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Pinarus, between Issus and Myriandrus, where was | Thronium. From hence the original name of Amanfought the battle called the battle of Issus. The tia is said to have been Abantia, and the surrounding narrative of Arrian may be compared with the com- | country to have been called Abantis. (Steph. B. mentary of Polybius (xii. 17, 19).

8. v. 'Alavtis, 'Apartla; Etym. M. 8. v. 'Auartes; Strabo's description of the Amanides (p. 676) is Paus. v. 22. $ 3.) Amantia probably stood at some this: “after Mallus is Aegaeae, which has a small distance from the coast, S. of the river Aous, and a fort; then the Amanides Pylae, having an anchorage a tributary of the latter, named Polyanthes. (LYfor ships, at which (pylae) terminate the Amanus cophr. 1043.) It is placed by Leake at Níritza, mountains, extending down from the Taurus - and where there are the remains of Hellenic walls. This after Aegaeae is Issus, a small fort having an an- site agrees with the distances afforded by Scylax and chorage, and the river Pinarus." Strabo therefore the Tabular Itinerary, the former of which places places the Amanides Pylae between Aegae and Issus, | Amantia at 320 stadia, and the latter at 30 Roman and near the coast; and the Stadiasmus and Pto- miles from Apollonia. Ptolemy speaks of an Amanlemy give the same position to the Amanides. This tia on the coast, and another town of the same name pass is represented by a place now called Kara Kapre inland; whence we may perhaps infer that the latter on the road between Mallus on the Pyramus (Jehan) had a port of the same name, more especially as the and Issus. But there was another pass “ which” language of Caesar (B. C. iii. 40) would imply that (as Major Rennell observes, and Leake agrees with Amantia was situated on the coast. Amantia was hin) “ crossing Mount Amanus from the eastward, a place of some importance in the civil wars betwera descended upon the centre of the head of the gulf, Caesar and Pompey; and it continued to be mennear Issus. By this pass it was that Darius marched tioned in the time of the Byzantine emperors. (Caes. from Sochus, and took up his position on the banks B. C. ii. 12, 40; Cic. Phil. xi. 11; Leake, Ancient of the Pinarus; by which movement Alexander, who Greece, vol. i. p. 375, seq.) had just before marched from Mallas to Myriandrus, AMA’NUS (o 'Auavós, Td 'Apavóv), is described 1 hrough the two maritime pylae, was placed between by Strabo as a detached part (ånbotadua) of Taurus, the Persians and Syria." (Leake, Journal of a Tour and as forming the southern boundary of the plain in Asia Minor, p. 210.) This is the pass which of Cataonia. He supposes this range to branch of has been assumed to be the Amanides of Arrian and from the Taurus in Cilicia, at the same place where Curtius, about NNE. of Issus. It follows from this the Antitaurus branches off and takes a more norththat the Amanicae Pylae of Arrian (Anab. ii. 7) are erly direction, forming the northern boundary of not the Amanides of Strabo. Q. Curtius speaks of Cataonia. (Strab. p. 535.) He considers the Amaa pass which Alexander had to go through in marching nus to extend eastward to the Euphrates and Melifrom the Pyramus to Issus, and this pass must be tene, where Commagene borders on Cappadocia, Kara Kapu. Kara Kapu is not on the coast, but Here the range is interrupted by the Euphrates, it is not far from it. If Strabo called this the but it recommences on the east side of the river, in Amanides Pylae, as he seems to have done, he cer a larger mass, more elevated, and more irregular in tainly gave the name to a different pass from that by | form. (Strab. p. 521.) He further adds: “the which Darius descended on Issus. There is another mountain range of Amanus extends (p. 535) to Cipassage of Strabo (p. 751) in which he says: " ad. licia and the Syrian sea to the west from Cataonis jacent to Gindarus is Pagrae in the territory of and to the south; and by such a division (diagTÁTEI) Antioch, a strong post lying in the line of the pass it includes the whole gulf of Issus and the interover the Amanus, I mean that pass which leads from mediate Cilician valleys towards the Taurus." This the Amanides Pylae into Syria.” Leake is clearly seems to be the meaning of the description of the right in not adopting Major Rennell's supposition Amanus in Strabo. Groskurd, in his German verthat Strabo by this pass means the Amanides. He sion (vol. ii. p. 448) translates diaorácer simply by evidently means another pass, that of Beilan, which “extent" (ausdehnung); but by attending to Strabo's leads from Iskenderun to Bakras or Pagras, which words and the order of them, we seem to deduce the is the modern name of Pagrae; and Strabo is so far meaning that the double direction of the mountain consistent that he describes this pass of Pagrae as includes the gulf of Issus. And this agrees with leading from the pass which he has called Amanicae. what Strabo says elsewhere, when he makes the Leake shows that the Amanides Pylae of Strabo are Amanus descend to the gulf of Issus between Aegae between Aegaeae and Issus, but he has not sufficiently and Issus. [AMANIDES PYLAE.] noticed the difference between Strabo and Arrian, as The term Amanus in Strabo then appears to be Cramer observes (Asia Minor, vol. ï. p.359). The applied to the high ground which descends from the map which illustrates Mr. Ainsworth's paper on the mass of Taurus to the gulf of Issus, and bounds the Cilician and Syrian Gates (London Geog. Journal, east side of it, and also to the highland which ervol. viii. p. 185), and which is copied on the op- tends in the direction already indicated to the posite page, enables us to form a more correct judg Euphrates, which it strikes north of Samosata (Soment of the text of the ancient writers; and we meisát). The Jáwur Dagh appears to be the momay now consider it certain that the Amanicae Pylaedern name of at least a part of the north-eastern of the historians of Alexander is the pass NNE. of course of the Amanus. The branch of the Amanus Issus, and that Strabo has given the name Amanides which descends to the Mediterranean on the east side to a different pass.

