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of about twenty-five miles, arrived at Haggichaugh upon Liddel water, where he slept. Charles marched down Liddel water on the following day, being Friday the eighth of November, and entered England in the evening. When crossing the border, the Highlanders drew their swords, and gave a hearty huzza ; but a damp came over their spirits, on learning that Lochiel had cut his hand in the act of unsheathing his sword, an occurrence which the Highlanders, with superstitious prone. ness, regarded as a bad omen.* Charles lay at Reddings in Cumber land that night. The division belonging to the prince's column, consisting of horse, which had taken the middle route by Hawick and Langholm, reached Longtown the same day.t
While the eastern division was thus moving in a circuitous direction to the appointed place of rendezvous near Carlisle, the western column, which started on the road to Peebles, was following a more direct route by Moffat, and down Annandale. This division entered England near Longtown. On the ninth of November, Charles marched with his division to Rowcliff, four miles below Carlisle, where he crossed the river Eden, and quartered his men in the villages on the west side of the city. In the afternoon, Charles was joined by the greater part of the other division, under the marquis of Tullibardine. This march was judiciously planned, and was executed with such precision, that scarcely two hours elapsed between the arrival of the two main divisions at the appointed place of rendezvous. The march, according to the Chevalier Johnstone, resembled on a small scale that of Marshal Saxe, a few years before, when he advanced to lay siege to Maestricht.
The plan for deceiving Marshal Wade succeeded so well, that that commander, who had now an army of eleven thousand men under him, had no idea that the Highland army was marching on Carlisle, and accordingly directed his whole attention to the protection of Newcastle. Such was the secrecy with which the motions of the army were conducted, that, with the exception of Charles and his principal officers, no person knew its real destination. † On arriving in the neighbourhood of Carlisle, the prince's army had been diminished some hundreds by desertion.
The city of Carlisle, the capital of Cumberland, had formerly been a place of great strength, and had, during the wars between England and Scotland, been considered as one of the keys of England on the side of Scotland ; but since the union of the crowns, its fortifications had been allowed to fall into decay. It was surrounded by walls flanked with towers, and a fosse or ditch. The city was protected by a castle on the north-west, supposed to be as old as the time of William Rufus, and by a citadel on the south-east, erected in the reign of Henry the Eighth. The castle, on the present occasion, was well furnished with artillery, and was garrisoned by a company of invalids ; but, like the city, its fortifications were not in good repair. To aid the inhabi
* Luckliart Paupers, vol. ii. p. 455. + Kirkcomel MS.
Jolinstone's Memoirs, p. 16.
tants in defending the city, the whole militia of Cumberland and Weste moreland had been assembled within its walls.
When approaching the city on the ninth, a party of the prince's borse advanced to Stanwix Bank, a small hill near Carlisle, to reconnoitre ; but they were forced to retire by a few shots from the castle. The whole of the army having passed the Eden next day, Charles proceeded to invest the city on all sides. One of his parties, in marching round froin the Irish to the English gate, was fired upon both from the castle and the town, but did not sustain any loss. Having completed the investment, the prince, about noon, sent a letter to the mayor of the city, requiring him to open its gates, and allow the army to enter in a peaceable manner, and promising, in case of compliance, to protect the city from insult ; but threatening an assault in the event of a refusal. The prince stated, that should an assault be made, he might not have it in his power to prevent the dreadful consequences which usually befall a city captured in that way. An answer was required within two hours, but none was given, and a discharge of cannon from the besieged announced their determination to hold out. In consequence of this reception, the trenches were opened at night, under the orders of the duke of Perth, at the distance of eighty yards from the walls. Mr Grant, an Irish officer, of Lally's regiment, who had lately arrived from France, and who was an experienced engineer, ably availing himself of some ditches, approached close to the city without suffering from the fire of the besieged. The artillery consisted of six Swedish field pieces, which had been received from France, and of the pieces which had been taken at Preston. *
