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burning, standing afar off for the fear of her torment, saying, Alas, alas! that great city Babylon, that mighty city! for in one hour is thy judgment come. And the merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over her; for no man buyeth their merchandise any more. The merchandise of gold, and silver, and precious stones, and of pearls, and fine linen, and purple, and silk, and scarlet, and all thyine wood, and all manner of vessels of ivory, and all manner of vessels of most precious wood, and of brass, and iron, and marble, and cinnamon, and odours, and ointments, and frankincense, and wine, and oil, and fine flour, and wheat, and beasts, and sheep, and horses, and chariots, and slaves, and souls of men. And the fruits that thy soul lusted after are departed from thee, and all things which were dainty and goodly are departed from thee, and thou shalt find them no more at all. The merchants of these things, which were made rich by her, shall stand afar off for the fear of her torment, weeping and wailing, and saying, Alas, alas! the great city, that was clothed in fine linen, and purple, and scarlet, and decked with gold, and precious stones, and pearls! For in one hour so great riches is come to nought. And every ship-master, and all the company in ships, and sailors, and as many as trade by sea, stood afar off, and cried, when they saw the smoke of her burning, saying, What city is like unto this great city! And they cast dust on their heads, and cried, weeping and wailing, saying, Alas, alas! that great city, wherein were made rich all that had ships in the sea by reason of her costliness! for in one hour is she made desolate. Rejoice over her, thou heaven, and ye holy apostles and prophets; for God hath avenged you on her. And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cast it into the sea, saying Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown down, and shall be found no more at all. And the voice of harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, and trumpets, shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft he be, shall be found any more in thee; and

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the sound of a millstone shall be heard no more at all in thee. And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee; and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee; for thy merchants were the great men of the earth; for by thy sorceries were all nations deceived. And in her was found the blood of prophets, and of saints, and of all that was slain upon the earth.”

Little comment is necesssary upon that which is manifestly unfulfilled. But the sudden judgment, announced in this,' and other parts of Scripture, is peculiarly striking. It is in one hour, with violence; and it is described as a millstone thrown into the sea.


The circumstances which attended the taking of ancient Babylon were, beyond all question, ordained as a typical representation of what should come to pass upon the mystic Babylon; and the drying up of the Euphrates is a feature common to both. That ancient city received its supplies, and derived a considerable portion of its strength, from the waters of the Euphrates, which flowed through the city. But, in the day appointed for her destruction, those waters were dried up they were turned from their course by the besiegers, and the channel of the river became dry; and thus the soldiers of Darius entered, and became masters of the city. The prince of that illfated capital, knew nothing of the drawing off the waters, neither did he suspect the danger which was

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so near. In his fancied security, he was celebrating an impious feast unto his idol-gods; and, as if to fill up the measure of his iniquity, he had ventured to call for the sacred vessels of Jehovah's temple, and to use them for his unhallowed rites. Whilst he was thus at the banquet, the hand-writing upon the wall troubled him; and the prophet of the Lord declared to him, that God had numbered his kingdom, and finished it and in that night was Belshazzar, the king of the Chaldeans, slain; and Darius, the Median, took the kingdom.-Dan. vi.

Chapters 1. and li. of Jeremiah relate the fall of Babylon, but it is not possible to restrict their meaning to the fall of the ancient city. Rev. xviii. repeats the words of Jeremiah, and it will tend to elucidate the subject, if the words of that prophet are adverted to: for he instructs us, that when Babylon is overthrown, "the children of Israel shall come, and the children of Judah together, going and weeping: they shall go and seek the Lord their God.". "And in those days, and at that time, saith the Lord, the iniquity of Israel shall be sought for, and there shall be none; and the sins of Judah, and they shall not be found: for I will pardon them whom I reserve.”— Jerem. 1. 4, 10. This cannot but refer to the latterday deliverance of the spiritual seed, both Gentile and

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Jew and the passages are not to be applied to the ancient city only. Verses 30 and 31 describe the messengers who follow one after the other, to announce to the Prince of Babylon, that his enemies have made a lodgment within his walls; "One post shall run to meet another, and one messenger to meet another, to shew the king of Babylon that his city is taken at one end, and that the passages are stopped. And the reeds they have burned with fire, and the men of war are affrighted."

In verse 35, the Church calls for vengeance upon Babylon. "The violence done to me, and to my flesh, be upon Babylon-shall the inhabitants of Zion say; and my blood upon the inhabitants of Chaldeashall Jerusalem say."

V. 46 intimates, that an alarm shall be given, before the final judgment comes to pass. Possibly, the

alarm alluded to, was sounded at the French Revolution. "And lest your heart faint, and ye fear for the rumour that shall be heard in the land; a rumour shall both come one year, and after that, in another year, shall come a rumour, and violence in the land, ruler against ruler. Therefore, behold, the days come, that I will do judgment upon all the graven images of Babylon: and her whole land shall be con

founded, and all her slain shall fall in the midst of her."


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These Scriptures mutually reflect light upon each other; and, as their accomplishment proceeds, they will doubtless be more perfectly understood. And here the commentary must close: for, as the remaining chapters of the Apocalypse reveal the glories of the new dispensation, which cannot possibly be understood until it comes to pass, it were vain to attempt to treat of them, otherwise than in general terms.

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