A Manual of Applied Mechanics

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C. Griffin, 1870 - 698 من الصفحات
 

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المحتويات

Curved Rod
57
Examples of Centres of Gravity
63
CONTENTS IX
65
Classes of Stress
69
Moment of Bending Stress
75
Page
90
sing Shear
100
Ellipse of StressProblems
107
GeneralProblemolInternalEqui
113
Equilibrium of different Fluids
119
Pressure on an Immersed Plane
125
Chapter VIOn Stable and Unstable Equilibrium Page I Paga 137 Stable and Unstable Equilibrium I 128 Stability of a Filed Body
128
THEORY OF STRUCTURES Chapter IDefinitions and Genseal Principles StructuresPiecesJoints 129 131 Conditions of Equilibrium of a SupporterFo...
129
Stability Strength and Stiffness
130
1SS Resultant Gross Load 181 I
131
Equilibrium and Stability of Frame 137 Frame
132
Strut
133
Beam under Inclined Forces
134
Load supported by three Parallel Forces
135
Frame of Two BarsEquilibrium
136
Treatment of Distributed Loads
137
Triangular Frame under Parallel Forces 188
138
Polygonal FrameEquilibrium
139
Open Polygonal Frame
140
Polygonal Frame under Parallel Forces
141
Open Polygonal Frame under Parallel Forces
142
Rigidity of a Trass
144
Bar common to several Frames
145
Compound Trasses
148
Compound Trusses
149
Resistance of Frame at a Section
150
Halflattice Girder any Load
153
Halflattice Girder Uniform Load
156
Lattice Girder any Load
160
Lattice Girder Uniform Load
161
Transformation of Frames
162
Equilibrium of a Cord
163
Cord under Parallel Loads
164
Cord under uniform Vertical Load164
165
Suspension Bridge with Vertical Rods
168
Flexible Tie
169
Suspension Bridge with Sloping Rods
171
Extrados and Intrados
173
Cord with Horizontal Extrados
175
Catenary
177
Centre of Gravity of a Flexible Structure
180
Linear Arches or Ribs
183
Elliptical Arches for Uniform Pressures
184
Distorted Elliptic Arch
186
No Centre of Percussion 522
188
Arches for Normal Pressure in general
189
Hydrostatic Arch see also 319a
190
Geostatic Arches
196
Stereostatic Arch
199
Pointed Arches
203
Approximate Hydrostatic and Geostatic Arches
207
Friction distinguished from Adhesion
209
Angle of Repose
210
Table of Coefficients of Friction and Angles of Repose
211
Frictional Stabilityof Plane Joints2U 194 Frictional Stability of Earth
212
Mass of Earth with Plane Surface214
214
Principle of Least Resistance
215
Earth Loaded with its ownWeight216
216
Pressure of Earth against a Ver tical Plane
218
Supporting Power of Earth Foundations
219
Abutting Power of Earth
220
Table of Examples
221
Frictional Tenacity or Bond of Masonry and Brickwork
222
Friction of Screws Keys and Wedges
226
Stability at a Plane Joint
229
Abutments classed 286
235
Dams or ReservoirWalls
243
Retaining Walls in general
249
Chapter IILStrength and Stipfness
270
Displacements
276
Cubic Elasticity
285
J85 Unequal Distribution of
289
Thick Hollow Sphere
295
Explanation of Table of Resist
299
Pressure
304
Limitations
306
On Resistance to Bending and CrossBreaking 283 Shearing Force and Bending Moment
307
Beams Fixed at one end only
310
Moments of Flexure in terms of Load and Length 811
311
Uniform Moment of Flexure Railway Carriage Axles 812
312
Transverse Strength of Beams in General
315
Transverse Strength in Terms of Breadth and Depth
316
Modulus of Rupture of Cast Iron Beams
318
Section of Equal Strength for Cast Iron Beams
319
Beams of Uniform Strength
321
Proof Deflection of Beams 822
323
Deflection found by Graphic Con struction
326
Proportion of the greatest Depth
327
of a Beam to the Span 827
327
Slope and Deflection of a Beam under any load
328
Deflection with Uniform Moment
330
Suddenlyapplied Transverse Load
332
Beam Fixed at both ends
333
Beam Fixed at one end and Sup ported at both
338
Shearing Stress in Beams 838
342
Partiallyloaded Beam
344
Allowance for Weight of Beam
346
Limiting Length of Beam 847
347
Sloping Beam
348
Elastic Curve 34ft
349
319a Hydrostatic Arch
353
Angle of Torsion of a Cylindrical Axle
356
Resilience of a Cylindrical Axle
357
Axles not Circular in Section
358
Teeth of Wheels
359
On Crushing by Bending
360
Introductory Remarks 3C0 828 StrengthoffronPillarsandStruts
361
Vaned Rate of Variation of Velo
362
Connecting Rods Piston Rods
363
Wrought Iron Framework
364
Sides of Plate Iron Girders
365
On Compound Girders Frames and Bridges 336 Compound Girders in General
366
Page
368
HalfLattice and Lattice Beams 3G9 339 Bowstring Girder
369
Stiffened Suspension Bridges
370
Ribbed Arches
376
Internal Friction
377
PRINCIPLES OF KINEMATICS OR THE COMPARISON OF MOTIONS 847 Division of the Subject 879
379
Motion of a Pair of Points
380
Fixed Point and Moving Point
381
Uniform Velocity 854 Uniform Motion 382
382
Uniform Motion of several Points 355 Motion of Three Points 888
383
city
387
Varying Deviation 888
388
Comparison of Varied Motions
389
Curvature of Epitrochoids 391 Equal and Opposite Parallel Ro tations combined 392 Rotations about Intersecting Axes combined 393 Rolling Cones ...
390
Axis of Rotation 890
391
Relative Motion of a pair of Points in a Rotating Body 892
392
Comparative Motions of two Points relatively to an Axis 893
393
Combined Rotations and Translations 381 Property of all Motions of Rigid Bodies
394
Division of the Subject
399
Motions of Flexible Cords 400 General Principles
408
Motions classed
409
Motions ofFbadssqf Constant Density 403 Velocity and Flow
410
Principle of Continuity
411
