Applied Mechanics: An Elementary General Introduction to the Theory of Structures and Machines

الغلاف الأمامي
Macmillan, 1890 - 541 من الصفحات
 

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المحتويات

24
48
Straining Actions due to any Vertical Load
54
Application to a Vessel Floating in Water
60
CounterBracing of Girders
68
Framework in General
74
Stress due to the Weight of a Structure
81
Introductory Remarks
91
ARTICLE PAGE
93
Connection of Two Lower Pairs by Higher Pairing
122
Shifting of Belts Fusee Chain
129
Wheel Chains involving Screw Pairs
136
Path of Contact the Pitch Circle
141
Cams with Continuous Action
149
ARTICLE IAOt
156
Principle of Work
175
Internal and External Work
181
Periodic Motion of Machines
187
Kinetic Energy of the Moving Parts of a Machine
193
Dynamics of the Steam Engine
199
Fluctuation of Speed Fly Wheels
208
Construction of Curves of Crank Effort for any given Indicator Diagram
216
ARTICLE TAQE
221
Efficiency of Mechanism by Exact Method
228
EFFICIENCY OF HIGhER PaIRING
234
Friction of Toothed Wheels and Cams
240
Chapter XLIncomplete Constraint Straining Actions on Machines
246
centrifugal regulators
253
Parabolio Governors
257
ARTICLE PAGE
259
Introductory Remarks
271
Thin Pipes and Spheres under Internal Fluid Pressure
277
Determination of the Position of the Neutral Axis
283
Proportion of I Beams for Equal Strength
289
Deflection and Slope of Beams
296
Stiffness of a Beam
302
Tension or Compression Compounded with Bending Crushing by Bending ARTICLE PAGE 172 General Formula for the Stress due to a Thrust or a ...
309
Effect of a Thrust on a Loaded Beam
311
Straining Actions due to Forces normal to the Section
312
Manner in which a Pillar orushes Formula for Lateral Deviation
315
Actual Crushing Load
316
Gordons Formula
318
Collapse of Flues
320
Examples
321
Distinction between Tangential Stress and Normal Stress Equality of Tangential Stress on Planes at Right Angles
323
Tangential Stress equivalent to a Pair of Equal and Opposite Normal Stresses Simple Distorting Stress
324
Torsion of a Shaft
327
Diameter of a Shaft to transmit a given Power
329
Distance apart of Bearings
330
Web of a Beam of I Section
331
Distribution of Shearing Stress on the Section of n Beam
333
Deflection due to Shearing
334
Weakening of Beams bj Insufficient Resistance to Longitudinal Shearing of the Web
335
Examples
338
Impact 192 Preliminary Remarks General Equation of Impact
340
Augmentation of Stress by Impact in Perfectly Elastic Material
341
Sudden Application of a Load
343
Action of a Gust of Wind on a Vessel
344
Impact at High Velocities Effect of Inertia
345
Vibrating Loads Synchronism
347
Impact when the Limits of Elasticity are not exceeded Resilience
349
Examples
350
Stress Strain and Elasticity section i stress 199 Ellipse of Stress
352
Principal Stresses Axes of Stress
354
Varying Stress Lines of Stress Bending anil Twisting of a Shaft
355
ABTICLB PAGE 202 Straining Actions on the Web of an I Beam
356
Remarka on Stress in General
357
Examples
358
Flow of Solids
373
Real and Apparent Strength of Ductile Metals
377
Increase of Hardness by Stress beyond the Elastic Limit
378
Compression of Ductile Materials
379
Bending beyond the Elastic Limit
381
Crushing of Rigid Materials
383
Breaking of Cast Iron Beams
384
Theories of Compound Strength
386
Connection between the Coefficients of Strength for Shearing and Tension
387
Wdhlers Experiments on Alternate Bending and Twisting
388
Influence of Fluctuation of Stress
390
Impact
391
Factors of Safety and Coefficients of Working Strength
392
Values of Coefficients
393
Fibrous Materials Ropes
394
Tables of Strength
395
Description of Plate VIII
399
TRANSMISSION AND CONVERSION OF ENERGY BY FLUIDS
401
Introductory Remarks
403
Elementary Principles of Hydraulics 232 Velocity due to a given Head
405
Hydraulic Resistances in General
407
Discharge from Small Orifices
408
Incomplete Contraction
410
Head relatively to Moving Orifices
412
Distribution of Energy in an Undisturbed Stream Vortex Motion
414
Viscosity
416
Surface Friction in General
417
Discharge of Pipes
420
Open Channels
421
Loss of Energy by Eddies and Broken Water
422
Bends in a Pipe Surface Friction
427
Resistance of Deeply Immersed Bodies Ships at Low Speeds
428
Direct Impulse and Reaction
432
Oblique Aotion Curved Surfaces
433
Impulse and Reaction of Water in a Closed Passage
435
Examples
436
Hydraulic Machines 253 Hydraulic Motors in General
439
Hydraulic Pressure Machines in Steady Motion
440
Hydraulic Pressure Machines in Unsteady Motion
442
Examples of Hydraulic Pressure Machines
445
Hydraulic Brakes
446
Transmission of Energy by Hydraulic Pressure
449
Pumps
450
Examples
453
Impulse and Reaction Machines in General
454
Angular Impulse and Momentum
457
Reaction Wheels
458
Turbine Motors
460
Turbine Pumps
464
265a Approximate Investigation of the Efficiency of a Centrifugal Pump
466
Limitation of Diameter of Wheel
468
Propellers
469
Examples
472
Pneumatics and Thermodynamics 269 Preliminary Remarks
475
Transmitted Energy
477
Cycle of Operations in a Pneumatic Motor Mechanical Efficiency
479
Pneumatio Pumps
480
Indicator Diagrams
481
Cycle of Thermal Operations in a Heat Engine
483
Mechanical Equivalent of Heat
484
Thermal Efficiency
486
ARTICLE PAGE
487
APPENDIX
507
Stiffness and Strength of Materials
514
B Organization of the Classes in Engineering and Naval Archi
527
ERRATA
541

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الصفحة 68 - ... is inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the point from the source.
الصفحة 323 - Fig.188. tively to the other. Such a stress is called tangential or shearing stress, being the stress called into action by shearing. Let us return to the case of the stretched bar carrying a load P (Fig. 138). On a transverse section of the bar only a normal stress is produced. Now suppose we take an oblique section, whose normal makes an angle 6 with the axis of the bar, and let us resolve the force P into two components, one perpendicular and the other parallel to the section. The normal component...
الصفحة 507 - Intensity. — The word STRESS has been adopted as a general term to comprehend various forces which are exerted between contiguous bodies, or parts of bodies, and which are distributed over the surface of contact of the masses between which they act.
الصفحة 221 - F/Xis called the co-efficient of friction and will be denoted by /. The value of / depends on the nature and condition of the surfaces in contact, whether rough or smooth, dry or lubricated. Under certain circumstances and within certain limits it is independent of the area of the surfaces in contact and of the velocity of sliding. These statements may be called the " ordinary " laws of friction. The evidence on which they rest and the limitations to their truth will be considered hereafter; for...
الصفحة 287 - The moment of inertia of an area about any axis is, therefore, determined by adding to the moment of inertia of the area about a parallel axis through the centre of gravity the product of the area into the square of the distance between the two axes.
الصفحة 512 - Force is an action between two bodies, either causing or tending to cause change in their relative rest or motion.
الصفحة 485 - This is expressed in formal terms by the annexed statement of the SECOND LAW of Thermodynamics. Heat cannot pass from a cold body to a hot one by a purely self•acting process. (Clausius...
الصفحة 419 - Columns A give the power of the speed to which the resistance is approximately proportional ; columns B give the mean resistance per square foot of the whole surface of a board of the lengths stated in the table ; columns C give the resistance of a square foot of surface at the distance sternward from the cutwater stated in the heading.
الصفحة iv - What are the conditions of a science? and when may any subject be said to enter the scientific stage ? I suppose when the facts of it begin to resolve themselves into groups ; when phenomena are no longer isolated experiences, but appear in connection and order ; when, after certain antecedents, certain consequences are uniformly seen to follow ; when facts enough have been collected to furnish a basis for conjectural explanation, and when conjectures have so far ceased to be utterly vague, that...
الصفحة 520 - If the beam be fixed at one end and loaded at the other, there will be shearing as well as bending on all sections.

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