Having received intelligence that Marshal Wade was advancing from Newcastle to relieve Carlisle, and that he had already arrived at Hexham, Charles resolved to meet him on some of the hilly grounds between Newcastle and Carlisle. Leaving, therefore, a sufficient force to blockade Carlisle, he departed with the remainder of the army on the morning of the eleventh, and reached Warwick castle about ten o'clock. He then despatched Colonel Ker forward with a party of horse, in the direction of Hexbam, to reconnoitre, and ordered his men to take up their quarters for the night. Ker having ascertained that the news of Wade's march was false, returned to Brampton, and made his report. After waiting two days at Brampton without hearing any thing of Wade, a council of war was held, at which several opinions were offered. One opinion, in which Charles concurred, was that the army should advance to Newcastle, and give battle to Wade. Some of the council thought that this would be a dangerous step; for even were they to defeat the marshal, his army might take refuge in Newcastle, which it was in vain for them to think of taking, as, besides the strength of the place, the army had lost many men upon its march. Others were for returning to Scot
land till joined by a greater body of their friends; but Lord (icorge Murray opposed all these views, and proposed, that while one part of the party should besiege and blockade Carlisle, the other should remain at Brampton. The duke of Perth seconded this opinion, and offered to undertake the charge of the battery, if Lord George would take the command of the blockade. The council having all agreed to Lord George's proposal, six of the Lowland regiments were sent to blockade the town, besides the duke of Perth's, which was to be employed on the battery.*
Whilst the main body of the army was at Brampton, the party left before the city occupied themselves in cutting down wood in Corby and Warwick parks, with which they made scaling-ladders, fascines, and carriages. On the thirteenth, about noon, the regiments appointed for the blockade and siege of the city, reappeared before it. Lord George Murray took up his quarters at Harbery, and posted his men in the villages around the city to stop all communication with it. The besieging party broke ground in the evening within musket-shot of the walls, about half way between the English and Scotch gates.t A constant firing was kept up from the city; but as these operations were carried on under cloud of night, the party in the trenches received no injury. Having completed their battery, the besiegers brought up their whole cannon, consisting of thirteen pieces, to play upon the town. Next morning the fire from the garrison was renewed, but with little effect, and the besiegers, instead of returning the fire, held up their bonnets on the end of their spades in derision.
Alarmed by the preparations of the Highlanders, and the state of affairs within the city, a meeting of the inhabitants was held, at which it was resolved to surrender the town. For seven days the garrison of the city, kept in constant alarm by the Highlanders, had scarcely enjoyed an hour's continued repose; and while many of the men had, from illness, absolutely refused to assist any longer in the defence of the city, numbers were hourly leaving the city clandestinely by slipping over the walls; so that in several cases the officers of some companies had not more than three or four men left. In this state of matters the only alternative was a surrender; and as a crisis appeared to be at hand, a white Aag was exhibited from the walls, and a messenger despatched to the duke of Perth to request terms. His Grace sent an express to Brampton to know the prince's pleasure; but his Royal Highness refused to grant any terms to the city unless the castle surrendered at the same time. At the request of the mayor, a cessation of arms was granted till next day ; but before the time expired, Colonel Durand, the commander of the castle, agreed to surrender the fortress along with the town. The conditions were, that the liberties and properties of the inhabitants, and all the privileges of the town, should be preserved in.
. Lord George Murray's Narrative, Jacobite Memoirs, pp. 47, 48.
$ Ray, p. 96.
violate ;-that both garrisons, on taking an oath not to serve against the house of Stuart for one year, should be allowed to retire,—and that all the arms and ammunition in the castle and the city, and all the horses belonging to the militia, should be delivered up to the prince.
This capitulation was signed by the duke of Perth and Colonel Durand on the night of the fourteenth.*
Next morning at ten o'clock the duke of Perth entered the city at the head of his regiment, and was followed by the other regiments at onc o'clock in the afternoon. The castle, however, was not given up till next morning. The duke of Perth shook hands with the men of the garrison, told them they were brave fellows, and offered them a large bounty to enlist in the service of the prince.t The mayor and his attendants went to Brampton, and delivered the keys of the city to the prince. Besides the arms of the militia, the duke found a thousand stand in the castle. He also found two hundred good horses in the city, and a large quantity of valuable effects in the castle, which had been lodged there by the gentry of the neighbourhood for safety.
