaven, neither the Son, but to this is, “ He withholdeth merthe Father.” Christ had already cy, from whom he will with hold foretold the event, and given the it.” But as there was no single previous signs of it. Some word, in the Greek language, might wish for a knowledge of which expressed this antithesis, the exact time of it. But this the writer took the word skleeru. knowledge, for various reasons, no, to harden, and used it accorwas improper to be then commu- ding to the intransitive conjuganicated. Jesus therefore says, tion, in which it would signify, " That day and hour none mak- not hardening another, but hareth known ; no, not the angels, dening one's self against another, neither the Son." To reveal or shutting up the bowels of this belongs not to my commis- mercy. Thus the word is used sion ; 6 but it will be made in the book of Job. The Osknown by the Father," in the trich is said to be hardened course of his providence. We against her young ones. The find a similar mode of expres- word, she is hardened, is the sion in Christ's answer to the same, which Paul uses in the two brethren, who solicited the passage under consideration; chief posts of power in the tem- and rendered there, as it is here, poral kingdom, which, they im- it would be, “ She hardeneth her agined, he would soon erect. young ones.” But the meaning They ask, “ Grant that we may is, “She leaveth her young sit, the one on thy right hand, without care.” So the passage and the other on thy left, in thy in Romans signifies, not that God kingdom.” He answers, “ To infuses hardness into sinners ; sit on my right hand and on my but that he exercises, or forbears left," j. e. promotion to tempo- to exercise his mercy toward ral honours, “is not mine to sinners, according to his own give; it is not committed to me, sovereign will and unerring wisas the Teacher, Reformer, and dom. To whom he will, he Saviour of men. But worldly shows mercy, and from whom honours “ will be given" under he will he withholds mercy, my gospel, as they have been leaving them to meet their own heretofore, to them, for whom deserts.

Whoever reads Paul's writ- same thought occurs again, ings with attention, will find chap. xi. i. " I say then, Katla that, though he is a connected God cast away his people, whom reasoner, yet he often suspends he foreknew? God forbid. For the chain of his argument, to in- I also am a Jew, of the seed of troduce an incidental, but perti- Abraham.” Dent thought, or to dilate upon We shall, at present, pursue an occasional expression. Hence these criticisms no farther ; but the parenthesis is more frequent shall subjoin two or three obviin his, than in the other sacred ous remarks. writings. Through inattention It is evident that the books of to this circumstance, some pas- the New Testament must have bages in his writings seem ob- been written in as early a period scure, which otherwise might as has been assigned to them; be plain. There is an instance for that Hebraistical kind of of this kind in Rom. ix. 2, 3.“I Greek, in which they are writhave great heaviness and contin- ten, was not in use after the ual sorrow in my heart, (for I general dispersion of the Jews. . could,” or rather did,“ wish my- The peculiarity of style and self accursed," separated, “ from diction, which runs through all Christ) for my brethren, my the writings ascribed to Paul, kinsmen according to the flesh.” proves that they were all the • Much' pains have been taken works of the same author. to explain, what Paul meant, The wisdom of Providence is when he said, “I wished myself conspicuous in ordering the accursed, separated from books of the New Testament to Christ for my brethren.Wher- be written in a language, which as in reality he said no such

was soon to go out of national thing The expression, “ I did use ; for a dead language rewish myself accursed from mains the same; a living lanChrist,” or separated from all guage, in a lapse of ages, is liaconnexion with him, is an inci- ble to changes. The sense of dental thought, naturally sug. Scripture can therefore be more gested by his subject; and it ought easily and accurately ascertainto be, as it is in some copies, ed, than if the language, in which and in some translations, inclu- it is written, had been and conded by itself in a parenthesis. tinued to be, the living language Then the connected reading will of a particular nation. be, “I have great heaviness

THEOPHILUS. and continual sorrow in my heart.......for my brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh."

THE DECALOGUE. That he might not be suspected

No. 6. of any prejudice against the Jews in foretelling their rejec

Sixth Commandment. tion from the covenant of God

" Thou shalt not kill.” for their unbelief, he observed, that he himself was a Jew, was LIFE is an inestimable bles. lately an unbeliever, and gloried sing. On the improvement of in his opposition to Christ. The it depends our future destination,


