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the mortal enemy of Calvin, who tention to his complaints, or rewrote his ļife only to tear his gard to his letters, from the Macharacter in pieces, and Maim- gistrates of Vienne ? Suppose burg, so celebrated for partiality Calvin as cruel as you please, and misrepresentation, durst not why was he silent for seven allege those pretended facts, years, why did he not in an earwhich modern historians have lier period commence his perse: advanced. Bolzec says, that cution of Servetus, and why did Servetus's haughtiness, inso- he not send to every place where lence, and dangerous projects, the heretic resided, the letters he making him hated and dreaded had received from him, and his at Lyons, he left it for Charlieu; Restitutio? It is evident, from yet afterwards returned to Ly- a letter of Calvin, dated Februaons, and communicated his ideas ry, 1546, that Calvin, convinced to Calvin, who keenly opposed of the punishment Servetus de them; and, on Servetus' send served, would not encourage him ing him his Restitutio Christian- to come to Geneva, but intimatismi, broke off all intercourse ed to him what he had to fear, with him. Calvin however did should he venture it. He wishnot betray his secrets, or cause ed, therefore, by keeping him at seize him at Vienne ; for he a distance from Geneva, that he wrote to Viretus and Farel, that might escape the punishment if Servetus came to Geneva, the with which he threatened him, consequence would be, the loss if he came there. So far was he of his life. Calvin naturally from contriving to subject him concluded this from the spirit of to punishment in another place. the laws and government at Indeed, Calvin's writing the Geneva, and from the ideas of Magistrates of Vienne, and sendall sects at that time. Indeed, ing them the Restitutio, could he bore with Servetus as long as answer no purpose. It would there was any hope of his recov- have been ridiculous for him to ery; and it was the Spaniard send them a copy of a book printwho first introduced personal ed in France under their eyes, abuse into their controversy. or to point out what was 'exBucer, Oecolampadius, Farel, ceptionable in it, which the readBeza, and even the gentle Me- ing it would sufficiently do. Aclancthon, approved the sentence cordingly, the sentence passed at passed against him. As it Vienne, gives no insinuation that would be unjust on that account Calvin had interposed in the proto accuse these celebrated men, It is true, that the Magis. it is equally unjust to accuse trates of Vienne, knowing that Calvin of haired to Servetus. Servetus had corresponded with
But Calvin abused his confi- Calvin, applied to the council at dence, and sent to Vienne the let, Geneva for his letters. But it is ters he hud received from him, equally true, that their sentence and the Restitutio Christianismi was founded on the errors in his with which he had presented him. book, and his own confessions ; -That accusation is absurd. not on these letters. Could Calvin, whose name was But Calvin, informed of Serve execrated by Papists, expect at- tus's escape from the prison of
Vienne, caused seize him two or erted every mean for persuad.. three days after his arrival at ing Servetus to retract ; and, Geneva.-Facts do not quadrate when all proved in vain, asked with this charge. Servetus es- the advice of the Swiss Cantons, caped from Vienne before the who unanimously exhorted them execution of the sentence, which to punish the wicked person, and condemned him to be burned, put him out of a condition of 17th June. If he took fifteen spreading heresy. The intoledays in his fight, he would have rance therefore of the age, not been at Geneva the beginning of the cruelty of Calvin, dictated July, and yet he was not seized the sentence 27th October, that there till 13th August. Think Servetus should be burnt alive. not that he was concealet till Castalio alone had the courage then somewhere else. A little to write a dissertation against prudence would prevent his tar: the punishment of heretics, rying where popery was estab- which, though he was at Basil, lished, lest the clamours of Vi- he thought it necessary for his enne should overtake him ; and own safety to publish under the Geneva was the first place where feigned name of Bellius. There he could expect shelter. Probó have been both former and later ably, therefore, he was seized, instances at Geneva, of similar hot in two or three days, but violent proceedings against hernear six weeks after his arrival. etics. in 1536, all were deprivThe accusations against him ed of the right of citizenship, were, 1. His saying, in his com- who did not admit the received mentary on Ptolemy, that the doctrine. In 1558, Gentilis esBible vain-gloriously celebrated caped death only by retracting. the fertility of Canaan, though Calvin says, in a letter written indeed an uncultivated and bar- at that time, that Servetus, if he ten country. 2. His calling one had not been mad, would have God in three persons a three- escaped punishment, by reheaded Cerberus.