[G. L.] of the gulf of Issus is said to attain an average eleAMANTIA ('Amartia: Eth. 'Auartiets, Steph. / vation of 5000 feet, and it terminates abruptly in B. E. v.; 'Auavtivos, Ptol. ii. 16. $ 3; Amantinus, Jebel Kheserik and Rás-el-Khánzir. This cape Plin. iv. 10. s. 17. $35; Amantianus, Caes. B. C. seems to be Rhosus, or the Rhosicus Scopulus of iii. 12; "Apartes, Etym. M. 8. v.; Amantes, Plin. ïi. Ptolemy. There was near it a town Rhosus, which 23. s. 26. $ 45), a town and district in Greek Il- Stephanus (s. v. 'Pwoos) places in Cilicia. Rhosus is lyria. It is said to have been founded by the Abantes now Arsus. There is another short range which is of Euboea, who, according to tradition, settled near connected with Amanus, and advances right to the the Ceraunian mountains, and founded Amantia and borders of the sea, between Rás-el-Khánzir and the

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1. Ras-el-Khánzir. 2. Beilan Pass. 3. Boghras Pass. 4. Pass from Bayas. 5. Rhosus. 6. Alexandreia. 7. Kersus or Merkez. 8. Bayas. 9. Pinarus.

10. Ruins of Issus ? 11. Demir Kapu, or Kara Kapu. 12. Aegae. 13. Pyramus. 14. Selenceia. 15. Orontes. 16. Antiocheia. 17. Pagrae.

mouth of the Orontes: this appears to be the Pieria / marched 5 parasangs from Issus to the Cilician and of Strabo (p. 751). On the south-west base of this Syrian gates; and Iskenderun is 5 hours from Bayas. range, called Pieria, was Seleuceia, which Strabo (p. But still he thinks that Myriandrus is at Iskende676) considers to be the first city in Syria after run, and that the Cilician and Syrian pass is at leaving Cilicia. Accordingly, he considers the moun- | Merkez; but he adds, we must then remove Iseus tain range of Amanus, which terminates on the east to Demir Kapı; and this makes a new difficulty, side of the gulf of Issus, to mark the boundary be- | for it is certainly not 15 parasangs from Demir kaya tween Cilicia and Syria; and this is a correct view to the Pyramus. Besides, the position of Issus at of the physical geography of the country.

