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bas. For out of the olde feldes, as men sajeth, Cometh all this new corne, fro yere to yere ; And out of old bookes, in good faieth,

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Chaucer's Assem. of Foules, st. 4.

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ART. XI-A Method for Trauell. Shewed by taking the view of France. As it stoode in the yeare of our Lord 1598. London, printed by THOMAS CREEDE, n: d: pp. 170. 4to.


THE object of Sir Robert Dallington, the author of this rare and curious work, was to point out to the individuals at the time he wrote, about to make excursions upon the Continent, how they might best improve their time while absent, by observations upon the governments, institutions, and manners of the people, they visited; that they might not merely go there and back again, making themselves nuisances while abroad by their self sufficiency, and on their return home by their affectation, having learnt nothing but to prate about objects they had never seen, and things they could never understand.

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A work of the kind at the present moment might not be useless when those who have made trips for a few days to France, or the Netherlands, undertake to speak, to write, and to print as sagaciously and definitively upon all topics as if they had resided for as many years, with the best means of obtaining their knowledge and of forming their opinions.* This is one reason why we have chosen this "Method for Trauel" as the subject for the present article, at a time when so many travellers are returning, or have returned, to their native country, to whom we should be unwilling to apply the satire of the old critic-" a horse in a malt-mill is as far in the morning as at night, when he hath done his days-work-so many travellers are as wise when they go forth as when they come home."+ Another

Undoubtedly the best work recently published upon the state of France is that of Mr. John Scott: the author's talent in the book-making art is as considerable as his other talents, which are by no means insignificant: he was absent from Loudon only three weeks, and yet on his return pours from the press observations upon the moral, political, and financial state of France; the manners, opinions, and fashions of the people; their domestic habits and social dispositions. We have forgotten much of this eloquent and taking title.

+ Meres' Palladis Tamia, 1598, fo. 237

reason is the interest that will now naturally be taken by intelligent tourists in the state of France more than two centuries ago, described by a man of acuteness and learning.


Sir Robert Dallington having been knighted by King James, was appointed to the important office of Master of the Charter House, on the recommendation of Prince Charles, who in the year following ascended the throne. His origin was probably low, as, according to Fuller, he was first bibleclerk of Bennet College, and afterwards, kept a school in Norfolk, where gaining sufficient money for his purpose, he travelled through France and Italy. On his return he was made secretary to the Earl of Rutland, one of the Lords of the Privy Chamber to Prince Charles this led to his nomination to the mastership of the Charter House, which place he continued to hold until his death, in 1637, at the age of seventy-six. Fuller (10 mean authority) says that he had an excellent wit and judgment, and it seems clear that he was highly respected, as three persons were ap pointed to assist him in his office in his old age. It is reported that he was the first to introduce the custom of putting parts of the Scriptures into Latin verse; a practice, we believe, now generally followed in public schools. On entering upon his duties at the Charter House, he was greeted in a copy of Latin verses by Dr. Gray, the second master, of which two are given by Fuller. He was the author of several other works besides that on our table. 1. He joined some of his fellow collegians in Epitaphs upon Sir W. Buttes, who died in 1583. 2. A Survey of the Great Duke's State of Tuscany, in the year 1596. 3. Aphorismes Civil and Military, &c. 1615. The last is much applauded by his quaint but learned biographer.

The "Method for Trauel" has no date, but that of 1605 has been assigned to it, and probably it is nearly correct, because the author speaks in it of the late Queen, and mentions his having past the prime of his life.

The address to the reader, which follows the title, is remarkable principally for the censure it contains of the vast number of light pamphlets published about that time, "more for the printer's gain than the author's credit, or benefit of us the readers." It is succeeded by a digested table of things necessary to be observed by travellers, and then we arrive at a preliminary discourse called "the method for trauel," which is an explanation and enlargement of the table: after stating that "base and vulgar spirits houer

still about home," and that "those are more noble and divine that imitate the Heavens and ioy in motion," he proceeds thus:

"He therefore that intends to Trauell out of his owne country, must likewise resolue to Trauell out of his country fashion, and indeed out of himselfe: that is, out of his former intemperate feeding, disordinate drinking, thrift-lesse gaming, fruit-lesse time spending, violent exercising, and irregular misgouerning whatsoeuer: he must determine, that the end of his Trauell is his ripening in knowledge; and the end of his knowledge is the seruice of his countrie, which of right challengeth, the better part of vs.

"This is done, by Preseruation of himselfe from the hazards of Trauell, and Obseruation of what he heares and sees in his trauelling. The hazards are two: of the minde, and of the body: that, by the infection of errors; this by the corruption of manners. For who so drinketh of the poysonous cup of the one, or tasteth of the sower liquor of the other, looseth the true rellish of religion and vertue, bringeth home a leprous soule, and a tainted body, retaining nothing but the shame of either, or repetance of both; wherof in my trauell I haue seene some examples, and by them made the vse to preuent both mischiefes, which I will briefly shewe."

He then gives the traveller advice respecting the preservation of his religion, the acquirement of languages, and other needful points: what he observes of the expenses of a traveller is worth extracting, for the sake of comparison with those at present usually incurred.

Mony, the sinues of warre, and soule of Travell, as at home, so abroade is the man. They say he should haue two bagges, the one of crownes, the other of patience: but howsoeuer this last be emptie, I could wish that other were still full: whereout he must proportion his yearely expence, not exceeding the limmits of his propounded allowance. If he Trauell without a seruant, fourscore pounds sterling is a competent proportion, except he learne to ride: if he maintaine both these charges, he can be allowed no lesse then one hundred and fiftie poundes: and to allowe aboue two hundred, were superfluous, and to his hurte. And thus rateably, according to the number he keepeth.

