« السابقةمتابعة »
grounds for complimenting the author of this work on dressing himself to their ambition ; others, by misreprehis skill in selecting a subject likely to be at once in- senting James's character and purposes. structive and popular. But we prefer giving our readers It was in the end of the year 1436 that the King rean abstract of its contents; an undertaking more likely to moved with his court to Perth, to hold his Christmas. find favour in their eyes, than the successful management He was aware, in some degree, of Grahame's machinaof the most ingenious argument we could lay before tions. There were old prophecies in circulation, which them.
spoke of a king's death that year. Portents had been seen These histories are partly original, and partly reprints in heaven and on earth. An old Highlandwoman had of narratives which are already before the public, al- thrown herself in James's way, as he was about to cross though, perhaps, not so generally known as the interest the water of Leith, and predicted his ruin, if he proceeded attaching to them would have led one to expect. By far on his journey. These combined circumstances seem octhe most interesting of the whole, when judged by their casionally to have weighed on the King's mind; but, neown intrinsic merit, are “the Conspiracy of the Spaniards vertheless, the revels were kept up with spirit till near against Venice in 1618,” a translation from the French the end of February. On the night of the 21st or 220 of the Abbé de St Real ; and “the Conspiracy of John of that month, Grahame, with a body of three hundred Lewis Fiesco against Genoa in 1547,” translated from Highlanders, possessed himself of the palace, after the the original Memoir of the Cardinal de Retz. These domestics had retired to rest. The bolt on the door of narratives are characterized, in a high degree, by the su- the king's chamber had previously been removed by a periority over modern histories, which the better works confederate ; so the traitors found no impediment in their of the 16th and 17th centuries derived from the circum- way. In vain Catherine Douglas thrust her arm into stance of their being composed by practical and experien- the place of the bolt; in vain the queen and her ladies ced statesmen. Some histories of the 18th century are threw themselves between their monarch and his murwritten in better taste, or in a freer spirit; some are derers: the assassins pressed onward, and having dismore intensely eloquent, and have occasional glimpses of covered his lurking place, first Grahame, and then the a deeper insight into human nature ; but being, for the two Halls, stabbed him repeatedly with their daggers. most part, the productions of recluse scholars, they want. The attendants of the king were at length aroused, but that intimate knowledge of political business, those com- too late ; for the assassins escaped, favoured by the darkprehensive views, and complete mastery of their subject, ness of the night. which we find in the writings of their predecessors. This atrocious deed opened the eyes of the nation to the
These, however, as well as “ the Intrigues of Don true character of their sovereign and his enemies. The Carlos against his father, Philip the II. of Spain,” and murderers found none to shelter them. Some died penithe intensely interesting story of “ the Rise and Fall of tent, some cowardly; Grahame alone, the master-spirit of Masaniello, fisherman, of Naples,” we pass over, in order the plot, died as he had lived. Finding every subterfuge to leave ourselves more space for those conspiracies which and evasion vain, he bade defiance to his judges ; and are a portion of our own history. Indeed, the story of amid tortures to which human nature has rarely been Don Carlos is, in some shape or another, already familiar subjected, he continued to overwhelm his executioners to most readers. Of the conspiracy against Venice, Ot- and the bystanders with taunts and mockeries. way's Tragedy has diffused a general, though not very Were we disposed to cavil, we might say, that the next accurate, notion. And the story of Masaniello has been historiette, “ The Death of James III.” is deficient in handled in Lady Morgan's romance, called “ A Life of unity, as containing the history of two distinct undertaSalvator Rosa.”