3. His as- nouncing his errors, or even by serting, that God was every a more modest behaviour. But thing, and that every thing was Servetus persisted to defend his God. He did not deny the opinions in blasphemous lancharges, but pled the necessity guage : the laws of the times of toleration. The council of could not be violated : and, Vienne demanded that he should therefore, the endeavours of be sent back to them ; but it be- some to satisfy themselves with ing left to his choice, he prefer- his banishment, and of Calvin to ted the chance of a more fa- render his punishment less cruvourable sentence at Geneva, to el, had no effect. It is certain, the certainty of capital punish- Calvin deplored Servetus's fate; ment at Vienne.
and the disputes.in prison were While we blame the princi- managed with much greater ples of jurisprudence, which moderation on his side, than on conducted t}iis process, it should that of the panel. In a period be acknowledged, that the coun- when the principles of toleracil at Geneva neglected nothing tion were not understood, zeal for discovering the truth; exa against opinions subvorsive both Vol. II. No. 4.
of natural and revealed religion, child's eye, till he has swallowed drove men to cruel and un- his bit. warrantable extremes. Calvin's 7. Look to your affections situation was peculiarly delicate. most carefully, that they be not, Roman Catholics accused him of (1.) feigned, nor, (2.) forcedly dangerous theological errors. let loose to have their full scope;
Their eyes were fixed upon him; for then they will either overand had he remained an indiffer- ran your judgment, or be a ent spectator of the process temptation to vain glory. against Servetus, they would 8. Preach speaking or talking have pronounced him a favourer to the people ; look on the peoof his opinions. Add to this, had ple, not on roofs or walls, and Servetus escaped, his gross and look on the most mortified faces abusive charges against Calvin in the assembly ; let them know would have appeared well-found- your preaching is real talking ed; and Calvin's adversaries with them, whereby they may would have availed themselves of be provoked (as it were) to anthat advantage for ruining his in- swer you again. fuence.
9. Take heed of over-wording any thing.
10. Be sure you have made RULES FOR PREACHING.
the people understand thoroughFound among the papers of a de- ly what is the good yon exhort ceused minister, signed W.C.
them to, or the evil you dehort the author unknown.
them from, before you bring [Froin the Biblical Magazine.]
your motives and means ; and,
11. Touch no Scripture slight1. DiscovER DO more of ly ; trouble not many, but open Four method than needs must. the metaphors, and let one Scrip
2. Pass not any thing, till ture point out the other, the one you have bolted it to the bran. a key to the other.
3. Use the mother speech 12. Let the Scripture teach and tone, without affectation or you, and not you it. imitation of any man, that you 13. Be sure you feed yourself may not seem to act a comedy, upon every pause with the peoinstead of preaching a sermon. ple, before you pass it, else that
4. Clog not your memory will do them little good, and you too much : it will exceedingly none at all : oh taste every bit. hinder invention, and mar de- 14. Take these four candles to livery:
find out what to say to the peo5. Be sure you eye God, his ple: (1) The Scriptore unbiasglory, the good of souls, having sed. (2) The thoughts and exthe day before mastered self and periences of good men. (3) Your inan-pleasing ague. This must own experience. (4) The conbe renewed toties quoties.
dition of the people. 6. Let your words be sost, 15. Break off any where, few, and slow; and see they rather than run upon any of come no faster than the weakest these two inconveniences ; (1) hearer can digest each morsel ; Either to huddle or tumble topause a while, and look in the gether spiritual things; or,
(2) Tire the weakest of the 22. Do not care so much flock.
whether the people receive your 16. Never pass over one point doctrine, as whether you and it while you bave any thing mater are acceptable to the Lord. rial to say of it, provided it be 23. Do not conceive that your on a spiritual point.
zeal or earnestness can prevail 17. Let your doctrine, and the with the people ; but the force constant stream of your preach- of spiritual reason, the evidence ing, be about the chiefest spirit of Scripture, and the power of ual things, and let small contro- the Holy Ghost. versies and external duties come 24. Do not think the hearers in by the bye.
can receive as you conceive, and • 18. Beware of forms ; neither so inake your own conception the be tied to any one method. rule of dealing the bread of life ;
19. Be always on that subject, so shall you only please yourself, which is next your heart ; and and be admired but not underbe not too thrifty and careful stood by others. what to say next, for God will 25. Let there be something in provide ; it will be offensive like every sermon to draw poor sinkept manna, if reserved through ners to Jesus Christ. distrust till the next day.