Demir Kapu will not agree with the march of Ales. Cicero (ad Fam. ii. 10), who was governor of ander as described by Curtius; for Alexander made Cilicia, describes the Amanus as common to him and two days' march from Mallus, that is, from the PrBibulus, who was governor of Syria; and he calls it ramus, to Castabalum; and one day's march from the water-shed of the streams, by which description Castabalum to Issus. Castabalum, then, may be he means the range which bounds the cast side of represented by Demir Kapu, undoubtedly the rethe gulf of Issus. His description in another pas- mains of a town, and Issus is somewhere east of sage also (ad Fam. xv. 4) shows that his Amanus it. The Peutinger Table places Issus next to Casis the range which bas its termination in Ras-el tabalum, and then comes Alexandreia (ad Issum). Khanzir. Cicero carried on a campaign against Consequently we should look for Issus somewbere the mountaineers of this range during his govern- on the road between Demir Kapu and Iskenderua, ment of Cilicia (B. c. 51), and took and destroyed | Now Issus, or Issi, as Xenophon calls it, was on or several of their hill forts. He enumerates among near the coast (Xen. Anab. i. 4; Strab. p. 676); them Erana (as the name stands in our present and Darius marched from Issus to the Pinarus to texts), which was the chief town of the Amanus, meet Alexander; and Alexander returned from MyriSepyra, and Commores. He also took Pindenissus, andrus, through the Pylae, to meet Darius. It seems a town of the Eleutherocilices, which was on a high that as the plain about the Pinarus corresponds to point, and a place of great strength. The passes in Arrian's description, this river must have been that the Amanus have been already enumerated. On the where the two armies met, and that we must look bay, between Iskenderun and Bayas, the Baiae of for Issus a little north of the Pinarus, and near the Strabo and the Itineraries, is the small river Merkez, head of the bay of Issus. Those who have ersupposed to be the Karsus or Kersus of Xenophon amined this district do not, however, seem to have (Anab. i. 4). On the south side of this small stream exhausted the subject; nor has it been treated by is a stone wall, which crosses the narrow plain be- | the latest writers with sufficient exactness. tween the Amanus and the sea, and terminates on Stephanus (s. v. logos) says that Issus was calle! the coast in a tower. There are also ruins on the Nicopolis in consequence of Alexander's victory. north side of the Kersus; and nearer to the moun- Strabo makes Nicopolis a different place; but his tain there are traces of " a double wall between description of the spots on the bay of Issus is conwhich the river flowed.” (Ainsworth, London Geog. fused. Cicero, in the description of his Cilician Journal, vol. viii.) At the head of the river Kersus campaign, says that he encamped at the Arae Alexis the steep pass of Boghras Beli, one of the passes andri, near the base of the mountains. He gives Ivo of the Amanus. This description seems to agree other indication of the site; but we may be sure with that of the Cilician and Syrian gates of Xeno- that it was north of the Cilician Pylae, and probably phon. The Cilician pass was a gateway in a wall it was near Issus.

[G. L.] which descended from the mountains to the sea north AMARDI, or MARDI ('Auapool, Mapool), a of the Kersus; and the Syrian pass was a gateway warlike Asiatic tribe. Stephanus (s. v. 'Auapool), in the wall which extended in the same direction to following Strabo, places the Amardi near the Hyt. the south of the river. Cyrus marched from the cani; and adds “ there are also Persian Mardi withSyrian pass five parasangs to Myriandrus, which out the a." Strabo (p. 514) says, “in a circle round may be near the site of Iskenderun. We need not the Caspian sea after the Hyrcani are the Amardi, suppose that the present walls near the Merkez are &c.” Under Mardi, Stephanus (quoting Apollodorus) as old as the time of Cyrus (B. C. 401); but it speaks of them as an Hyrcanian tribe, who were seems probable that this spot, having once been robbers and archers. Curtius (vi. 5) describes them chosen as a strong frontier position, would be main- as bordering on Hyrcania, and inhabiting mountains tained as such. If the Kersus is properly identified which were covered with forests. They occupied with the Merkez, we must also consider it as the therefore part of the mountain tract which forms the gates through which Alexander marched from Mallus southern boundary of the basin of the Caspian. to Myriandrus, and through which he returned from The name Mardi or Amardi, which we may assume Myriandrus to give battle to Darius, who had de- to be the same, was widely spread, for we find Mardi scended upon Issus, and thus put himself in the rear mentioned as being in Hyrcania, and Margiana, also of the Greeks. (Arrian. Anab. ii. 6, 8.) From as a nomadic Persian tribe (Herod. i. 125; Strab. these gates Alexander retraced his march to the p. 524), and as being in Armenia (Tacit. Ann. siv. river Pinarus (Deli Chai), near which was fought 23), and in other places. This wide distribution of the the battle of Issus (B. C. 333). If the exact po- | name may be partly attributed to the ignorance of sition of Issus were ascertained, we might feel more the Greek and Roman writers of the geography of certain as to the interpretations of Arrian and Cur- Asia, but not entirely.

