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the Strand preparatory to its being sent down; but, by order of gor. ernment, it was interred at St Peter's in the Tower, in the same grave with Lords Kilmarnock and Balmerino.*
Whilst these executions could not fail to impress the disaffected with a strong idea of the power and inclination of government to uphold and maintain the authority of the law, they were calculated by their number and severity rather to excite a thirst for vengeance, than to inspire that salutary fear which it is the object of punishment to promote. During these executions, a scheme was concocted to arrest the arm of the law by seizing and carrying off the person of the duke of Cumberland, and retaining him as an hostage for the lives of the prisoners. The originators of this bold design went from London to Paris, and laid their plan before Charles shortly after his arrival from Scotland, and offered to make the attempt; but Charles refused to sanction it, and the scheme was dropped.t
By way of conciliating the offended feelings of the nation, the goveroment got an act of indemnity passed in June, seventeen hundred and forty-seven, granting a pardon, with certain exceptions, to all persons who had been engaged in the rebellion ; but these exceptions were so numerous as to divest the act of all pretensions to the character of grace or favour. Besides all persons attainted of high treason by act of parliament or judgment, or conviction of high treason by verdict, confession, or otherwise, upwards of eighty persons were specially excepted by name. I
• The character of Lord Lovat has been sketched in a very favourable light by his friend, Mr Drummond of Bochaldy, in a letter to Mr Edgar, secretary to the Chevalier de St George, for which see a copy in the Appendix taken from the original, among the Stuart Papers.
Vide Letter in the Appendix from the Rev. Myles Macdonell to the Chevalier de St George, dated St Amiens, 4th May, 1747, copied from the original among the Stuart Papers, in the possession of his majesty.
Among these were the earls of Traquair and Kellie, Robert Maccarty, styling himself Lord Clancarty, Sir James Stewart of Good Trees ; Sirs John Douglas, James Harrington, James Campbell, William Dunbar, and Alexander Bannerman; Archibald Stewart, late provost of Edinburgh, Chisholm of Comar, Cameron of Dungallon, Drummond of Bochaldy, Fraser of Foyers, Farquharson of Bulmarrell, Fraser of Avochnacloy, Dow Fraser of Little Ganh, Fraser of Browich, Fraser of Gortuleg, Gordon of Abochie, Grant of Glenmoriston, Hunter of Burnside, Hay younger of Rannus, Irvine of Drum, Macdonald of Barisdale, M Gregor of Glengyle, Macleod of Raasay, Gilbert Menzies, younger of Pitfodels, Moir of Stonywood, Æneas Macdonald, James Macdonald, brother to Kinlochmoidart, Macdonell of Glengary, Macdonald of Glenco, Robertson of Strowan, Robertson of Faskelly, Robertson of Blairfetty, Stuart of Kynnachin, Turner, younger of Turner-hall, &c. &c.
Among those formerly attainted and excepted in the above-mentioned act, were the following, viz. Lords Pitsligo, Elcho, Nairne, and Ogilvy, Lurd George Murray, Lord Lewis Gordon, Lord John Drum inond, — Drummond, eldest son of Lord Strathallan, the Master of Lovat, Graham of Duntroon, Sir William Gordon of Park, Gordon of Glenbucket, young Lochiel, Dr Cameron, Cameron of Tor Castle, young Clanranaid, Lochgary, young Barisdale, Macdonald of Glenco, Macpherson of Cluny, Maclachlan of Castle Lachlan, Mackinnon of Mackinnon, Stewart of Ardshiel, Lockhart, younger of Camwath, Oliphant of Gask and his eldest son, Graham of Airth, Roy Stewart, Far. quharson of Monalterye, Hay of Restalrig, &c.
Arrival of Prince Charles at Paris-Meeting with his brother - Reception at Fontaine
bleau-He returns to Paris-Admonished by his father as to his conduct in France Charles retires to Avignon-His journey to Spain-Return to Paris-Preliminarios of Aix-la-Chapelle-Suspension of arms-Charles and his father protest against the treaty-Charles ordered to quit the French territories-His refusal-Ordered by his father to comply-His arrest-Conducted out of the French dominions- Arrival at Avignon.
