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could make up a garrison. The duke of Perth was unwilling to allow auy of his men to remain; and appearing to complain in the presence of the prince that a certain number of the Athole men had not beeu draughted for that service, Lord George Murray told him, also in tho prince's presence, that if his royal highness would order him, he would stay with the Athole brigade, though he knew what his fate would be.* The number of men left in garrison amounted to about four hundred. Mr Hamilton was continued in the command of the castle, and Mr Townley was made commandant of the town.
The Highland army halted the whole of the nineteenth in Carlisle, and departed next day for Scotland. The Esk, which forms part of the boundary between England and Scotland on the west, was, from an incessant rain of several days, rendered impassable by the nearest road from Carlisle; but at the distance of about eight miles from Carlisle it was still fordable. The army reached the place, where they intended to cross, about two o'clock in the afternoon. Before crossing the water, the following route was fixed upon by the advice of Lord George Murray, whose opinion had been asked by Charles in presence of some of his officers, viz., that Lord George, with six battalions, should march that night to Ecclefechan, next day to Moffat, and there halt a day ; and after making a feint towards the Edinburgh road, as if he intended to march upon the capital, to turn off to Douglas, then to Hamilton and Glasgow,—that the prince should go with the clans and most of the horse that night to Annan, next day to Dumfries, where they should rest a day; then to Drumlanrig, Leadhills, Douglas, and Hamilton, so as to be at Glasgow the day after the arrival in that city of Lord George's division.^
Though the river was usually shallow at the place fixed upon for passing, it was now swollen, by continued rains, to the depth of four feet. The passage was not without its dangers; but as the river might be rendered impassable by a continuation of the rain during the night, and as it was possible that the duke of Cumberland might reach the Esk next morning, it was resolved to cross it immediately. After trying the water to ascertain that the ford was good, a body of cavalry formed in the river, a few paces above the ford, to break the force of the stream, and another body was likewise stationed in the river below the ford to pick up such of the infantry as might be carried away by the violence of the current. This arrangement being completed, the infantry entered the river a hundred men abreast, each holding one another by the neck of the coat, by which plan they supported one another against the rapidity of the river, leaving sufficient intervals between their ranks for the passage of the water. Lord George Murray, who was among the first
that could happen. The lives of so many of his friends ought not to have been exposed without an indispensable necessity, which was not the case; for blowing up the inslle, and the gates of the town, would huve equally given him an enlry into Kngland." • Jacobite Memoirs, p. V t Jucobile Memoirs, p. 7&
to enter the water m his philibeg, says, that when nearly across, there were about two thousand men in the water at once. The appearance of the river, in the interval between the cavalry, presented an extraordinary spectacle. As the heads of the Highlanders were generally all that wns seen above the water, the space of water occupied in the passage looked like a paved street . Not one man was lost in the transit; but a few girls who had followed their lovers in their adventurous campaign, were swept away by the current. After the army had passed, the pipes began to play; and the Highlanders, happy on setting their feet again on Scottish ground, forgot for a time the disappointment they had suffered at Derby, and testified their joy by dancing reels upon the northern bank of the Esk.*
The expedition into England, though not signalized by any great military achievement, will always hold a distinguished place in the annals of bold and adventurous enterprise. It was planned and carried through in all its details with great judgment; and if circumstances had not delayed its execution, it might have terminated in success. From the consternation into which the English people were thrown by the in vasion of the Highland army.f it seems certain, that without the aid of a regular army their militia would scarcely have ventured to oppose the march of the Highlanders to the metropolis; but after the return of the British forces from Flanders, and the arrival of the Dutch auxiliaries, and the assembling of the armies under Wade and Ligonier, the attempt appeared to be hopeless. The crown of England, however, was still in jeopaidy; and it was not until the retreat from Derby that the government was relieved from its anxiety for the safety of the monarchy.