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"The ordinarie rate of his expence, is this: ten gold crownes a moneth his owne dyet, eight for his man (at the most) two crownes a moneth his fencing, as much dancing, no lesse his reading, & fiftene crownes monethly his riding: but this exercise hee shall discontinue all the heate of the yeare. The remainder of his 150. pound I allow him for apparell, bookes, Trauelling charges, tennis play, and other extraordinarie expences."

"The view of France as it stoode in the yeare 1598,"

commences with a general description of the territory and its limits, and with notices of the most important havens and cities systematically arranged. The author afterwards arrives at Paris, and describes the public and private buildings of note, shrewdly adding the following anecdote, of which he also gives the obvious application.

"I haue heard a tale of a President of Parliament, whose friends comming on a time to see him at his new house, began exceedingly to commend it, as indeed it deserued, as well for the rarenesse of the workmanship, as the goodnesse of the Stone, Timber, Marble, and such like. No (quoth he) ye mistake the stuffe whereof it is made; this house is onely built, de testes des fols, of fooles heades. I thinke many of our newe buildings in England, are made of the same stuffe."

His observations upon the disputed Etymology of the name Paris are worthy of quotation.

"Some say, this Towne was builded in the times of Amasias, King of Iuda, by some reliques of the Troian warre, and that it was called Lutece (a Luto) because the soyle in this place is very fatte, which is of such nature, as ye cannot well get it out, it doth so staine whereof they haue a By-word, Il gaste comme la fange de Paris: It stayneth like the durt of Paris. Other say, it was called Paris of (Parresia) a Greeke word, which signifieth (saith this Authour) hardiesse ou ferocité, valour or fiercenesse, alleadging this verse,

Et se Parrisios dixerunt nomine Franci,
Quod sonat audaces, &c.

"And the Franks called themselues Parrisians, which signifieth valiant. And by this Etymologie would inferre, that the French is a warlike nation. But he is much mistaken in the word, for it signifieth onely a boldnes or liberty of speach: which whether they better deserue, or to be accounted valiant, you shall see, when I come to speake of the Frenchmans humour and nature in generall."

This last conjecture is confirmed by Rabelais, who does not treat the citizens with a superabundance of respect. Garagantua has produced an unexpected inundation, not of the most agreeable kind, from the top of Notre Dame, and the people are flying in all directions, exclaiming "Carimary, Carymara, par saincte Mamye, nous sommes baignez par rys, dont fut depuis la ville nommée Paris la quelle auparavant on appelloit Leucece ;" and a little further on he adds-" Dont estime Joaninus de Baranco, libro, de copiositate reverentiarum, que sont dictz Parrhesiens en

Grecisme, c'est à dire fiers en parler:" The character of Henry IV. now so popular in France, is drawn as follows, with a spirit and liveliness approaching to wit.


"He sayth there farther, that though by his Phisiognomy, his fashion and maner of behauiour, ye would iudge him leger and inconstant, yet is no man more firmely constant then he. He confesseth it were hard for him, not to be sparing, considering the profuse and lauish spoyle that his predecessor made before him: yet to salue the matter, he makes this difference, That the other gaue much to few, this gives a little to many. If you remember when we saw him play at dice, here in Orleans, with his Noblesse, he would euer tell his money very precisely, before he gaue it backe againe

"I will not spare in this discourse (which is onely for your selfe priuate) to speake the trueth, though of a King: we are here in a country, where ye daily heare his owne Subiects speake of him more liberally.

"And besides, his Maiestie hath generally this commendation, which is very laudable in a Prince, he can endure that any man should tell him the truth, though of himselfe. Which I will interpret to wisdome, though perhaps some will impute it to a facility of nature. Concerning this thriftie vertue then of sparing, we must note that he is a very good mesuager. Il fait d'argent auec ses dens: He makes money with his teeth, saith the Frenchman, meaning his sparing of great and superfluous expence at his table. And for his giftes, wee may call him by an Antiphrasis, as Plutarch sayth they vsed to call Antigonus in scorne (doson) that is, qui donnera'; 'pour ce qu'il prommettoit tousiours & iamais ne donoit: One that will giue: because he alwayes promised, but neuer performed.

"For my part, I thinke he giues S. P. Q. R. not Senatui populoq; Romano: that is, to all sorts of people: but Si Peu Que Rien, so little, as scarse any at all. They say, that the chamber of Accounts, is to examine the Kings gifts: and if they find any vinmeasurable, to shorten them: to which purpose, there is written in great letters in the same court, Trop donné soit repeté: Let gifts too great be reuoked. It should seeme hee saues them this labour." * *

"At his being here at Orleans, this Iune last past, the Maior and Burgeses of the Towne came to his Maiestie, to desire they might bee eased of certayne extraordinary taxes and impositions, wherewith in the time of the league, they had been burdened by Mons. de la Chastre, their Governour. Saith he, M. de la Chastre vous a liguez, qu'il vous desligue: M. de la Chastre hath tide you, let him vntye you. At his being at the siege of Amiens, amongst others of the Noblesse, which he summoned to that seruice, he sent also for the Count Soissons, a Prince of the bloud, and one of the rarest Gentlemen of France, to whom the King giues (as is said) 5000 Crowns pensio. The Count, at that time discontented, returned the King answere, that he was a poore Gent, and wanted meanes to come to

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