We cannot calculate the loss a as tended to excite the highest person may sustain by being detestation of the crime.* thrust, without warning, into the Our Lord, during his personal unseen state. The loss may be ministry, gave a comment upon immense, the injury irreparable. the Decalogue. On the comBesides, society receives hereby mandment which I am now exa deep wound, being prematurely plaining he is particularly full. deprived of one of its members. Let us listen to the unerring Our relation to one another Teacher, and imbibe divine wisought to restrain us from such dom from his lips. “ Ye have atrocious deeds. We sprung heard that it was said by them from the same parents, and, be- of old time, Thou shalt not kill ; ing brethren, are bound to live and whosoever shall kill shall be together in unity. Injuries, in danger of the judgment. But which affect the lives of others, I say unto you, That whosoever have from the first received the is angry with his brother without most marked expressions of the a cause shall be in danger of the divine displeasure. From the judgment; and whosoever shall creation of the world until the say to his brother, Raca, shall be days of Noah, God was pleased in danger of the council; but to reserve the punishment to be whosoever shall say, Thou fool, inflicted upon murderers, im- shall be in danger of hell-fire." mediately with himself. This The axe is here laid at the root appears from the history of Cain, of the evil. It aims at the ranwhom he banished from the corous thought, or rash expreshouse of Adam, but would not sion. Let them be immediately allow his life to be taken. Cain restrained. God seeth not as dragged out his days in great man seeth. He recognizes the misery. His mind agonized in crime in embryo, and in that reflection on what was past, no state demands its extirpation. less than in the anticipation of To him, the malicious thought, what was to come. After the or provoking word is displeasing. flood, the sword was put into the Let neither be indulged. The hand of civil magistrates, with flame is yet under, but let it get directions that it should spare the mastery, and you are undone. none, by whom such an act was from a trifling disgust, the most perpetrated. T'he murderer serious and widely extended miswas ordered to be dragged from chiefs have arisen. What reathe city of refuge, nay from son therefore to keep the heart, God's altar itself, and to be led, and to put a bridle upon the without the possibility of re- tongue. Or should we ever be demption, to certain death. Life off our guard, and give too loose is a gift, which God values at the a reign, let us take the alarm, rehighest rate, and guards with the pairing as fast as we can the misseverest penalties. When a chief, and being for the future murdered person was found, and more

guarded and cautious. the perpetrator not known, such Weighing the crime in its prosteps were required to be taken, gress from the first disgust to the

. Gen. ix. 5, 6.

* Deut. xxi, 1-9.

perpetration of the most atrocious ten of the most trivial nature, act, God has adjusted the severi- must be expiated by meeting the ty of the punishment to the ag- antagonist in the field. If anothgravations of the crime, and shall er injures me, it is a poor reassuredly in his judgment be paration, to put it in his power to known to do right.

murder my person, as he has The court of Areopagus, so already murdered my reputation. venerable among the Greeks, If I have given the offence, must and so justly celebrated among nothing satisfy me, but to add all other nations for the wisdom the guilt of blood to the injuries and impartiality of its decisions, already offered ? Is this, in eithcondemned to death the person er case, consistent with the supagainst whom the intention to pression of passion, the forgivemurder could be proved, even ness of injury, and the exercise when that intention had not been of meekness, so often inculcated carried into effect. Nay the by Christ and enforced by his symptoms of a cruel disposition own example? But why speak were marked with care, and to such of Christ or his example? punished with great severity. A They know him not; they honchild, having been found taking our him not. In defianceof God's a savage pleasure in wounding law, in defiance of Christ's docand maiming such insects as feiltrine ; in defiance of the wrath in his way, was by this court which guards that law, and that considered as one, from whom doctrine ; in defiance of hell, society was in danger. In guard- kindled for the punishment of ing its welfare, therefore, they those who take away their own thought it their duty to order lives, and the lives of others, such a child to be cut off. The their revenge must be gratified, Indian tribes, we are informed, and their blasted reputation blazexpiated murder in the follow- oned abroad. The pretended ing manner. The relations of honour often mentioned as renderthe deceased, as the avengers of ing the practice necessary, is a blood, seek after the murderer. gilding over indelible disgrace. But if he be not found, the blood If it be honour to writhe in pain; of the first they meet is shed, if it be honour to die accursed; however innocent, to atone for if it be honour to be joined with the guilty. In such instances murderers; this honour, O duelWe see great deviations from the list, thou hast purchased ; to this law of God, and indeed when- dignity thou shalt be advanced. ever we are deprived of Scripture Thy name is execrated in heaas a guide, we shall greatly err.

ven and on earth. If it be reThe sixth commandment, as membered at all, it shall be reexplained by our Lord, is totally membered with dread, repugnant to a practice, which beacon to warn future ages of of late years has drenched our hidden and destructive rocks. land in blood, and calls aloud for Vengeance. Duelling can be

PHILOLOGOS. excited and encouraged by him only, who was a murderer froin (To be continued.) the beginning. An affront, of



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