On the day following the surrender, the Chevalier de St George was proclaimed in the city with the usual formalities; and, to give greater eclat to the ceremony, the mayor and aldermen were compelled to at. tend with the sword and mace carried before them. Along with the other manifestoes formerly noticed, the following declaration for Eng. land, dated from Rome, twenty-third of December, seventeen hundred and forty-three, was also read :
« The love and affection we bear to our native country are so natural and inherent to us, that they could never be altered or diminished by a long and remote exile, nor the many hardships we have undergone during the whole course of our life, and we almost forget our own misfortunes, when we consider the oppression and tyranny under which our country has laboured so long. We have seen our people, for many years, groaning under the weight of most heavy taxes, and bearing many of the calanities of war, while the rest of Europe enjoyed all the blessings of peace. We have seen the treasures of the nation applied to satiate private avarice, and lavished for the support of German dominions, or for carrying on of ambitious views, always foreign, and often contrary to the true interest of the nation. We have since seen the nation involved in wars, which have been and are carried on, without any advantage to Britain, and even to the manifest detriment and discouragement of its trade, and a great many of Hanoverians taken into the English pay and service in a most extraordinary manner, and at a most expensive rate; nor could we behold, without indignation, the preference and partiality shown, on all occasions, to these foreigners, and the notorious affronts put on the British troops. We have beheld with
+ Marchant, p. 169.
Marchant, p. 169.
Boyse, p. 100.
astonishment an universal corruption and dissolution of manners, en. couraged and countenanced by those whose example and authority should have been employed to repress it, and a more than tacit conniv. ance given to all irreligion and immorality. Bribery and corruption have been openly and universally practised, and no means neglected to seduce the great council of the nation, that it might be the more effectually enslaved by those who ought to be the guardians of its liberty. The manufactures of England are visibly going to decay; trade has been neglected, and even discouraged; and the very honour of the nation made a sacrifice to the passions of those who govern it.
“The unhappy state to which our subjects have been reduced by these and many other unjust and violent proceedings, has constantly filled our royal heart with grief and concern, while our whole thoughts and study have been employed towards procuring the most speedy and effectual remedy to them, which we were always sensible could only be compassed by our restoration. This has ever been the principal view of the several attempts we have made for the recovery of our just rights, without being discouraged by the disappointments with which we have hitherto met; but though Providence has permitted that iniquity and injustice should long prevail, we have all reason to hope that the time is at last come, in which the Divine mercy will put a period to these misfortunes. We see, with a sensible satisfaction, the eyes of the greatest part of our people opened to their present deplorable situation, and that they are convinced they can find no relief but by restoring their natural born prince, whose undoubted title will of course put an end to the many calamities they have suffered during the usurpation; and our satisfaction would be complete, could we owe our mutual happiness to ourselves and subjects alone, without the assistance of any foreign power; but should we find it necessary to employ any such, let our good subjects be assured, it is only to protect ourselves and them against those shoals of foreign mercenaries with which the Elector fills the kingdom whenever he thinks himself in danger; and, therefore, to disperse all fears and jealousies from the hearts and minds of our subjects, and to convince them, as much as in us lies, of the happiness they may enjoy under our government, we have thought fit to unfold to them, in this solemn and public manner, the sincere sentiments of our royal and truly English heart.
“ We hereby grant a free, full, and general pardon for all offences whatsoever bitherto coinmitted against our royal father, or ourselves; to the benefit of which we shall deem justly entitled all such of our subjects as shall, after our appearing in arms by ourselves, our dearest son the prince of Wales, our deputies, or the commanders of our auxiliary forces, testifying their willingness to accept of it, either by joining our troops with all convenient diligence, by setting up our standard in other places, by repairing to any place where it shall be put up, or at least by openly renouncing all pretended allegiance to the usurper, and all