[G. L.] tius. Niebuhr (Reisen durch Syrien, &c., 1837, AMARDUS, or MARDUS ('Auápdos, Mápkos, Anhang, p. 151), who followed the road from 18- Dionys. Perieg. v. 734), a river of Media, mentioned kenderun along the east coast of the bay of Issus on by Ammianus Marcellinus in his confused descriphis road to Constantinople, observes that Xenophon tion of the Persian provinces (xxiii. 6). Ptolemy makes the march of Cyrus 15 parasangs from the (vi. 2. § 2) places it in Media, and if we take his Pyramus to Issus; and he observes that it is 15 hours numbers as correct, its source is in the Zagrus. The by the road from Bayas to the Pyramus. Cyrus / river flows north, and enters the southern coast of



the Caspian. It appears to be the Seful-rud, or (kopuoal) are two, naturally connected with one Kizil Ozien as it is otherwise called. As Ptolemy another, very strongly fortified by towers; and within places the Amardi round the south coast of the this enclosure are the palace and the tornbs of the Caspian and extending into the interior, we may kings; but the heights have a very narrow neck, suppose that they were once at least situated on and the ascent to which is an altitude of 5 or 6 stadia about this river.

[G. L.] on each side as one goes up from the bank of the AJAPRI LACUS (al tikpal diuvai, Strab. xvii. river and the suburbs; and from the neck to the p.804; Plin vi. 29. s. 33), were a cluster of salt- | heights there remains another ascent of a stadium, kagoons east of the Delta, between the city of He- steep and capable of resisting any attack; the rock ruopolis and the desert of Etham- the modern Scheib. also contains (xer, not exer) within it water-cisThe Bitter Lakes had a slight inclination from N. to terns (uopeia) which an enemy cannot get possession E., and their general outline resembled the leaf of of (avapaipeta, the true reading, not avagépetai), the sycamore. Until the reign of Ptolemy Phila- | there being two galleries cut, one leading to the delphus (B. C. 285—247), they were the termination river, and the other to the neck; there are bridges of the royal canal, by which the native monarchs over the river, one from the city to the suburb, and and the Persian kings attempted, but ineffectually, another from the suburb to the neighbouring country, to join the Pelusiac branch of the Nile with the for at the point where this bridge is the mountain Bal Sta. Philadelphus carried the canal through terminates, which lies above the rock." This exthese lagoons to the city of Arsinoë. The mineral tract presents several difficulties. Groskurd, in his qualities of these lakes were nearly destroyed by the German version, mistakes the sense of two passages introduction of the Nile-water. A temple of Se- / (ii. p. 499). rapas stand on the northern extremity of the Bitter Amasia has been often visited by Europeans, but Lakes.

[W. B. D.) the best description is by Hamilton (Researches in AMARYNTHUS ('Audpudos : Eth. 'Awapuvdios, Asia Minor, gc. vol. i. p. 366), who gives a view 'Auerbios), a town upon the coast of Euboea, only of the place. He explains the remark of Strabo 7 stadia from Eretria, to which it belonged. It pos- about the 5 or 6 stadia to mean "the length of the Ressed a celebrated temple of Artemis, who was road by which alone the summit can be reached," for henna called Amarynthia or Amarysia, and in whose owing to the steepness of the Acropolis it is necessary bour there was a festival of this name celebrated, to ascend by a circuitous route. And this is clearly both in Eubea and Attica. (Strab. p. 448; Paus. | the meaning of Strabo, if we keep closely to his text. 1.31.95; Liv. xxxv. 38; Steph. B. 8. v.; Dict. of | Hamilton erroneously follows Cramer (Asia Minor, Anl. art. Amarynthia.)

vol. i. p. 302) in giving the version, " the summits AMASE'NTS, a stall river of Latium, still called have on each side a very narrow neck of land;" for the Amaseno, which rises in the Volscian mountains the words “ on each side" refer to the ascent to the ature Priverzum, and descends from thence to the “neck," as Groskurd correctly understands it. laPoptipp marshes, through which it finds its way to miłton found two “Hellenic towers of beautiful contiesa, between Tarracina and the Circeian pro- struction " on the heights, which he considers to be Youry. Before its course was artificially regulated the kopupal of Strabo. But the greater part of the it 138, together with its confluent the Ufens, one of walls now standing are Byzantine or Turkish. Iuthe chief agents in the formation of those marshes. deed we learn from Procopius (de Aedif. ii. 7), Its name is not found in Pliny or Strabo, but is re- that Justinian repaired this place. Hamilton obfratelly mentioned by Virgil (Aen. vii. 684, xi.547). serves: "the kopupai were not, as I at first imaServius, in his note on the former passage, errone gined, two distinct points connected by a narrow Cusly places it near Anagnia, evidently misled by the intermediate ridge, but one only, from which two espravions of Virgil. Vibius Sequester (p. 3) cor narrow ridges extend, one to the north, and the other Partly says “ Amasenus Privernatium.” [E. H. B.] to the east, which last terminates abruptly close to the

AMA'SIA ('Auáreia, 'Awagia : Eth. 'Auao eus: river.” But Strabo clearly means two kopupai, and Anasia, Amasiah, or Amusiyah), a town of Pon- | he adds that they are naturally united (ovupveis). tas, on the river Iris, or Yeshil Ermak. The It is true that he does not say that the neck unités cigin of the city is unknown. It was at one time them. This neck is evidently a narrow ridge of the residence of the princes of Pontus, and after steep ascent along which a man must pass to reach wards appears to have been a free city under the the kopupal. Punnans till the time of Domitian. It is said that! The udpeia were cisterns to which there was acall the cits to the time of Domitian have only the cess by galleries (oupiryes). Hamilton explored a epigraph Amaseia or Amasia, but that from this passage, cut in the rock, down which he descended time they bear the effigy and the name of a Roman about 300 feet, and found a “small pool of clear Euriperor. The coins from the time of Trajan bear cold water.” The wall round this pool, which apthe title Metropolis, and it appears to have been the peared to have been originally much deeper, was of ehief city of Pontas.

Hellenic masonry, which he also observed in soma Amasia was the birthplace of the geographer parts of the descent. This appears to be one of the Strabe, who describes it in the following words (p. | galleries mentioned by Strabo. The other gallery 561): "our city lies in a deep and extensive gorge, I was cut to the neck, says Strabo, but he does not through which the river Iris flows; and it is wonder- say from where. We may conclude, however, that fully constructed both by art and by nature, being | it was cut from the Kopupal to the ridge, and that alapted to serve the purpose both of a city and the other was a continuation which led down to the of a fort. For there is a lofty rock, steep on all well. Hamilton says : "there seem to have been skles, and descending abruptly to the river; this rock two of these covered passages or galleries at Amasia, has its wall in one direction on the brink of the one of which led from the kopupal or summits in an hiper, at that part where the city is connected with easterly direction to the ridge, and the other from Hi and in the other direction, the wall runs up the the ridge into the rocky hill in a northerly direction. will at each side to the heights; and the heights. The former, however, is not excavated in the rock,

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like the latter, but is built of masonry above ground, mention Amastris. (Comp. Plin. vi. 2.) There yet equally well concealed."

| is a coin with the epigraph Sesamum. Those of The tombs of the kings are below the citadel to Amastris have the epigraph Auao Tplaywy. the south, five in number, three to the west, and two The territory of Amastris produced a great quanto the east. The steep face of the rock has been tity of boxwood, which grew on Mount Cytorus. artificially smoothed. *“ Under the three smaller The town was taken by L. Lucullus in the Mithritombs . ... are considerable remains of the old datic war. (Appian. Mithrid. 82.) The younger Greek walls, and a square tower built in the best Pliny, when he was governor of Bithynia and PonHellenic style.” These walls can also be traced tus, describes Amastris, in a letter to Trajan (I. up the hill towards the west, and are evidently those 99), as a handsome city, with a very long open described by Strabo, as forming the peribolus or en place (platea), on one side of which extended what closure within which were the royal tombs. (Ha- was called a river, but in fact was a filthy, pestilent, milton.) The front wall of an old medresseh at open drain. Pliny obtained the emperor's permission Amasia is built of ancient cornices, friezes, and ar- to cover over this sewer. On a coin of the time of chitraves, and on three long stones which form the Trajan, Amastris has the title Metropolis. It consides and architrave of the entrance there are frag-tinued to be a town of some note to the seventh cenments of Greek inscriptions deep cut in large letters.tury of our aera.

[G. L.] Hamilton does not mention a temple which is spoken of by one traveller of little credit.

The territory of Amasia was well wooded, and adapted for breeding horses and other animals; and the whole of it was well suited for the habitation of man. A valley extends from the river, not very wide at first, but it afterwards grows wider, and forms the plain which Strabo calls Chiliocomon, and this was succeeded by the districts of Diacopene and Pimolisene, all of which is fertile as far as the Halys.

COIN OF AMASTRIS. These were the northern parts of the territory, and extended 500 stadia in length. The southern por A MATHUS ('Ajalous, -OÚVTOS: Eth. 'Apatostion was much larger, and extended to Babonomon clos: Adj. Amathusiacus, Ov. Met. x. 227.: nr. Old and Ximene, which district also reached to the Limasol), an ancient town on the S. coast of CyHalys. Its width from north to south reached to prus, celebrated for its worship of Aphrodite Zelitis and the Great Cappadocia as far as the Trocmi. who was hence called Amathusia — and of Adonis. In Ximene rock salt was dug. Hamilton procured (Scylax, p. 41; Strab. p. 683; Paus. ix. 41, at Amasia a coin of Pimolisa, a place from which the $ 2; Steph. B. 8. v.; Tac. Ann. iii. 62; Catull. district Pimolisene took its name, in a beautiful lviii. 51; Ov. Am. iii. 15. 15.) It was originally state of preservation.

a settlement of the Phoenicians, and was proThe modern town stands on both sides of the river; bably the most ancient of the Phoenician colonies it has 3970 houses, all mean; it produces some silk in the island. Stephanus calls Amathus the most (London Geog. Jour. vol. x. p. 442.) [G.L.] ancient city in the island, and Scylax describes its AMASTRA. [AMESTRATUS.]

inhabitants as autochthones. Its name is of PhoeAMASTRIS (Auaotpis : Eth. 'Auaotplavós, nician origin, for we find a town of the same name Amastrianus: Amasra, or Amasserah), a city of in Palestine. (See below.) Amathus appears to Paphlagonia, on a small river of the same name. have preserved its Oriental customs and character, Amastris occupied a peninsula, and on each side of long after the other Phoenician cities in Cyprus had the isthmus was a harbour (Strab. p. 544): it was become hellenized. Here the Tyrian god Melkart, 90 stadia east of the river Parthenius. The original whom the Greeks identified with Heracles, was wor. city seems to have been called Sesamus or Sesamum, shipped under his Tyrian name. (Hesych. s. r. and it is mentioned by Homer (Il. ii. 853) in con- Márika, tov 'Hpakéa, 'Apaloúo 101.) The Phoejunction with Cytorus. Stephanus (s. v. "Auaotpis) nician priesthood of the Cinyradae appears to have says that it was originally called Cromna; but in long continued to exercise its authority at Amathus. another place (s. v. Kpwuva), where he repeats the Hence we find that Amathus, as an Oriental town, statement, he adds. “ as it is said: but some say | remained firm to the Persians in the time of Dathat Cromna is a small place in the territory of rius I., while all the other towns in Cyprus reAmastris,” which is the true account. The place volted. (Herod. v. 104, seq.) The territory of derived its name Amastris from Amastris, the niece | Amathus was celebrated for its wheat (Hipponax, of the last Persian king Darius, who was the wife of ap. Strab. p. 340), and also for its mineral proDionysius, tyrant of Heracleia, and after his death ductions (fecundam Amathunta metalli, Ov, Met. the wife of Lysimachus. Four places, Sesamus, x. 220, comp. 531.) Cytorus, Cromna, also mentioned in the Iliad (ii. Amathus appears to have consisted of two distinct 855), and Teion or Tios, were combined by Amas- parts: one upon the coast, where Old Limasol now tris, after her separation from Lysimachus (Memnon, stands, and the other upon a hill inland, about 1 ap. Phot. Cod. ccxxiv.), to form the new community | mile from Old Limasol, at the village of Agios Tyof Amastris. Teion, says Strabo, soon detached itself chonos, where Hammer discovered the ruins of the from the community, but the rest kept together, and temple of Aphrodite. (Hammer, Reise, p. 129; EnSesamus was the acropolis of Amastris. °From this gel," Kypros, vol. i. p. 109, seq.1 Movers, Die Phó it appears that Amastris was really a confederation nizier, vol. ii. pt. i. pp. 221, 240, seq.) or union of three places, and that Sesamus was the A'MATHUS ('Auabous or ta 'A madá), a strongly name of the city on the peninsula. This may ex- fortified city on the east of the Jordan, in Lower plain the fact that Mela (i. 19) mentions Sesamus | Persia, 21 Roman miles south of Pella. (Eusebii and Cromna as cities of Paphlagonia, and does not Onomast.) It was destroyed by Alexander Jannaeus

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