Radiating Current
412
Unsteady Motion
413
Steady Motion
414
Unsteady Motion
415
Wave
416
Motions of Fluids of Varying Density 418 Flow of Volume and Flow of Mass
417
Stream
418
Bevel Wheels
428
NonCircular Wheels
429
Sliding Contact
430
SkewBevel Wheels
431
Teeth of WheelsDefinitions and General Principles
432
Pitch and Number of Teeth
433
Hunting Cog
434
Trains of Wheelwork
435
Principle of Sliding Contact
437
Teeth of SpurWheels and Racks General Principle
438
Arc of Contact on Pitch Lines
440
Inside Gearing
441
Sliding of Involute Teeth
443
Epicycloidal Teethleast Pinion
444
Addendum for Epicycloidal Teeth
445
Teeth of Wheel and Trundle
447
Mr Sangs process for Describing Teeth
448
Teeth of SkewBevel Wheels
449
Normal and Circular Pitch
450
Screw Gearing
451
Wheel and Screw
452
RelativeSlidingofPairofScrews
453
BeltsCordsChains454
454
Pitch Surface of a Pulley or Drum
455
Length of an Endless Belt
456
Speed Cones
457
Linhcort 484 Definitions
458
Coupling of Parallel Axes
459
Eccentric
460
Hookes Universal Joint
461
Double Hookes Joint
462
Velocity of any Plv
463
Hydraulic Connection 498 General Principle
464
Hydraulic Press
465
On Aggregate Combinations
466
General Principles 466 506 Link Motion 504 Differential Windlass 505 Compound Screws 466
467
5C7 Parallel Motions
471
Epicyclic Trains
473
First Law of Motion
476
Conditions of Uniform Motion
477
Dynamometer or Indicator
478
elocities
479
Energy of Component Forces and Motions
480
ON THE WARIED TRANSLATIon of Points AND RIGID BoDIEs SECTIon 1 Definitions 521 Mass or Inertia
482
525 Wariations and Deviations of Mo mentum
483
Relations between Impulse Energy and Work
484
Mass in terms of Weight
485
Absolute Unit of Force
486
Projectile Unresisted
487
Motion along an Inclined Path
489
Uniform Effort or Resistance
490
Deviating Force
491
Revolving Simple Pendulum
492
Rectangular Components of De viating Force
494
Elliptical Oscillations or Revo lutions
495
544
496
545
497
Óscillating Pendulum 456
498
Section 3Transformation of Energy 547 Actual Energy defined WisViva
499
Energy Stored and Restored
501
Energy due to Oblique Force
502
Reciprocating Force
503
Varied Translation of a System of Bodies 552 Conservation of Energy in Waried 558 Conservation of Momentum
505
Angular Impulse Defined
506
sºn Actual En of a System of Bodies ºw y
507
Conservation of Internal Energy
508
Action of Unbalanced External Forces on a System General Equations
510
Determination of Internal Forces DAlemberts Principle
511
Moments of Inertia round Pa rallel Axes compared
516
Combined Moments of Inertia
517
Moments of Inertia found by Division and Subtraction
519
Centre of PercussionCentre of Gyration
520
Principal Axes of Inertia
524
Ellipsoid of Inertia
526
Resultant Moment of Deviation
528
Momentum
529
Angular Momentum
530
Actual Energy of Rotation
532
Free Rotation
533
Uniform Rotation about a Fixed Axis
535
Energy and Work of Couples
537
519
538
Page 595 Varied Rotation about a fixed Axis540
541
Gyration or Angular Oscillation
542
Single Force applied to a Body with a Fixed Axis
543
Properties of the Centre of Per cussion
544
Fixed Axis
545
Compound Oscillating Pendulum Centre of Oscillation
546
Compound Revolving Pendulum
547
Nature of the SubjectVibration
552
Isochronous Vibration Condi tion of Isochronism
553
Vibrations of a Mass held by a light Spring
554
Superposition of Small Motions
555
Vibrations not Isochronous
557
Waves of Vibration
563
Division of the Subject Section 1 Motion of Liquids without Friction
566
General Equations
567
Dynamic Head
568
Total Energy
569
Free Surface
570
Contracted Wein
572
Surfaces of Equal Head
573
Radiating Current
574
Free Spiral Wortex
576
Vertical Revolution
578
Motions of Gases without Friction 635 Dynamic Head in Gases
579
Equation of Continuity for a Steady Stream of Gas
581
Motions of Liquids with Friction 638 General Laws of Fluid Friction
584
566 639 Internal Fluid Friction
585
Friction in an Uniform Stream Hydraulic Mean Depth
586
Warying Stream
587
Friction in a Pipe running full
588
Resistance of Mouthpieces
589
General Problem
590
Pressure of a Jet against a fixed Surface
591
Pressure of a Jet against amoving Surface
593
Pressure of a Forced Wortex against a Wheel
595
Centrifugal Pumps and Fans
597
Pressure of a Current
598
sº of Floating Bodies Metacentre of a Ship
603
Action between a Fluid and
604
PistonWork of AirWork of Steam
607
General Principles 658 Useful and Lost Work
610
Mean Efforts and Resistances
611
Equations in terms of Compara tive Motion 612 668 Reduction of Forces and Couples
612
Friction of a Sliding Piece 61i i
614
Friction of a Pivot 61 ks 676 Friction of a Collar 616v
616
Friction of Teeth 617
617
Frictional Gearing 618
618
Stiffness of Ropes 619 _ 682 Rolling Resistance of Smooth Surfaces
619
Resistance of Carriages on Roads
620
Varied Motions of Machines 686 Centrifugal Forces and Couples 621 689 Fluctuations of Speed 687 Actual Energy of a Machine 688 Reduced Inert...
621
621
622
FlyWheel
623
Starting and StoppingBrakes
624
On Prime Movers 692 Prime Mover defined
625
WaterPressure Engines
626
Water Wheels in General
627
Classes of Water Wheels
628
Turbines
629
Steam Engines
630
Tables of the Resistance of Materials to Stretching and Tearing
631
Table of the Resistance of Materials to Shearing and Distortion III Table of the Resistance of Materials to Crushing
633
Table of Specific Gravities of Materials
637
468
638
420
642
478
645