kings; and that, seeing the king fell in open battle, fairly The first, then, of our own conspiracies, is entitled, stricken, the latter of these scarcely corresponds to the “ The Assassination of James I.” We are inclined to idea we have been accustomed to attach to the word conlook upon it as the most successful of Mr Lawson's ori. spiracy. But this would be very small work. If the ginal histories. He has given a more detailed and con- death of James III. should prove less interesting than nected account of that event, than the public at large pre- that of his grandfather, we can only attribute it to the viously possessed. It is true, indeed, that the subject is languor resulting from the length of time in which the a happier one than any of the others he has selected; the events are thinly sown, and to the less striking character personages are more prominent and vigorous—the interest of the former. We almost fear that the private characis more condensed, vivid, and dramatic. James I. of ter of James III. has scarcely had justice done to it in Scotland, a man of resolute and persevering character, history. That he was timid to an unwarrantable degree with taste and imagination of a high order, received his is evident from his behaviour in his last fatal field, and education in England, where arts and civil policy had from the extremes to which he allowed himself to be inmade much greater progress than in his native country; stigated against his brothers. In other respects, histoand returned to wield a scarce regarded sceptre, over a rians have represented him as a prince of low tastes and people in a state of anarchy. He returned with wrongs | degraded habits. They stigmatize his associates as a sort to avenge, and with the ardent desire of a high-minded of low mechanics ; but when we call to remembrance the young man, to communicate to his countrymen the high- prejudices of the age, it is evident that this term may er civilization with which he had been imbued. His have been applied slightingly to men of gentle, though enemies, those of his own household, had held the reins not of noble birth, and distinguished (when compared of government so long, that, on the one hand, they had with their contemporaries) in the fine arts. Habitual secured many attached adherents, and, on the other, the conversation with such men we do not incline to hold a people's feeling of the atrocities by which they had acqui- proof of a low mind, more than habitual conversation red power, had been chilled by the lapse of time. Their with the chivalrous, but rather illiterate and turbulent punishment, therefore, was resented by their friends; and barons. It is true, that Cochrane is reported to have the inconsiderate zeal with which James pushed his re- borne his advancement with a bad grace; but even forgetforms, irritating the nation, gave the malecontents a han- ting for a moment that this is the story of his enemies, dle for representing him as a self-willed tyrant. At the that his bearing may have been nothing more than the head of his enemies was Sir Robert Grahame, a man dis- generous, though imprudent defiance, with wbich a high tinguished by indomitable resolution, versatility of re- mind met the contumely of the old nobility,- forgetting source, extensive acquirements, and recklessness of pur- all this, and receiving the current tradition for correct, pose. This man, after engaging in a variety of plots, at his misconduct proves nothing against the rest of James's last renounced his allegiance to James, and retired to the associates. We are the more inclined to take a lenient Highlands. He induced, while there, several influential view of this monarch's character, from the architectural noblemen to join in his schemes; some he lured by ad- taste displayed in the buildings raised under his auspices,
- from the devoted attachment shown towards him by the conspiracies, be spirited on to the hopeless attempt of maburghs, notwithstanding his reserved manners,—from his king some one of his heroes his model! We should be continued patronage of the enterprising mariner, Wood, most loath to see him depart on his heaven-ward journey -and from the large body of the nobles who continued from the Grassmarket" with a St Johnstone's tippet about faithful to him. We incline to look upon him as origi- his hawse." nally a man of gentle and amiable dispositions, but un- The remaining histories in this work are, “the Gun. fortunately placed in a sphere which required greater re- powder Plot, in 1604,” too well known to require recapisolution and activity than he possessed.
tulation; "the Popish Plot of 1678;" and the “RyeHaving indulged in this episodical dissertation, we house Plot”---things shadowy and unsubstantial as the are precluded the possibility of entering into the story of age in which they were conceived, but interesting as a James, for which we refer our readers to Mr Lawson's picture of the times. very distinct narrative. Before quitting the subject, we may remark, that the interview between Sir Andrew The Quarterly Reriew. No. LXXXI. July 1829. Wood and the young prince, after his father's death, is,
London. John Murray. to our taste, one of the most affecting passages in history. The boy's tears, showing at once the kindness of his na- It is, we believe, pretty generally admitted, that if the ture, and the helplessness of his age, which had enabled the Edinburgh Review has displayed occasionally greater geinsurgents to make an instrument of him, and the honest, nius, the Quarterly has displayed more uniform talent. reckless answers of the loyal veteran, contrast as finely as The critical opinions of the latter (wherever personal their figures and times of life; and when the pair are feeling was not concerned) have commonly been the more viewed in fancy's eye as surrounded by the scowling crowd correct,---those of the former more daringly original, enof irritated nobles, they form as striking a picture as can forced and illustrated more brilliantly. This, at least, well be conceived.
