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made," or become “ the righteous- served, because God's holiness ness of God;" that the right and justice, his love of righteouseousness of Christ, which is the ness and hatred of wickedness, righteousness of God, might be. and his regard for his own rights come ours; given and imputed and honour, and for the interests to us by God, that so we might of his kingdom, are as much exbe accepted, as righteous in ercised and expressed in the vihim, by virtue of our union to him, carious sufferings of their sponor by the merit of a righteous- sor, as they would have been in ness inkerent in him, but placed the punishment of sinners. If to our account.
those moral truths (as some If this be the meaning of the speak) which are manifested in text, it is a direct and decisive the punishment of the guilty, testimony, that our guilt was are manifested in as strong a transferred to Christ, as the light in the sufferings and death ground of his sufferings; and of Christ in their stead; then that we are justified by his right- the punishment of the guilty no eousness imputed to us.
longer appears to be necessary. But many take the apostle's Nothing stands in the way of meaning to be, that God made their being pardoned, and of their Christ to become a sin offering recovering peace with God. But, for us, that we might be justified unless Christ be considered as by his righteousness. Now it the sponsor of sinners, making has already been observed, that satisfaction for their sins in their the sin offering is represented, stead (which evidently supposes as bearing the guilt and punish- that their guilt or pepal obligainent of the person, for whom tion has been transferred to him) it was offered. Therefore Christ's how can it be reconciled with our being a sin offering for us sup.
clearest and surest notions of the poses, and proves the imputation justice of God, for him to inflict or transferring of our guilt to on Christ the punishment of sin, him.
the curse of the law, for sin, for Farther; the Scriptures teach our sin, when it was not supposus that we are reconciled to God ed to be due to him for any sin by the death of his Son ; that we in him, or imputed to him. This haye redemption through his seems so far from declaring the blood, the forgiveness of sin ; that righteousness of God, that to me the Lord imputeth not sin, but im- it appears inconsistent with rightputeth to believers righteousness eousness, and destructive of the without works of their own. Now foundation of all moral truths. I it seems inconceivable, that the must frankly own that I cannot merit and death of Christ should conceive, how the death of Christ be any reason or motive with can be a reason or ground of God to be reconciled to sinners, God's being reconciled to us, unwho had offended him, unless it less it were considered, as a satbe considered, as a satisfaction isfaction of divine justice for our for their offences. The death of penal debt ; nor can I conceive, Christ turns away God's anger how our debt could be satisfied from sinners, or prevents their for by the suffering of our sponpunishment, though justly de. sor, unless our obligation to make
penal satisfaction, (in order that reconciled to us by Christ. For the ends, for which the punish- in the common language of the ment of sin is necessary, may be Scriptures, our being reconciled answered) were transferred to to God means the same thing. Christ ; that is, in fewer words, When Paul says, we are recunless our guilt were imputed to onciled to God by the death him. If those, who deny such of his Son, he evidently means, imputation, can rationally or in. what he had expressed in the telligibly make it appear, that next foregoing verse, that we God's love of righteousness and are justified by his blood. And hatred of sin are expressed by he has again explained our rehis treating bis own Son, as if he conciliation to God, as importing had been a sinner, by inflicting his not imputing our sins to us. on him the curse of the law, “ God was in Christ reconciling which is due only to sin, when it the world to himself, not imputis supposed, that there was no ing to them their trespasses.” In sin or guilt charged upon him ; the same manner the phrase is to and that this is a good reason for be understood, when the lords of God's being reconciled to sin- the Philistines, speaking of Da: ners, showing him to be just vid, said, “Wherewith should in justifying them ;
he reconcile himself to his Mas, readily attend to them. But, I ter,” i. e, reconcile Saul to him, must confess, this is beyond my regain his favour,“ should it not weak understanding
be with the heads of these men ?" But we are told that the Scrip- The word bears the same sense tures do not say that God is re- in Mat. v. 24, “ When thou conciled to us, but that we are bringest thy gift to the altar, and reconciled to God by the death there rememberest
that thy of his Son. God shewed him- brother hath ought against thee; self reconciled to us by sending leave there thy gift before the his Son, to reconcile us to himself. altar, go thy way, first be recon
I answer. Though God was ciled to thy brother,” i. e. reconnot reconciled to sinners pre- cile thy offended brother to thee. viously to his appointing the The word bears the same meanMediator, to make atonement for ing also I Cor. vii. 11. sin ; yet he had a kindness, a pi- It has been observe: before, ty for them; was willing to be that we were redeemed, or ran. reconciled to them in a way con- somed from death by Christ, by sistent with his own honour and his blood, by his dying for our the interest of his kingdom. sins, receiving the wages, the And he sent his Song to do what just punishment of sin, for our was necessary to prepare and sins, bearing the curse of the open a way for their being par- law in our stead; which neces. doned, and received into his fa- sarily implies that our guilt was
This he did by bearing transferred to him, and borne by the guilt and punishment of him. their sin, as their sponsor.