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الصفحة 207 - Friction is that force which acts between two bodies at their surface of contact so as to resist their sliding on each other, and which depends on the force with which the bodies are pressed together.
الصفحة 56 - ... constant. Let x\, y,, z, be the co-ordinates of the centre of gravity of a flat plate having its middle plane coincident with the given cross-section.
الصفحة 496 - ... of those parts into the square of the distance of its centre of gravity from the axis, adding the products together, and finding the value towards which their sum converges when the size of the small parts is indefinitely diminished.
الصفحة 2 - The mathematician can easily demonstrate that a certain power, applied by means of a certain lever or of a certain system of pulleys, will suffice to raise a certain weight. But his demonstration proceeds on the supposition that the machinery is such as no load will bend or break. If the engineer, who has* to lift a great mass of real granite by the instrumentality of real timber and real hemp, should absolutely rely on the propositions...
الصفحة 263 - ... being the angle of repose. If the earth is firm, and little liable to be disturbed, the proportion of the half-span, or horizontal semi-axis, to the rise, or vertical semi-axis, may be made greater than is given by the preceding equation, and the earth will still resist the additional horizontal thrust; but that proportion should never be made less than the value given by the equation, or the sides of the archway will be in danger of being forced inwards.
الصفحة 6 - Mechanical knowledge may obviously be distinguished into three kinds: purely scientific knowledge, — purely practical knowledge — and that intermediate knowledge which relates to the application of scientific principles to practical purposes, and which arises from understanding the harmony of theory and practice. The objects of instruction in purely scientific mechanics and physics are, first to produce in the student that improvement of the understanding which results from the cultivation of...
الصفحة 464 - NBM, or inertia, of a body, is a quantity proportional to the unbalanced force which is required in order to produce a given definite change in the motion of the body in a given interval of time. It is known that the weight of a body, that is, the attraction between it and the earth, at a fixed locality on the earth's surface, acting unbalanced on the body for a fixed interval of time (eg, for a second), produces a change in the body's motion, which is the same for all bodies whatsoever.
الصفحة 573 - SUBFACE. 593 being equal to the weight of a column of fluid whose base is the sectional area of the jet, and its height double of the height due to the velocity. This result is confirmed by experiment.
الصفحة 5 - Another evil, and one of the worst which arises from the separation of theoretical and practical knowledge, is the fact that a large number of persons, possessed of an inventive turn of mind and of considerable skill in the manual operations of practical mechanics, are destitute of that knowledge of scientific principles -which is requisite to prevent their being misled by their own ingenuity. Such men too often spend their money, waste their lives, and it may be lose their reason, in the vain pursuit...
الصفحة 21 - ... 26. Force of a Couple — Arm or Leverage. — The force of a couple 18 the common magnitude of the two equal forces ; the arm or leverage of a couple is the perpendicular distance between the lines of action of the two equal forces.

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