was the notion entertained of the respective merits of Hitherto Mr Lawson has been walking over plain these works during the incumbency of Mr Gifford. The ground. In the early periods of a nation's history, it is principles of the Quarterly, under his management, seemthe mere human interest that attracts; their feuds and fac-ed to be those of strict adherence to whatever was estations are long dead; we take no share in them. But blished in literature or in politics. The accession of Mr when we come to the times of the Reformation, when the Lockhart to the editorial office has infused a new spirit war of opinion, which is still waging, commenced, every into the Journal. It remains as aristocratical, as rigidly man immediately ranks himself under the banners of his classical, as ever ; but these mere outward forms have party, and believes or disbelieves, likes or dislikes, accord- been animated by a more daring and energetic mind--by ing as his sympathies or antipathies direct. It is the a soul more alive to all the delicate beauties and harmo most perfect farce, in such a state of affairs, for any man nies of nature. We proceed, however, to the contents of to pretend to impartiality. “ Tell me what you are, and the present Number. say what you think openly and honestly; I shall know Art. I. is a review of Southey's Colloquies on the prohow to make allowance for the bias of peculiar opinions." | gress and prospects of society. The reviewer has conBut when a man, whose every notion is tinged by his fined himself exclusively to the religious prospects of som feelings, pretends to speak uninfluenced by them, he de- ciety, and he has treated this important matter in a spirit prives us unfairly of the only standard by which we can which must rejoice his author's heart. The critic's style estimate his unavoidable mistakes. It is on this account is full and Howing ; his sentiments are amiable ; his rethat we prefer Mr Lawson's open and avowed partisan- flections are varied, and often deeply conceived, though ship to all mealy-mouthed pretences to independence. His sometimes rather weak and languid. Not the least peculiar views have led him, in his history of the Gowrie charm, which the article has for us, is a quaintness, more Conspiracy, to get up a new theory of that mysterious of thought than expression, which breathes through the
As many of the documents upon which he pro- whole of it. In the main drift of the argument.--the deceeds are not at present before us, we shall defer entering monstration of the utility and necessity of a church estainto the controversy until the third livraison of Mr Pit- blishment---we most heartily acquiesce.---Art. II. is one cairn's Criminal Trials, to which he refers us, appears. of those delightful articles, which, in old times, constitu
Mr Lawson's devotion to his own sect, however, rather ted the chief attraction of the Quarterly; a light, graphic goes beyond the pretty ample limits we have allowed. account of the inhabitants of Ava---the gossiping of a He calls the age of the Reformation in Scotland, the age of gentleman and scholar.---Art. III., on the Progresses and “ turbulence, crime, and sedition ;" forgetting that these Court of King James, is of a similar character. ---Art. IV. had prevailed in the country for centuries, and only strike is on Chinese Drama, Poetry, and Romance. We inus more at that period, because the new light which had cline to look upon this article---with all due deference to been introduced showed, for the first time, their deform- the superior judgment of the admirers of political disquiity. He represents the Presbyterians as almost without sition--as the most important in the present number. exception turbulent or hypocritical, vulgar or ambitious; Notwithstanding the exertions made by diplomatists, merand we are not quite sure that he admits any change to chants, and priests, for hundreds of years, the interior of have taken place in their character down to the present the Celestial Empire still remains hermetically sealed day. He affects, in defiance of all history, to call the against us. No traveller has yet given us an idea of Presbyterian Church of Scotland “the newly erectit so. any thing more than the mere outside of Chinese life-cietie of ministers callit the Presbyterie;" when