• Jacobite Memoirs, p. 74.—Johnstone's Memoirs, p. 00.
t "The terror of the English," says the Chevalier Johnstone, Memoirs, p. 101, " was truly inconceivable, and In many cases they seemed quite bereft of their senses. One evening, as Mr Cameron of Lochiel entered the lodgings assigned to him, his landlady, an old woman, threw herself at his feet, and, with uplifted hands and tears In her eyes, supplicated him to lake her life, but to spare her two little children. He asked her if she was In her senses, and told her to explain herself; when she answered, that every body said the Highlanders ate children, and made them their common food. Mr Cameron having assured her that they would not injure either her or her little children, or any person whatever, she looked at him for some moments with an air of surprise, and then opened a press, calling out with a loud voice, ' Come out children ; the gentleman will not eat you.' The children Immediately left the press where she had concealed them, and threw themselves at his feet . They affirmed in the newspapers of London that we had dogs in our army trained to fight, and that we were Indebted for our victory at Gladsmuir to these dogs, who darted with fury on the English army. They represented the Highlanders as monsters, with claws instead of hands. In a word, they never ceased to circulate, every day, the most extravagant and ridiculous stories with respect to the Highlanders. The English soldiers had indeed reason to look upon us as extraordinary men, from the manner in which we had beaten them with such inferior numbers, and they probably told these idle stories to the country people by way of palliating their own disgrace.'' The able editor of Johnstone's Memoirs relates in a note to the above, that the late Mr Halkston of Rathillet, who was In the expedition, stated that the belief was general among the people of England, that the Highlanders ate children:—" While the army lay at Carlisle he was taken ill, and went with a few of his companions to a farmer's house In the neighbourhood, where he remained several days. Perceiving his landlady
The duke of Cumberland halted at Penrith on the twentieth of December, and marched next day to Carlisle, which he invested the same day. As he was under the necessity of sending to Whitehaven for heavy cannon, the fire from his batteries did not commence till the morning of the twenty-eighth. During the blockade the garrison fired repeatedly upon the besiegers, but with little effect- A fire was kept up by the besiegers from a battery of six eighteen pounders, during the twenty-eighth and twenty-ninth. Another battery of three thirteen pounders was completed on the thirtieth; but on the first fire from the old battery that day, the besieged hung out a white flag, and offered hostages for a capitulation. The duke of Cumberland, on observing this signal, sent one of his aides-de-camp with a note, desiring to know its meaning; to which Governor Hamilton answered, that the object was to obtain a cessation ibr a capitulation, and desiring to know what terms his royal highness would grant to the garrison. The only condition the duke would grant was, that the garrison should not be put to the sword, but he reserved for the king's pleasure; and Hamilton, seeing the impossibility of holding out, surrendered the same day. The garrison, including officers, consisted of one hundred and fourteen men of the Manchester regiment; of two hundred and seventy-four men, also including officers, chiefly of the Scotch low country regiments, and a few Frenchmen and Irishmen. The number of cannon in the castle was sixteen, ten of which had been left by the Highland army on its return to Scotland. Among the prisoners were found twelve deserters from the royal forces, who were immediately hanged. The officers were kept prisoners in the castle, but the privates were confined in the cathedral and town-jail. The whole were afterwards dispersed in several jails through England. The duke of Cumberland, after putting Bligh's regiment in garrison at Carlisle, returned to London, in consequence of an order from court.*
tu be a young woman, be asked ber if she had any children, and where ihey were. When the found ihat he wae no cannibal, sbe told him the truth was, lhat all the children were sent out of the way for fear the Highlanders should devour them."
A Derby genileman, who had a party of forty men quartered in bis bouse, in a letter which appeared in all the newspapers of the period, describes most of them as looking 'like so many fiends turned out of hell to ravage the kingdom and cut throats; and under their plaids nothing but various sorts of butchering weapons were to be seen." He complains that they had eaten up " near a side of beef, eight joints of mutton, four cheeses, with abundance of white and brown bread, (particularly white,) three couples of fowls, and would have drams continually, as well as strong-ale, beer, tea, &C." In the midst of thls general devastation our host was convulsed with '* unavoidable laughter to tee these desperadoes, from officers to the common men, at their several meals, first pull off their bonnets, and then lift up their eyes in a most solemn manner, and mutter something to themselves, by way of saying grace, as if they had been so many pure primitive Christians 111'' This is merely a specimen of the many ridiculous stories with which the English journals of the period were crammed.
• Boyse. p. 12U.
The Highland army returns to Scotland—The Prince enters Dumfries—Arrival of the army at Glasgow—Proceedings of the Jacobites In the north—Arrest of Lord Lovut, who escapes—Skirmish at Inverury between the Macleods, under the laird of Macleod, and the forces under Lord Lewis Gordon—Disagreement among the Jacobite officers at Perth—Alarm at Edinburgh—Arriral of an English army, under General Hawley, at Edinburgh—Proceedings of the Prince at Glasgow—Marches his army to Bannockburn and Falkirk, and invests Stirling—Surrender of tho town—Skirmishing on the Frith of Forth—The Highland army reinforced from the north—Arriral of Hawley's army at Falkirk—Preparations of both armies for battle—Battle of Falkirk.