As soon as the French court received intelligence of the return of Charles to France, they gave orders to fit up the castle of St Antoine for his reception. After resting a day or two at Morlaix, he set off for Paris, where he arrived on the morning of the fifteenth of October, (N. S.*) He was met near Paris by his brother, and a considerable number of the nobility, who conducted him to his appointed residence. The meeting between the two brothers, who had not seen each other for nearly three years, was of a most affecting description, and the persons who were present declared that they had never before witnessed such a moving scene. Charles at first sight did not know Henry, but the latter at once knew the prince, who is described by his brother as not in the least altered in his appearance since he last saw him, only that he had “grown somewhat broader and fatter." +
Louis with his court was at this time residing at Fontainebleau, and as Charles was impatient to see him, he sent Colonel Warren thither with instructions to Colonel O'Bryen, the accredited minister of the Chevalier de St George at the court of France, to request an audience. Some difficulties were started at first by the French ministers on the subject of this demand, but the king at last consented to see Charles and his brother, but stipulated that they should preserve a sort of in
• It is to be attended to, that in alluding to Charles's proceedings on the continent the New Style is followed, and it is hardly necessary to remark that the dates of all the documents in the Appendix, written on the continent, are those of the same style. Consequently the letters of Charles and Colonel Warren, written from Morlaix, bear the date of 10th October, 1746, and not of 29th September.
+ Vide Letter in the Appendix from Henry to his father, dated from Clichy, 171b October, 1746, taken from the original among the Stuart Papers,
o ts. Loois in fact had become tired o the war, and that be right Dox widen the breach between him and the court of Loodoo by appear. ing to recognise the pretensions of the esiled family, he bad resolved Dot to receive the sons of the Chevalie at bis court as princes of England Jamas, ubo was fully aware of this policy of the Freoch coort, thas ar. go the matter with Charles, ubo naterally felt indigsant at the mode of his reseptia ; "I am far from saying bot that the king of France Light have done a great deal more for you; bat after all, we most consider the vast expenses be is at during the war, and the system he has cer. tainly laid down to himself of not treating you and your brocber as princes of Eogland, which system I own shocked me at first, and seems preposteroos in the present situation of affairs; but when one considers the uncertainty of the events of war, and that if we are not restored before a peace, the king of France cannot but continue to acknowledge the elector of Hanover as king of England, and by consequence treat us DO more as princes of England; we cannot bot own that it is wise in him, and in a certaio sense eveo kind to as, not to expose himself and us to a possibility and necessity of ceasing to treat us according to our birth, after having once done it."
If Louis had been actuated by the motive thus charitably imputed to him, the reasoning of James would have been plausible enough; but Charles, who had both before and during his expedition experienced the hollowness of the Prench policy, could not fail to perceive that his father had formed an erroneous idea of Louis's intentions. As by the treaty of Pontainebleau be had been recognised by that monarch as prince regent of Scotland, Charles had good reason to complain of the mode in which he was to be received by bis most Christian majesty ; but he repressed his feelings of disappointment on the occasion, and yielded to a necessity which it was not in his power to control. He resolved, however, to neutralize the effect which his appearance at court as a private person might have upon the people by getting up a splendid equipage, and proceeding to Fontainebleau in great state.
Accordingly, on the day fixed for his reception at court, Charles left the castle of St Antoine, accompanied by a number of his friends in coaches and on horseback. Lords Ogilvy, and Elcho, and Kelly the prince's secretary, were in the first carriage :f Charles himself, along with Lord Lewis Gordon, and old Lochiel, were in the second; two pages richly dressed sat on the outside, and ten footmen in livery walked on each side of the coach. The tbird coach contained four gentle
• Letter from O'Bryen to the Chevalier, 17th October, 1746, in the Appendix. + Later from the Chevalier to Charles, 6th January, 1747.- Stuart Papers.
The author of the “ Authentic Account of the Conduct of the Young Chevalier while in France," printed in London, 1749, says that old Glenbucket was in the first coach. This, however, is a mistake, as Glenbucket did not make his escape from Scot. land till 25th November, upwards of a month after Charles's first visit to the French court, and did not reach France till spring, 1747. See his letter to Secretary Edgar in the Appendix.