he must none has penetrated the secret of their domestic arrangeknow, that the form of church government by Presby- ments. When we speak of a Chinese, we mean those teries was older in Scotland, by many a good year, than awkward and ungainly figures which we see on the lids the Episcopalian ; that the latter has only, at two brief of our tea-boxes, or on old porcelain jars. The critic in and distant intervals, been supported by the government, the Quarterly Review, barred, like all others, from imand never recognised by the nation. Will Mr Lawson af-mediate intercourse, lies in ambush to listen to their firm that the misconduct of a few wicked and designing songs; and the gush of their melody, pouring in upon men can stain the character of a church to which, from am- him, betrays to him the secret throbbings of their hearts. bitious motives, they pretend to belong? Will he deny that We assure our readers that we are not speaking in any the Scottish Church, though deeply imbued in its infancy hyperbolical strain. There is grace, delicacy, and food with the defects of the age which gave it birth, has, like for thought, in Chinese poetry. If they will not take our a turbid and rain-swoln brook, run itself pure? Heaven word for it, let them read the article which has suggested grant he may not, in his Quixotic attachment to his own these remarks --- Art. V. is a learned attempt to prove system, and in his late extensive perusal of the history of who were the original inhabitants of Scotland--- question
which we think of little interest and less importance. The Extractor ; or, Universal Repertorium of Literature, All that we know of the matter is, that not long after the Science, and the Arts. Vol. II. March to July, 1829, Nerman conquest of England, the descendants of a Saxon London. J. Ware. princess obtained the Scottish throne; that the tide of Norman and Saxon immigrants into the country, which
We noticed the first volume of this work with approhad previously set in, flowed, from that era, with redoubled bation, and we see no cause to change our opinion of the force ; that the original inhabitants melted away before second. All our numerous Reviews, Magazines, and the new-comers, as a less civilized people always must be- Journals, have been laid under contribution ; and, as a fore one further advanced ; that, in a short time, all the good judgment has dictated the selection of articles from most desirable land in Scotland was in possession of these them, (though we say it who should not say it, seeing Anglo-Norman intruders; and that, from that day to this, that there is a fair proportion from our own pages,) the " the history of Scotland” means the history of their de work ought to be as popular as it certainly is entertainscendants.--Art. VI. is an able review of that part of Dr ing and valuable. We shall be glad to see “ The ExGooch's work on female diseases which treats of insa tractor” continued through a long series of volumes; for nity. There are some doctrines propounded on this in- it is a compliment which the present state of the perioditeresting subject which seem to us alike just and original. cal press of this country deserves, and it presents the - Art. VII., on the political and moral state of Portugal, reader, at a very moderate cost, with all that is most inand Art. IX., on the condition of the English peasantry, teresting from a great variety of able publications. are essays of great talent, and require a more lengthened discussion than we can afford to give them.--- Art. VIII. Retrospections ; a Soldier's Story. Dublin. William is a review of Sir Rufane Donkin's book on that inter
Curry. 1829. minable question, “ The course and probable termination of the Niger ?” The gallant knight's theory is showu up
This is an amiable little volume, evidently written with great felicity of humour, and, at the same time, in a by a religious lady, who thinks that the Roman Cathostrictly gentlemanly manner.
lics have very little chance of salvation, and consequently publishes small books, under the agreeable guise of tales,
in the hopes of converting them to the reformed faith. The French Librarian, or Literary Guide ; pointing out
the best works of the principal writers of France, in
CHAPTERS ON EDUCATION. jan. & Richter. 1829.
By Derwent Conway, Author of " Solitary Walks through This work, so far as it goes, is upon a judicious plan, Many Lands,” « Personal Narrative of a Journey and may be consulted with advantage. The author's ob. through Norway, Sweden, and Denmark,” gc. jeet has been to furnish a list of the best works written
CHAPTER I. in French, in every department of Literature, subjoining to each work a testimonial in its favour, and a short ac
Works upon Education. count of its ebaracter, either by an English or French eritie. Much labour must, of course, have been requisite is agreed upon the important influence which education
It is a remarkable fact, that although the whole world to accomplish this task, and it was not likely that the exercises upon the happiness of mankind, there should, first edition should be altogether perfect and satisfactory notwithstanding, be no work extant, in which the subto every class of readers. Though the author has limit-ject is fully and thoroughly investigated, no treatise, of ed himself to books of merit, and has thus, of course, brought his labour into narrower bounds, it will be at once should arise with respect to the expression,
so approved a reputation, that if a difference in opinion
a good eduperceived that he must have omitted many which are deserving of a place, when it is stated, that in the whole cation,”—a form of words in every body's mouth,--it volume he has made mention of only about six hundred might be possible to refer to some authority f&r light upon
the subject French authors, and nine hundred works. Still this list
I believe there is no science, if I may be permitted to includes a great number of standard French productions;
use that term, in which so little progress has been made, and though we do not, in every instance, acknowledge
as in education; nor any thing, indeed, about the importthe weight of the authorities he brings forward in their
ance of which the world is agreed, so little understood. favour, we are certainly of opinion, that, all things consi- There are no acknowledged first principles. Every one dered, this “ Literary Guide” is well executed, and that admits the propriety of giving to a child a good educathey who are forming a French library, would do well to tion, and every one acts upon this admission to the best look into it. We shall be glad to see Monsieur Ven- of his ability; but to enter upon the task, is like entertouillac publishing a second edition, with additions ; and ing upon a wide heath, across which there are many we think the hint he has given might be very properly
Education differs in one followed up by similar works, illustrative of the litera- paths, but no finger-posts.
most essential particular from most other things which ture, both of our own country and of other Continental influence man's happiness: The difficulty lies, not in nations.
merely practising principles which are universally ad
mitted, but in ascertaining the principle that is to be actA History of the Siege of Londonderry and Defence of ed upon. Enniskillen in 1688 and 1689. By the Rev. John
That we possess no standard work upon education, is Graham, M. A., Rector of Tamlachtard, in the Diocese certain ; and I think it may be added, not one deserving of Derry. Second Edition. Dublin. William Curry. of a higher reputation than it enjoys. Treatises upon this 1829.
subject have hitherto been left in the hands of the ladies; This is a well-written work, and details an interesting and of these we have, indeed, many ; but there seems to episode in the History of Ireland. It possesses, however, be no good reason why this branch of philosophy,—the more local than general interest, and we content ourselves most profound that can be subjected to the investigation with recommending it to those on this side of the Channel of the human faculties, because requiring the deepest who may be curious in these matters. In Ireland it will knowledge of the human mind,-should be quietly resignhave a more general circulation.
ed to the powers of that sex, which, it is generally thought, can boast with less justice of its own philosophy, than of is impossible greatly to err in education, if an attentive its power of vanquishing that virtue in others.
eye be kept upon the operations of nature ; and it is It is evidently impossible, within magazine limits, to equally impossible to do otherwise than err, if we substisupply the desideratum in the science of education ; I do tute, for her wise and unvarying laws, systems, the sucthink, however, that he who should present to the world cess of which depends upon a presumed want of wisdom a work, in which principles so just and intelligible were in nature. The faculties of the human mind are, doubtlaid down, that if applied in practice, the errors now less, matured in the best possible order : that faculty abounding in education might be avoided, would leave which is the first capable of being impressed, ought to be behind him a prouder and a worthier legacy, than was addressed the first ; to act otherwise, is to act either igever yet bequeathed by the pen of the scholar, or the norantly or presumptuously. sword of the conqueror. I proceed with my short, and, I trust, intelligible ex
CHAPTER IV. position.
The Wisdom of Nature conspicuous in the Developement
of the Faculties. Chapter II.
It is undeniable, that the species of reading which is There are two great principles in Education.
addressed to the judgment, is, generally speaking, less atIt is quite indisputable, that the end and aim of all tractive than that which addresses the imagination. From education ought to be, to improve, to the greatest possible this, there seems an evident design in first maturing the extent, in every mind subjected to its operation, the facul- | imaginative faculty ; for, were it otherwise, —were judgties which nature has implanted. Nature always does ment to take precedence of imagination, the mind of a something; and it is the business of education to carry child would be repelled from reading, rather than attracton her design. But in no system of education with ed to it; and in thus elucidating the beauty of that de which I am acquainted, is nature looked to as the guide : sign, which, if respected in the training of the mind, will a design is formed independent of her. Now, if I am infallibly lead to results so great, I am at the same time right in the position laid down, every plan of education exposing the absurdity, I dare almost say the impiety, of in which nature is not consulted, must be imperfect; and that system, which would entirely counteract the intenthe rational object of enquiry, therefore, is, By what laws tions of nature. But more than this,-a great moral end of nature shall we be governed in the training of the human is designed by nature to be accomplished, in early matumind?
ring the imaginative faculty; and it is indeed a miseraThere seem to be two great principles upon which all ble degree of ignorance that has attempted to frustrata education must proceed, in order that it may produce its this wise intention. There is no truth in moral science greatest results: the one, that it must be in accordance better established than this, that the cultivation of the with the invariable order which nature has established in imaginative faculty, and the progress of a certain kind of the progressive developement of the human faculties; the moral excellence, go hand in hand,—that kind of moral other, that it must not run counter to, but be in agreement excellence which has its source in kind feelings and benewith nature, in the varied distribution of her endowments. volent affections. From these spring the most excellent The first of these principles is in direct opposition to the of the virtues ; indeed, it may be asked, which of them system inculcated by a certain modern female oligarchy; does not emanate from these ? Can any one of the sothe second principle is opposed to all systems of education cial virtues be separated from kind feelings? Can cha whatever. I proceed to speak of the first.
rity live apart from them ?-charity, in its widest and
most beautiful acceptation. Can avarice exist where CHAPTER III.
these have dominion? Can injustice even have its sway? The folly of being wiser than Nature. Female Philosophers. Who, in short, will do unto others, that which he would
that men should do unto him, if he possess not the beneA CLEVER writer has said,“ Poets live in an ideal world volent affections ? Now, if it be true, as is here assumed, of their own, and it would be as well if they were con- that the cultivation of the imaginative faculty, and the fined to it. Some such saying might be spoken of the progress of the benevolent affections, be inseparable, Profair sex,-only substituting the word real for ideal,--and vidence has most wisely arranged the order in which the adding, that although it might be well to confine them human faculties are developed, by maturing, in early within their own world, yet so delightful a world it is, years, that faculty of the mind, which cannot be emthat others would fain share it with them. I trust the ployed without improving the heart ; for it is especially gallantry of this tournure may be thought a sufficient ex- | in the season of youth that the gentler virtues gain actenuation of the rudeness which there doubtless is, in de- cess there. The avenues to it are not then closed by the nying to the fair sex the palm in philosophy.
freezing maxims, and selfish policy, which an intercourse It seems to me, that the first principle to be attended with the world is too apt to engender. to in education, viz. to follow the order which nature has But although nothing need be urged to prove that it is established in the developement of the human faculties, good to possess compassion, and kindness, and charity, it is directly at variance with that system which has of late seems necessary to show more clearly than has yet been years been recommended by a conclave of well-meaning done, the connexion between these and the cultivation of individuals, as the new and rational system ; for what is the imaginative faculty. the order which nature invariably follows in the develope- The imagination is cultivated by the perusal of such .ment of the human faculties? It is, that among all the fictitious relations, as it was usual to put into the hands mental powers, judgment is the last to ripen. This fact, of children before these were banished from the juvenile however, is either unknown to the disciples of the new library. Now, what are these conversant with? They school, or despised by them; for the books which are are conversant with every thing that touches the heart now recommended to be put the earliest into the hands of youth ;- they are conversant with all that excites kind of children, are addressed almost exclusively to the judg-emotions, and compassionate feelings. It is of no sort of ment, and little, if at all, to the imaginative faculty; but consequence towards what the kind emotion is di. if it be true, that at an age when imagination is capable rected, so as it be excited at all. It is equally important of being impressed, judgment is incapable of being direct-as regards the growth of virtue, that compassion be exed, it necessarily follows, that to attempt to instruct the cited towards a lamb, as towards a human being: the latter, while the former is permitted to lie uncultivated, virtue is equally nourished in both cases. It is impossiis labouring to do that which cannot be done, and at the ble that a child should read any of the best selected and same time neglecting to do that which might be done. It most popular among the little works, which were once
the study and the recreation of the young, without bene- present Tam in a less boisterous mood than he appeared it to the heart. I have more than once seen children to be in when sitting solus with his story-telling friend. excited to tears, by that earliest of the offerings made to Instead of all his faculties being immersed in one “great intellect, “ The Death and Burial of Cock Robin." guffaw," as in the former figure, his countenance is merely Here was a strong excitement of the benevolent affections, animated with a smile of such breadth as a rustic might through the medium of imagination, and it is impossible be supposed to wear when paying court to one of whom to tell how much of that rare virtue of kindness towards he was fond, and with whom he was familiar. His face the brute creation may have been engendered through this turned a little to the left, on which side the Landlady simple relation. Acts of aggression on the part of the is placed, with a corresponding inclination of body; and, strong, cruelty towards the inoffensive, and the suffer- judging from the “smirking smile” that curls her lip, ings of innocence, form the burden of all those little sto- she is very well pleased with the farmer's gallantry. The ries which once formed a sort of infant mythology ; and Souter, as in the former group, appears to have been just are not indignation against the oppressor,—compassion delivered of one of his “queerest stories." His waggish for the weak,-hatred of cruelty, and sympathy with the eye rests complacently on the Landlord, who is represented sufferer, awakened in consequence? I will venture to to be in convulsions of laughter at his friend's wit, and say, that more far more---of the virtue of compassion is quite unconscious of the flirtation which is going on betaught, by reading of a wolf betraying and devouring a tween his buxom wife and his honoured guest. lamb, than by the most admirable piece of reasoning In point of execution, these figures are equal to those against cruelty, or a thousand injunctions to practise gen- already before the public. Tam possesses the same freetleness and kindness.
dom of outline, ease of attitude, and accuracy of symmeThe moral acts of charity and compassion, which are try, with a face of a more intellectual cast than the orithe result of reasoning, and which originate in a sense of ginal. The Souter is as like his prototype as possible. duty, are as efficacious, indeed, as those which immediate- The Landlord is a little round-bellied man, with his head ly flow from the impulses of a feeling heart. But then thrown well back, that he may laugh the louder; and in there is this essential difference between them :---Reason one hand he holds a horn half-full of ale, which he is aping is a laborious act of the mind : a sense of duty does parently spilling, without being aware of his loss.
The not, in every mind, prescribe the same range of duties, Landlady is an excellent figure, though less en bon point but varies with every man's scale of moral obligation,– than most people would expect in one of her calling. The is affected by the measure of every man's judgment, and attitude in which she is placed, however, is exceedingly by the extent of his information,—and is overborne by characteristic of the duties of her office. She is seated on many accidental impulses ; whereas, those acts of kind- the front of an arm chair, not in the indolent attitude of one ness, which seem the intuitive impulses of the mind, who dreams of repose, but in the active position of a person need no process of reasoning to urge their performance, who has just sat down in the expectation of being immeno sense of duty to establish their propriety,--vary not diately called upon to "answer the bell.” Her right arm with the diversities of the moral creed, -are not affected, rests on the chair elbow, and her left hand, in which she either by the measure of a man's judgment, or by the ex- has gathered her apron into graceful folds, rests upon her tent of his information,—and cannot be overborne by knee. Her body leans slightly forward ; and while her other impulses, because no impulse is more immediate face, which is turned towards Tam, is abundantly expresthan that which urges the acts themselves.
sive of the good-will she bears him, and the happiness of It is one thing to convince the judgment, and another her present condition, her feet are so planted as to indithing to touch the heart.* Even supposing a child able cate her readiness, when called on, to rise and “ fill anoto comprehend the obligation to the performance of a duty, ther gill.” She is adorned with a profusion of curls, and it is questionable if much be done for virtue if the con- her head-dress consists of what was some sixty years since riction of the judgment and the dictate of the heart do denominated, in Ayrshire, a “round-eared mutch,” strapnot go hand in hand; but once let the feelings incite to ped to the head by a ribbon round the mid-piece, and suracts of virtue, and the verdict of the judgment will speedily mounted by a knot of ribbons, a little to the right side. be obtained.
Her neck is bare, but over her shoulders and bosom is (To be concluded in our next.)
thrown a thin handkerchief, which disappears under the heavier fabric of a stuff gown---we suppose it to have
been of that material---with short sleeves, frilled at the THE AYRSHIRE SCULPTOR-HIS NEW WORKS.
elbow, and leaving the arms below naked. Mr Thom bas now finished a complete group of figures as in the days of our grandmothers, is tied round her from the Tale of Tam O'Shanter, by which the opening body by a “string case,” and is finished with a frill; and scene of the poem is fully and forcibly illustrated. In the whole costume is executed with so much accuracy addition to the hero of the tale and “ Souter Johnnie,” it and good taste, that in the opinion of many it would not consists of other two important personages ---the landlord do the most tip-top mantua-maker discredit. We shall and landlady of the Hospitium where the jolly farmer held leave this point, however, as in duty bound, to the deterhis carousal on the eventful night of his rencontre with mination of our fair readers,-only premising, that those the “ hellish legion” of “ Alloway's auld haunted kirk." who agree with us will think the gown too closely fitted The figures are all of the natural size. Those of Tam to the body, and not sufficiently ample in the skirt. and the Souter are almost copies of the statues which The group of statues which we have thus endeavoured were exhibited here, and which are now drawing crowds to describe, belongs, we understand, to the Earl of Cas. of fashionable visitors in Bond Street; but they are dif- sillis, who promptly patronised the artist in the outset of ferently placed in regard to each other---Tam, in the his career. Besides a desire to encourage the native group, being engaged in a close tête-à-tête with the Land- genius of the county from whence his lordship takes his lady, while the Souter's “queerest stories” are directed title, perhaps the circumstance of the person whom to the Landlord. This arrangement is in perfect keeping Burns selected as the archetype of the “heroic Tam" with the poem, and it has necessarily led the artist to re- having been a tenant on the Culzean estate, had some
influence with his lordship in choosing a subject for • When I speak of the qualities of the heart, I do so only in obe. Mr Thom's chisel. The identity of this individual has dence to common phraseology. I believe the brain to be the seat of now become a question of some interest in the west; the emotions, as well as of the intellectual faculties; for, although and as were instrumental in giving currency to another, this does not prove that the seat of the emotions is anywhere the tradition which imputes the honour to “ Thomas more prove that the emotion has its origin in the heart, than the hair Reid," we may here state, that since the publication of the stauding on end proves that fear is seated in the hair.
article in the LITERARY JOURNAL, in which the subject