Pursuant to the plan of march fixed upon at crossing the Esk, the Highland army separated, and Lord George Murray, at the head of thp low country regiments, proceeded to Ecclefechan, where he arrived on the night of the twentieth, and marched next day to Moffat. The prince, at the head of the clans, marched to Annan, where he passed the night of the twentieth. The horse of the prince's division under Lord Elcho were, after a short halt, sent to take possession of Dumfries, which they accomplished early next morning, and the prince, with the clans, came up in the evening. In no town in Scotland had there been greater opposition displayed to the restoration of the house of Stuart • than in Dumfries, from the danger to which the inhabitants supposed
their religious liberties, as presbyterians, would be exposed under a catholic sovereign. This feeling, which was strongly manifested by them in the insurrection of seventeen hundred and fifteen, had now assumed even a more hostile appearance from the existence of the new sect or body of religionists called "Seceders," which had lately sprung from the bosom of the established church of Scotland, and which professed principles thought to be more in accordance with the gospel than those of their parent, church. A body of these dissenters had volunteered for the defence of Edinburgh shortly after Charles had landed, and, on his march for England, a party of these religionists had taken up arms, and had captured and carried to Dumfries thirty waggons belonging to the Highland army, which had been left at Lockerby by the escort appointed to protect them. To punish the inhabitants for their hostility, Charles ordered them to pay two thousand pounds in money, and to contribute one thousand pairs of shoes. About eleven hundred pounds only were raised ; and, in security for the remainder, Mr Crosbie, the provost, and a Mr Walter Riddel, were carried off as hostages He alsc levied the excise at Dumfries, and carried off some arms, horses, &c. Some outrages were committed in the town by the Highlanders, who told the inhabitants that they ought to think themselves gently used, and be thankful that their town was not laid in ashes.
After halting a day at Dumfries, the prince proceeded with his division up Nithsdale on the evening of the twenty-third, and passed the night at Drumlanrig, the seat of the duke of Queensberry. Next day he entered Clydesdale, and halted at Douglas. The prince slept that night in Douglas castle. He reached Hamilton on the twenty-fifth, and took up his residence in the palace of the duke of Hamilton. Next day the Chevalier occupied himself in hunting, an amusement of which he was uncommonly fond, and to which he had been accustomed from his youth. The division under Lord George Murray, after halting a day at Moffat, where, being Sunday, his men heard sermon in different parts of the town from the episcopal ministers who accompanied them; proceeded by Douglas and Hamilton, and entered Glasgow on Christmas day. On the evening of the twenty-sixth the prince also marched into Glasgow on foot at the head of the clans. Here he resolved to halt and refresh his men for a few days after their arduous march, and to provide them with clothing, of which they stood greatly in need. In passing through Douglas and Lesmahago, the Highlanders pillaged and burnt some houses, in revenge for the capture of Macdonald of Kinlochmoidart, who, in his way south from the Highlands, had been seized on Brokencross-moor, near Lesmahago, by the country people, headed by a student of divinity named Linning, and carried to Edinburgh castle.*
Before noticing Charles's proceedings at Glasgow, it is necessary to give a short summary of those of his friends in the north, up to the period of his arrival in that city.
When intelligence of the Chevalier's march into England, and his unexpected success at Carlisle was received in the north, the zeal of the Jacobites was more and more inflamed. Whilst the Frasers, headed by the master of Lovat, blockaded Fort Augustus, Lord Lewis Gordon was busily employed in raising men, and levying money by force and threats of mihtary execution, in the shire of Banff and Aberdeen. Of two battalions which bis lordship raised, one was placed under the command of Gordon of Abbachie, and the other under Moir of Stonywood. To relieve Fort Augustus, the earl of Loudon left Inverness on the third of December with six hundred men of the independent companies, and passing through Stratherrick during a very severe frost, reached Fort Augustus without opposition, and having supplied the garrison with every thing necessary for its defence, returned to Inverness on the eighth, after notifying to the inhabitants of Stratherrick the risk they would incur should they leave their houses and join the insurgents.f
• Culloden Papers, p. 203. t Ibid. p. 461.