men of the prince's bed-chamber; and young Lochiel and several other gentlemen followed on horseback. The cortege was on the whole very grand; but Charles himself attracted particular attention by the superbness of his dress. His coat was of rose-coloured velvet embroidered with silver, and lined with silver tissue. His waistcoat was of rich gold brocade, with a spangled fringe set out in scollops. The cockade in his hat, and the buckles of his shoes, were studded with diamonds. The George at his bosom, and the order of St Andrew, which he wore at one of the button-holes of his waistcoat, were illustrated with large diamonds. “In fine," observes an enthusiastic eye-witness, “he glittered all over like the star which they tell you appeared at his nativity." Louis received Charles with great kindness, and, embracing him, said, “ Mon tres chere Prince, je rend grace au Ciel qui me donne le plaisir extreme, de vous arrivé en bonne santé, apres tout de fatigues et de dangers. Vous avez fait voir que toutes les grands qualités des Heros, et des Philosophes se trouvent unies en vous; et j'espere qu'un de ces jours vous receverez la recompence d'un merite si extraordinaire."* After remaining about a quarter of an hour with the king, the prince passed to the apartment of the queen, who welcomed him with every demonstration of good-will and affection. He had never been at the court of France before, and every person was extremely desirous of seeing a prince of whom they had heard so much. In retiring from the palace, the whole court crowded about Charles, and complimented him so highly upon the fame of liis exploits, that they could scarcely have testified greater joy or expressed themselves in warmer terms had the dauphin himself been engaged in the same dangerous expedition, and returned from it in safety.t Charles, it is said, afterwards returned to the palace, and supped with the king, queen, and royal family; and all his attendants were magnificently entertained at several tables which had been appointed for them, according to their rank.
Though the conduct of the French court towards Charles had been deceptive, yet it is understood that Louis was not so bad as his ministers in this respect; and besides, he appears to have entertained a warm regard for Charles personally. It is believed that Louis would have given proofs of his esteem by embarking with spirit in the cause of the exiled
•“My dearest pririce, I thank Heaven for the very great pleasure it gives me to see you returned in good health after so many fatigues and dangers. You have proved that all the great qualities of the heroes and philosophers are united in you, and I hope that you will one day receive the reward of such extraordinary merit.”
+ Authentic Account, p. 6. The writer of this account, who states that he obtained his information from an eye-witness, says that when Charles arrived at Paris, he could not bo prevailed upon to take any refreshment, but instantly proceeded to Versailles to see the king, and that though Louis was at that time engaged in council on some affairs of importance, he immediately quitted it to receive him. He then relates the interview as above stated, and then says that. Charles was afterwards publicly received at Fontainebleau in the character of the Prince regent of England, Scotland, and Ireland. It is certain, however, that the first time that Charles met Louis after his return to France was at Fontainebleau, and it is equally certain that he was never recognised at court as A British prince.
family; but he was controlled by his ministers, sbo certainly dete were serious in their professions. Of the sincerity of the queen, however, there cannot be the least doubt. She and Charles's mother had passed many of their juvenile years togetber, and had contracted a warm aitachment to each other, which had remained unaltered during the life of the latter. In Charles sbe now beheld the favourite son of her late friend, whom he strongly resembled, and she looked upon him with a maternal teoderness, which was enhanced by the reputation of his exploits, and the knowledge of the sufferings he had endured. Whenever he came to court she is said to have conversed with him for whole hours together, during which she would make himn relate his adventures to her and the ladies around ber, all of whom were frequently bathed in tears at the affecting recital.
Within a day or two after his arrival at Fontainebleau Charles wrote a letter to Louis requesting the honour of a private audience on the subject of his affairs, which appears to have been granted, as three days thereafter, namely, on the twenty-fifth of October, the prince requested another interview for the purpose of delivering into the kiog's own hands a short memoir in relation to his affairs. Unable to obtain a satisfactory answer, Charles left Fontainebleau, and took up his residence with his brotber at Clichy, in the neighbourhood of Paris. His company was much sought after by the fashionable circles of that gay metropolis, but be kept himself comparatively retired. He appeared at the opera for the first time on the thirtietb of October, and was received by the audience with clapping of hands, which continued till the commencement of the opera, and was renewed at the conclusion.t
From Clichy Charles despatched a letter of condolence to the king of Spain on the death of the late king, his father. He stated that no person had greater reason than he had to regret such an event, as that monarch had always given him important tokens of his friendship, and particularly during his stay in Scotland. He flattered himself that this friendship would be hereditary on the part of his Catholic majesty, that the latter would continue the same good intentions towards him which the late king bad entertained, and that he would give him such aid as be might judge proper for recovering the just rights of his family, and establishing a firm alliance between the two crowns.
Though surrounded by men of integrity, who had suffered proscription for his sake, Charles does not appear to have consulted any of them in his difficulties, nor to have honoured them with the least share of his confidence. Shortly after his return to France he wrote to his tutor,
• Both these letters will be found in the Appendix. + Letter from O'Bryen to the Chevalier de St George, 31st October, 1746, among the Stuart Papers, Appendix.
1 See this letter in the Appendix, taken from the original draught in Charles's own band among the Stuart Papers.