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quainted with the news of this general pardon (3), nevertheless do not believe it; either because they do not institute a particular and impartial investigation of its truth, and, on the contrary, even sedulously shun its evidences; or, at least, because they suppress those religious feelings and convictions which were excited in their minds by the truths of Scripture and the immediate influence of God (§ 115). By "receiving the offered pardon," is meant a sincere belief that the representations of Scripture and the promises connected with this scheme of mercy are true, and an application of these general promises to ourselves (4), with the approbation of our understanding and the cordial assent of the feelings of our heart (5). The meaning of the proposition, "we are justified by faith" (6), is therefore this," Although we are guilty beings (7), we shall be treated (8) by God the Judge (Rom, 8: 33) as if we were innocent, nay, even as if we were positively morally good (9); we shall be delivered from future punishments (10) and even from the fear of them (11); we shall obtain pardon of sin (12), and even be blessed (13) with the hope of an exalted, glorious salvation (14), a hope to which sinful beings can, of themselves, never lay claim; -but all this is suspended on the condition (15), that we believe (16) the doctrine concerning the salvation purchased for us by Christ (17), and the appointments of God in reference to it, that we repose our hope and confidence (18) in Christ (19), and particularly in his death upon the cross (20), by which he purchased salvation for us-that is, that we put our trust in God, who provided (21) for our salvation by this particular scheme of mercy (§ 75. Ill. 1), that we acknowledge this love of

God and of Christ, and be impressed with the deepest and most lively sense of it (22).


I. Rom. 5: 9, being justified by his blood. § 88-91.

II. Rom. 5: 18," By the justification of one, justification of life was extended to all men." As our Lord Jesus Christ merited justification by his obedience unto the death of the cross, and by his resurrection and ascension to glory, we were at the same time pronounced justified for his sake; and justified in such a manner, that we are not only delivered from punishments, but have also a glorious salvation (Swns life v. 18) promised unto us, and are permitted to rejoice in the special favour of God (v. 11).1

III. For the proof of this position, see § 71. Ill. 5; and the work on the death of Christ, p. 685-687.

IV. We must appropriate to ourselves these doctrines and promises. Rom. 6: 11. (See Ill. 5.) Gal. 2: 19, for I, through the law, am dead to the law. Phil. 3: 8 &c. 1 Tim. 1: 15, Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners, of whom I am the chief.

V. Our understanding and heart must approve and embrace the plan. Rom. 6:11, likewise reckon [loyiŠeσđe, consider, judge] ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin. 2 Cor. 5: 14, we thus judge. It is, nevertheless, possible that a genuine and saving faith (Luke 18: 14) may be accompanied with fear and a sense of guilt, and therefore manifest itself rather by an ardent longing after grace, than by a placid serenity of soul.

1 See the work on the Design of the death of Jesus, p. 637.

VI. Justification by faith is taught-Rom. 5: 1. 3:30, 28. Gal. 2: 16, δικαιούσθαι εκ πιστεως (δια της πίστεως, πιστει, δια πιστεως Ιησου Χριστού).

VII. It is sinners that are justified. Rom. 4:5, the "ungodly" (rov aoεẞn) are justified. 3: 22-24, for all have sinned-being justified freely (i. e. gratuitously, dwoɛav) by his (God's) grace.

VIII. Nature of justification-a forensic act.-God justifies us or pronounces1 us just, dizaio, when he does not impute unto us the sins of which he knows we are guilty (Rom. 4:5), and does not inflict the punishment which these crimes deserved; but, on the contrary, by an unmerited judicial act of pardon, imputes to us an innocence and righteousness, which authorize us to expect a great salvation, (δωρεαν τη αυτου χαQiri Rom. 3: 24); although he well knows how void we are of the proper moral character (dixaloovvn)3—he justifies us when we come under a sense of our own misery and want of personal merit (idia dixaιoovvy Rom. 10: 3. Phil. 3:9), take refuge in the offered grace; and he accepts this our confidence in his grace in place of that innocence and holiness which we ought to possess (πιστις λογίζεται εις δικαιοσυνην),4 but of which we

1 Ainaιovv corresponds to the Hebrew P in Hiphil or Piel; and signifies, to cause one to be regarded as just (Sinalov aпogαivεiv as the LXX use it in Job 32: 2). See the Dissert. de sensu vocis dinalos

¡ XX.

2 Rom. 4: 7, to forgive-to hide-not to impute one's sins, aquεval— επικαλυπτειν τας αμαρτιας i. q. μη λογιζεσθαι. v. 8 compared with 2 Cor. 5: 19. 2 Tim. 4: 16.