26. Take heed that your 20. Be sure to extricate care comparisons be not ridieulous, fully, any godly point you speak and yet be not shy of homely of, out of the notions and terms of divinity; else it will freeze 27. Study every Scripture inevitably in your mouth and you are to speak of beforehand, their ears.
lest you ovérburden invention, or 21. Let there not be disfigure presume too much upon your ing of faces, nor snuffing in the own parts. nose, nor hemming in the 28. Take care to free truth of throat, nor any antic gesture, extravagancies, of needless dipretending devotion, made grav. gressions, needless heads and ity } which will make you seem enumerations. a loathsome Pharisee, or a dis- 29. Shun apologies, for they tracted man broke loose out of are always offensive. Bedlam.
Review of New Publications.
in Historical View of Heresies, ter, and to exhibit a concise view,
and Vindication of the Primi. of the origin, spirit, and moral live Faith. By Asa M'Far- tendency of Heresy; and clearly 1.AND, A. M. minister of the to mark the point of difference gospel in Concord, New Hamp between that scheme of doctrine, xhire. George Hough, Con called orthodox, and those cord. 1806. Pp. 274 12mo. schemies, which under various
A LEADING object of this trea- names, differ essentially front tise is to state the general charac. it.
The work is divided into ten atonement, and by a vital union chapters. In the first is stated with Christ." p. 11. “general principles by which Our author makes a distinc, heresy may be known." Under tion between error in judgment this head, the author justly re- and heresy. p. 11. A man marks that every system of relie whose heart may not be opposed gion, which has appeared in the to the spirit of the gospel, may world, has had some distinguish- yet, through wrong instruction, ing characteristic, and rests on embrace essential error. Such its own peculiar and distinct a person he does not consider as foundation, and that “Christiani. an heretic, ty rests on this truth, that God The object of the second chap: has manifested himself to the ter is to shew that “all Heresies world by Jesus Christ, his only are known by the same general begotten Son." p. 9.
character, though they have apIn this scheme Christ appears peared under different names." in the character of a Mediator The one source of all heresy or and Saviour, which implies, that dangerous error, our author con: he has opened a consistent way ceives, “is a heart which is not for divine, gracious communica- reconciled to the gospel terms of tions to sinners. From “ the na- salvation :" [p. 14, 15.) Hence ture of this mediatorial work of a disposition to reject, or to evade Jesus Christ, it is necessary that the force of the essential & pecu: we receive and treat him as ļiar doctrines of the gospel, com: God over all--as no created monly called the orthodox faith, being can perform more than the forms a common and distinguish. duty which he personally owes ing feature in the character of all to God. A proper atonement heretics. for sin rests on the supreme The orthodox faith, and the Deity of the Saviour.” p. 10. doctrines of grace, our author
The gospel is stated to be a considers as of synonymous im, manifestation of the divine pur- port. “These doctrines are ex: pose to save sinners through faith hibited, in order, in the thirty in Christ. As this faith is the nine articles of the Church of gift of God, and the immediate England, and in the Westmin. effect of his operation, it is with ster Confession of Faith. These the greatest propriety called a were the Doctrines of the Redispensation of grace. “If this be formation.” p. 15. “That manthe spirit of the Christian dis. kind have destroyed themselves, pensation, it is manifest, that and that their salvation is wbolly whatever takes away that from of God," is considered by our the gospel, which is peculiar to author as constituting the sum of it, or which makes it any other the orthodox scheme. p. 16. than a dispensation of grace, is They, therefore, who embrace Heresy. He is an heretic, in and propagate opinions, which the Scripture sense of the word, counteract the spirit and tenden: who adheres to those opinions, cy of this truth, are considerey. which encourage him to hope for as justly chargeable with heresd, salvation in any other way, than The point where heretics take through the incrit of a perfect their departure from the ortho: