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The Christian church.

The collective body (1) of those who have received (2) the Christian doctrines, together with all those who are to be qualified (3) for the reception of them, is termed "the church of God and of Christ" (4); that is (5) the people or family of God and of Christ (6); who worship Christ, and in so doing, God as their Lord (7), and who are supported and governed by his particular providence.


I. The church not sectional.-1 Cor. 1: 2. Paul embraces in one the christian congregation in Corinth, and all chris

tians in all places, εν παντι τοπῳ. John 10:16, μια ποίμνη one flock. 1 Cor. 12 : 12 &c, παντες εις ἑν σωμα εβαπτισθημεν ειτε Ιουδαιοι, ειτε Ελληνες we are all baptized into one body, whether we are Jews or Greeks. Rom. 12: 4, oi nollov ¿v σωμα εσμεν εν Χριστῳ we many are one body in Christ. Eph. 4: 4-6.

II. Subject continued.-In other words, all those who are called (xλnto 1 Cor. 1: 2), in the sense of this phrase which is given in § 71. Ill. 2; or all those who in the time of the apostles, could not be reckoned among the Jews or Gentiles, who belonged not to the lovdanois na 'Elinor (1 Cor. 10: 32), are sometimes called "the church."

III. Membership of children.-Comp. § 112. Little children were included also among the ancient people of God. Gen. 17: 10-14. Children eight days old, were to receive circumcision, which was the mark of those who belonged to the people of God, or which was a sign of the covenant between God and his people.

IV. The name CHURCH.-The appellation & xn λ ŋ o i a (or church), without any adjunct, occurs 1 Cor. 12: 28. Eph. 1:22. 3: 10. Phil. 3: 6. The phrase ɛxxλnaia dɛov or tov εov church of God, is applied to the whole christian church (1 Cor. 10: 32. 15: 9), and to a single christian church. 1 Cor. 11:22, 16. 1:2. 1 Tim. 3: 5. The church is termed "church

[1 Various definitions have been given of the church visible and invisible. The following, which differs from any that the writer remembers to have seen, may perhaps have some claim to clearness and precision.

I. The visible church of Christ is the collective body of those who profess the christian religion; consisting of all those who have been admitted to membership by baptism, and have not been deprived of it by excommunication.

II. The true or invisible church is the collective body of all those, of every religious denomination in the world, who are in a state of grace. S.]

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of Christ," exxiηola Xocorov, in Matth. 16: 18, I will build my church. Eph. 3: 21, the church in (or of) Jesus Christ. 5: 23. She is called "the church of God and Christ," or, which is the same thing, "in God the Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ." 1 Thess. 1: 1, and 2 Thess. 1: 1. Of the same import is the phrase, "the churches of God which are in Christ Jesus," 1 Thess. 2: 14, where εv, which corresponds to the Hebrew expresses the dative, ecclesia Christo sacra, i. e. ecclesia Christi. Thus, in Jude v. 1, we read "the christians, xλnto, are dedicated to God the Father,” εν θεῳ πατρι ἡγιασμένοι, and are preserved for Jesus Christ, i. e. they remain christians (belonging to Christ). In short, christians are here termed "a people consecrated to God the Father, and Jesus Christ." Thus the words, (John 17: 11,) τηρησον αυτους εν τῳ ονοματι σου may be translated thus, "Preserve them, O Father, (as thine) for thyself."

On the philosophic view of a Church or of an Ethical Polity; that is, of a public union of men for moral purposes under a moral Lawgiver and Judge, see Kant's Religionslehre, 1st ed. p. 123–134; Stäudlin "Ueber den Begrif der Kirche, und Kirchengeschichte," in the Götting Theol. Bibl. Vol. 1, p.600— 653; and Stapffer "De natura, conditore, et incrementis reipublicae ethicae," Bern, 1797, Dissert. 1.

On the insufficiency of mere natural religion, for the foundation of a church and social religious worship, see Stäudlin "On the public worship of natural religion;""Beiträge" to the philosophy and history of religion and morality, Vol. 1, No. VIII.

V. Subject continued.-The ancient people of God also bore the name "church of God," exxinoia [p] xvolov. Deut. 23: 2 &c, 8. Eckermann remarks, that this expression has a peculiar force in Deut. ch. 23, because the context relates to

1 Dissert. I. in Libros N. T. histor. p. 89. 2 Theol. Beitr. Vol. 2. Pt. I. p. 57.

persons who are to be excluded from connexion with the people of God; and that Paul may also have used the expression (1 Cor. 1: 2) εxxinoia dɛov “church of God," with an emphatic reference to the incestuous person (ch. 5), whom he pronounces unworthy to be a member of the church. From this ancient people of God, the new people originated.1 Hence the ancient name of the Israelites descended to Christians or the new people of God, which consists of the better and more genuine portion of the Israelites (Rom. 9: 6, ov лаvtes oi e§ loραηλ, ούτοι Ισραηλ. 2: 28, 29, δ εν τῷ κρυπτῳ Ιουδαιος-περιroun xaodias), and an addition of Gentiles. Luke 1: 32 &c, he shall reign over the house of Jacob. Acts 15: 16, I will rebuild the tabernacle of David. Phil. 3: 3, we are the circumcision. Rom. 4: 11, 12, 16, the seed of Abraham which is of faith. Gal. 3:29, If ye are Christ's, then are ye Abraham's seed. All these appellations are figurative, and signify the new people of God, which was prefigured by the old. Dissert. de notione regni coelestis, § VI.

VI. The church is called" the people of God and of Christ. Acts 15: 14, a people for the name of God. v. 17, all the gentiles over whom the name of God is called. 1 Pet. 2: 9 &c, ye are a holy nation, a people of God. 1: 14, as obedient children. v. 15, 16, be ye holy as he who hath called you is holy. Tit. 2: 14, that he might purify [consecrate] unto himself a peculiar people. 1 Tim. 3: 15, in the house of God, which is the church of the living God. Heb. 3: 2, 3, 6, we are the house of Christ. The ancient people of God, from which the new is derived,

1 Luke 24: 47, κηρυχθηναι εις παντα τα έθνη, αρξαμενον απο *Iεqovσaλnμ should be proclaimed among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem. Rom. 11: 12-24, the gentile converts are called aɣqiɛhaios εyκεντρισθείς εις καλλιελαιον. 15:27. Acts 15: 16.

2 Eph. 2: 19, ουκετι ξενοι και παροικοι, αλλα συμπολίται των aylov εotε ye are no longer guests and foreigners, but fellow citizens of

she saints.

and to which there is an evident reference in Acts 15: 16. 1 Pet. 1: 16. Heb. 2: 5, also receives this name. Compare 2

called after my name, with Acts 15: 17, 14; and Ex. 19: 6,

my people which is עַמִּי אֲשֶׁר נִקְרָא שְׁמִי עֲלֵיהֶם 7:14 .Chron

-a kingdom of priests and a holy peo מַמְלֶכֶת כֹּהֲנִים וְגוֹי קָדוֹשׁ

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Of similar

ple, with 1 Pet. 2: 9. The expression oxos xvotov the house
of the Lord, which is applied to the new people of God (1 Tim.
3: 15. Heb. 3: 2-4, 6), is, according to the Alexandrian Co-
dex, used by the LXX (Deut. 23: 1, where the Hebrew is p
) of the children of Israel; whereas the Vatican Ms. has
εκκλησιαν κυριου. "House of God or "people of God” oi-
κος θεου-λαος θεου (comp. Heb. 3 : G -8 with 4: 7—9) are
synonymous, and both signify "the family of God.
import are the following expressions of the Old Testament.-1.
Ex. 4:23, Israel, my (God's) firstborn son.-2. Hos.
11: 1, " my son.-3. Is.1: 2-4, children of God. Deut.
32: 5, 6, he is thy Father.--4. Numb. 12: 7, ne house. In v.
14, God calls himself, Father of the house to which Moses and
his sister Miriam belonged.1--5. The term dyor holy, when it
is used without adjunct (as 2 Cor. 1: 1 and 1 Cor. 14: 33. 6:
1. v. 4, —exuλnoca), signifies nothing else than a people con-
secrated to God and Christ, or a people of God and Christ,
άɣiaoμevoi ev Xoiro Inoov 1 Cor. 1: 2. Comp. Illust. 4 sup.
Thus, the ancient people of God is called "a people consecra-
ted to God,” (12 wing-by Ex. 19: 6. Deut. 7: 6. and 14:
2), in opposition to idolatrous nations.2

VII. The true church worship Christ.-Eph. 5: 24, the church is subject to Christ. Col. 2: 19. 1 Cor. 1: 2. Comp. $42. John 10: 3-5, 14, I am known of mine. v. 27, my sheep hear my voice--and follow me. It must indeed be ad

1 Vide Storr's Comm. on Heb. 3: 2, note l. 2 Vide Dissert. I. in Ep. ad Col. not. 42.

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