3 Rom. 3: 23, ύστερουντες της δόξης του θεου “ they want [are without] the approbation of God." Comp. John 12: 43. and the Dissert. sup. cit. XVI.

4 Rom. 4: 5, 9, 3, 22, 23 &c. Thus, also, Teller, in his Lexicon of the New Testament, explains this expression: "the confident trust of a converted sinner in the paternal mercy of God, for the pardon of his past

are void; when he treats us as innocent and morally good beings, when he declares us to be exempted from the punishment of those sins which we actually did commit, holds forth to us the hope of an unmerited salvation, and thus by acts1 declares us innocent and righteous, dizaios. Accordingly, that act of the divine favour by which guilty men are acquitted and, notwithstanding their want of personal merit, are treated as morally worthy and meritorious, is, in the New Testament, termed dizoon, as in 2 Cor. 3: 9. Rom. 10: 4, 10. 8: 10. John 16: 8, 10. Heb. 5: 13;2 or properly dizaıoovvn EK ✪EO Y or “the righteousness of (from) God," as it is termed in Phil. 3:9; or more briefly, dixaloovvη cov, that is, a righteousness or worthiness not founded on the personal merit of men, but imputed to them by the free grace of God, and as a gift of God. Rom. 5: 19. 1: 17. 3:21.3 In these passages, dizaioovvn righteousness, is synonymous with dixaiwoes justification; comp. Rom. 3: 21 with v. 24, 26, 28, 30.

sins, is imputed to him for merit, is accepted, instead of that merit which he does not possess. The question here is not, What is the real merit of man? but What has God promised to accept instead of it ?"

1 See the Dissert. sup. cit. § XX, XXVI. Aixαiovv sometimes signifies" to declare by deeds, that a person is righteous," as in Ezek. 16: 51, Ecclus. 31: 5. The deeds by which God pronounces the believer just. are, the assurance of liberation from punishment and of salvation through that Gospel which he has received in faith, and the communication of that Spirit who produces salutary changes of both an internal and external nature in man.

2 In 2 Cor. 3: 9, the word "righteousness" is contrasted with “condemnation ;" and in Rom. 10: 10, it corresponds to the word "salvation.” See the Dissert. sup. cit. XIII. The passage, John 16: 10, contains the proposition, "we owe our liberation from punishment to Christ's going to the Father, i. e. to his death and the glorification which succeeded it."

3 Δικαιοσύνη εκ θεου=δικαιοσυνη απο θεου-εκ=απο, and both=2, see 1 Cor. 7: 7. In the expression "the righteousness of God," the genitive cov, "of God," expresses the cause just as the preposition

The signification of the phrase "to impute righteousness" Royisεodai Sinaιoovvηv Rom. 4: 6, 11, is discussed in the Dissert. de sensu vocis dinaios XIV-XVI. The following are the prominent ideas of these sections.-1. Sıxacoovvn righteousness is never perfectly synonymous with owrnqua salvation; e. g. Rom. 9: 30. 10: 4. The former does, indeed, in some passages include owingiav or Swny salvation or life, but it at the same time embraces also the condition of this oornolav, that is, integrity. Just as this remark is evidently true in reference to the phrase "the righteousness of the law," dixaoovvy ǹ ex voμov, so also it is applicable to the opposite phrase "the righteousness of faith, ǹ dixaιoovvn ý ex niorεws.-2. The phrase 66 righteousness of faith," δικαιοσυνη πιστεως, is in many cases distinguished from "life" Son. Rom. 5: 17, 21. 8: 10. 1: 17, the just shall live by faith.--3. "To impute any thing to a person,” λογίζεσθαι τινι τι or εις τι, is indeed used to designate the active (remunerative or punitive) imputation of excellencies which are really possessed, or of actions which were really performed, as in Ps. 106: 30. Levit. 7: 18. 1 Cor. 13: 5; but it is also used to express an active imputation of excellencies. which the person does not possess, and of acts which he did not perform. According to the latter sense, the phrase "to impute righteousness to any one,” λογίζεσθαι δικαιοσυνην τινι, signifies to impute [attribute] to a person a righteousness which he does not possess, so that he shall be treated as a righteous person;" and "to count (or impute) faith for righteousness, λογίζεσθαι πιστιν εις δικαιοσυνην, means to impute faith

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to an individual as if it were a meritorious act-to account faith as a virtue deserving of reward." (es or the Heb. ?=ws. Rom. 2:26. Job. 39: 16. Isaiah 29: 16, 17. It is only in this

εx does in the other phrase. Thus also, the phrases dinaιoovvy пioTEως (Rom. 4: 11), and δικαιοσυνη εκ or δια πιστεως, are synonymous. Rom. 1: 17. 3:32.

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