It may also be added, that Nor is there any weight in the since the wages of sin, or the observation, that the Scriptures curse of the law, was not due to do not say expressly that God is Christ on his own account, it
.would be contrary to our clear- ciled to sinners ; unless re ade est notions of justice, for him to mit, what seems to me to be the bear the curse and punishment plain, obrious doctrine of the of our sins, unless our guilt, or Scriptures, that our guilt, our penal bond, had been taken upon penal obligation, was taken upon himself. If it be said, that Christ, himself, and that he suffered for though not subject to guilt, our sins, and in our stead, pun. might yet justly bear the curse, ishment equivalent, in the divine since he was willing to bear it; estimation and acceptance, to I answer, Christ was willing to what was due to us for sin. be our sponsor, and as such to I have now, dear Sir, exhibits make satisfaction for our sins, ed as plainly as I could, what for which he became responsible. seems to me to be the scripture But he was not willing to suffer doctrine of the atonement. I the punishment of sins, the guilt have endeavoured to express my of which was not imputed to ideas intelligibly, and with prebim. Nor ought any one to be cision. My proposed brevity willing to be punished for sins, would not allow me to enlarge for which he is in no way respon- in illustrating the proofs, which sible. For no one ought to be hare been adduced, nor to intro, willing that injustice should be duce several other topics of ardone. If we should suppose a gument. This, I imagine, was person willing to suffer punish- not expected, nor desired. I ment, which was on no account know there are shrewd objections due to him ; this would not ren- to this doctrine. But, if it apo der the inflicting of such pun- pear to be agreeable to the ishment less unjust, but it would Scriptures, a Christian need not render the sufferer accessary .to be much moved by them, though the injustice.
he should not be able fully to In short, I cannot see how the solve all difficulties, by reason of sufferings of the Son of God, the weakness of his reason, and the Holy One and the Just, suf- the narrowness of his views. ferings greater, than man ever But a brief answer to some of endured, can be reconciled with the most common and considethe justice and goodness of God, rable objections, I have met with, or declare his righteousness in may be attempted, perhaps, in the forgiveness and justification another epistle. In the mean of sinners, or answer the ends, time I shall remain your friend for which punishment of sin is and humble servant, with much necessary, or be any reason, why respect and affection. God may forgive and be recon- A Christian of the Ancient School,
asiscellaneous. ON THE STATE OF LITERATURE taken place, wear a favourable IN NEW ENGLAND.
aspect. There are many things, (Concluded from p. 524.) however, less promising than We have seen that some of could be desired. Science may the changes, which have lately even in this favoared country be
surrounded with cypress, rather the plain of Dura received more than decorated with myrtle, or implicit bomage, or more unwith laurel. She may well qualified adoration. There cer. mourn that so many obstacles tainly were Three Worthies, and are yet to be overcome, that there probably were many humso many advantages, as might ble and unnoticed Jews, who dishere be enjoyed, should be dained to bow down to the gold, neglected and despised; that en god ; so now, it is to be hoin a land remarkably blessed with ped, there are some exceptions respect to soil and climate, a land to the prevailing system of idolaproverbial as the dwelling place try; an idolatry which is totally of liberty, she should be slighted at war with the liberal expansion, when put in competition with and the vigorous efforts of a free the most unworthy pursuits, and mind; which paralizes every do: the basest gratifications. Thus ble attempt, and extinguishes the reflecting, we are insensibly led fire of genius. to inquire, why the interests of To speak in plainer language, learning are not in a inore fa- that state of society cannot be favourable state.
-vourable to the interests of sci. Might I be permitted to use ence, in which money is so gen: language moderately figurative, erally considered the great esI should say, that the first thing sential of excellence, as it is at under this head, which strikes an the present time in this country. observer, is, that the religion of Since the revolution there has the country is exceedingly unfa- been a remarkable influx of vourable to literature. This may wealth, and as remarkable an inappear an odd assertion ; but I crease in elegance and taste; trust it can be shown, that the taste, I mean, in eating and drink, god, who is the object of this re- ing, and in destroying time. He, ligion, is a being the most sor- therefore, who can appear to be did and base, and that he has the the richest man, will find little complete possession of the hearts difficulty in gaining notice and of his votaries. His name is honour. It cannot be expected Mammon. Though covered that there should be many worldwith some disguise, and denying ly inducements to sedulous stuhis real name, bis footsteps are dy, and the prosecution of diffievery where traced, and his wor- cult attainments, when the forship every where offered, In tunate speculator, or even the the mechanic's workshop, behind lucky gambler, can appear in the merchant's counter, in the society to much better advanfarmer's granary, and the law- tage, and receive more universal yer's office, no less than in the attention, than the most finished sumptuous edifice, and the more and laborious scholar. It bas princely dome, his altars are even become a maxim, that if a erected; to him daily sacrifices young man of a liberal educaare made ; to him matins and tion has no more flattering prosvespers are chanted; to him ma- pects with respect 10 money, ny a fervent prayer is indited by than others who have not enjoy: the heart, if it does not escape ed his advantages, he has gained the lips. Scarcely the image on nothing as a recompense for his time and labour. It is true that the unavoidable expenses attendall men do not join in this estima- ing it. For the same reason, tion. Those who are possessed many, when they first enter from of judgment and principle rarely the College into the world, with agree with the world in its opin- the hope and design of pursuing ions. But I speak of that as a science, find themselves obliged maxim, which is so received by to abandon their books, and bemankind in general. Nor are stir themselves with not a little talents always buried under this activity to acquire property sufdiscouragement. The pen of a ficient to maintain a decent apJohnson sometimes ransoms its pearance among their fellow owner from oblivion and con. men. It is also to be regretted, tempt : It sometimes raises him that at the same time that exon high at once, and gives him, travagance is encouraged, exfrom his elevation, to command treme parsimony is used with respect with silent, yet irresisti- respect to the nieans of educable authority. But how many, tion. Many a father would possessed of similar mental en. grudge petty sum to be laid dowments, sink before they have out in books, while he would opportunity to display their pow. think his son acting a manly ers, merely because that favour part, if ten times as much were and support, which is due to spent in costly dress, or frivomerit, is denied them, and trans- lous amusements.
No spirit ferred to coxcombs, and block- wbich exists among men is so heads.
niggardly, when money is to be Nearly allied to the love of expended for any good purpose, money, and a thing which springs as the spirit of extravagance. from its indulgence, is extrava- On the heels of profusion algance in living; a trait in the ways tread dissipation and vice. general character, which is also That these are the eneinies of very injurious to the cause of all laudable endeavours, needs learning. That this has increas- not to be proved. . Yet these ed to an alarming degree for a baleful evils have stalked over number of years past, is a mat- the land with a giant stride, capter entirely without debate. It
It tivating and enslaving the youth, is known and lamented, by every the fower of our country. It is sincere friend to his country, and owing to the firm resistance, to. happiness. The fashion in and the paternal watchfulness of this particular throws many ob- good instructors, that they have structions in the path of knowl- not ruined the more important edge, and encumbers the travel- seminaries, even in New Engler with many difficulties. Num- land, where the most manful bers of those who, from their opposition has been made. Pleashabits of industry and economy, ure and study can have no unand the necessity of improving ion ; they cannot even coexist their advantages, would bid fair in the same person. By pleasto become the best scholars, are ure is intended that round of not unfrequently discouraged sensual gratification, and that from attempting to procure a
affectation of happiness, so compublic education, on account of mon among the empty, and the