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shown in the following engraving), for raising the then immediately through the second. It is then contents to the required temperature.

washed in clean water in what is called a wince-pit, and again in a dash-wheel. [See BLEACHING.] Dunging is further useful in removing the thickening paste by which the mordant is applied, and it also determines a more intimate union between the mordant and the fibre of the cloth. The process is necesssary for alum, iron, and tin mordants, when applied to the cloth before the coloring matter.

The difficulty of procuring cow-dung in sufficient quantities has led to attempts to find substitutes in those chemical substances which an analysis of dung indicates as the essential ingredients. Thus a solution of phospate of soda and phosphate of lime, with a little glue or some other form of gelatine, has been used under the name of dung-substitute, or simply substitute.

After washing in cold water, the mordanted cloth is winced in a weak solution of substitute and size

It is then ready for the color. This is not applying PREPARATION OF COLORS, &c

by the process of printing, but simply by drawing Although the different methods of printing are the cloth for two or three hours through a solution numerous, and the combinations of colors and shades of the coloring material. The color attaches itself of color almost infinite, yet each color in a pattern { permanently to those portions of the cloth to which must, in the present state of the art, be applied by the mordant has been applied, and forins a true one of six different styles of work. These are term chemical compound therewith ; but on the unmored, 1, the Madder style; 2, Printing by steam; 3, danted portions the color is feebly attached, and is the Padding style ; 4, the Resist style; 5, the Dis- subsequently removed by washing in soap and water, charge style; and 6, the China-Blue style. By the or in bran and water, or in a dilute solution of chloproper combination of two or more of these styles, {

ride of lime. This last washing is called clearing. any pattern, however complicated, is produced.

Such is a very meagre outline of the most imporThe madder style is so called from its being chiefly tant processes concerned in printing and dyeing a practised with niadder; but it is applicable to most piece of calico according to the madder style. The soluble vegetable and animal coloring matters. The processes actually required for finishing a piece of first process in this style is to print the calico with cloth are numerous, as for example in producing a a mordant; that is, instead of printing at once with red stripe upon a white ground, the bleached cloth color, the parts of the surface which are to have a is submitted to nineteen operations, as follows: 1. madder color imparted to them are first impressed Printing on mordant of red liquor (a preparation with a mordant. After the calico has passed through of almina) thickened with flour, and dyeing; 2. the hot flue, it is in many cases suspended free Ageing for three days; 3. Dunging ; 4. Wincing in from folds for one or two days in what is called the cold water; 5. Washing at the dash-wheel; 6. ageing-room, where by exposure to air the mordant, Wincing in dung-substitute and size; 7. Wincing or a portion thereof, undergoes a chemical alteration, in cold water; 8. Dyeing in madder; 9. Wincing whereby it becomes attached to the cloth in an in in cold water; 10. Washing at the dash-wheel; 11. soluble state. Any portion of the mordant that Wincing in soap-water containing a salt of tin; 12. remains in a soluble state must be completely re Washing at the dash-wheel ; 13. Wincing in soapmoved, or the color in being subsequently applied water; 14. Wincing in a solution of bleaching-powwould spread over the surface, instead of being } der; 15. Washing at the dash-wheel; 16. Drying confined within the limits of the pattern. The su by the water extractor ; 17. Folding ; 18. Starching; perfluous mordant is removed by passing the dried } 19. Drying by steam. calico through a warm mixture of cow-dung and The operations of wasbing and drying are very water. This is called dunging. The mixture is important, and provision is made for them on a very usually contained in two stone cisterns, placed end complete scale. The pieces of cloth are brought to end, each about 6 feet long, 3 feet wide, and 4 ] down into water tanks, passing under and over rollfeet deep. The mixture in one cistern is formed { ers, furnished with balance-weights to keep the with about 2 gallons of dung to the cistern full of 3 calico stretched : these weights can be adjusted on water, heated to about 160° or 180°. The second their levers, so as to vary the tension to any degree cistern contains about half this quantity of dung. required. In some cases, the bottom of the tank is The calico, guided by rollers to keep it free from supplied with water in jets, so that the calico is subfolds, is drawn quickly through the first trough, and }jected to the dashing action of the water. In pass.

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nanmanan ing out of the washing-machine, the calico is re- The colors which attach themselves firmly to the oeived on a skeleton roller, where it is smoothed by cloth by being printed on it with a mordant are an attendant, and passes from this to the drying { not numerous, but by exposing the goods so printed

to the action of steam, an intimate combination,

takes place between the tissue, the coloring matter, and the mordant. The mechanical arrangements for steaming are various. In some works the cloth is suspended free from folds in a small chamber of masonry, into which steam is admitted. In other works the goods are placed in a large deal box, the lid of which is made nearly steam-tight by edges of felt, and the steam is admitted through a pipe perforated with a multitude of small holes, which traverses the box. But the common method is to coil the calico round a hollow copper cylinder, A, (see p. 120,) perforated with holes, the lower end of which is connected with a steam-pipe. The cylinder is prepared by mounting it in a horizontal position in a frame. A roll of

blanket is first lapped round it, then a piece DRYING CYLINDER 8.

of white calico, and, lastly, three or four

pieces of the printed and dried calico stitched end cylinders, a section of which is shown in the follow-} to end. The cylinder is then fixed upright in a ing figure, where the arrow on the left shows the small apartment furnished with a chimney to carry calico proceeding from the washing machine, pasg- } off the steam. The open end of the cylinder is ing over & guide-roller r, and then over the drying screwed to a pipe connected with the spheres ss, cylinders, which are of metal, and heated by steam. which are supplied with steam from the main boiler It is then guided by a second roller r to the drum D, { of the works, the quantity being regulated by a on which it is finally wound.

stopcock c. The temperature is kept at 211° or

212° to prevent much condensation, which makes the colors run. A higher temperature is injurious, but a slight condensation is required to keep the goods moist. The steaming is carried on for from twenty to forty minutes, according to the nature of the color. When the steam is cut off, the cloth is unrolled immediately, to prevent condensation. On exposure to the air, the thickening material soon solidifies, and the

goods become dry and stiff. The cloth is In another form of washing-machine, the cloth is į then aged for a day or two, and the thickener arranged in folds upon a shelf to the left of the ma- gently washed out with cold water. chine, whence it is guided by rollers into the first The operation of steaming not only attaches the vat or division of the machine : it then passes out { color firmly, but gives it brilliancy and delicacy of between rollers which press out the water, and thus į finish. It is not always adopted, for some colors make it again absorbent, before passing into the become firmly attached to the cloth by mere expo. second division: it proceeds in this way until it į sure to air. A variety of cheap goods are printed arrives at the sevenih division, where the rollers are in fugitive colors; these, not being fixed by steampressed together with weighted levers, and the calico { ing or by a mordant, are called spirit, fancy, or leaves the machine with most of its moisture pressed wash-off colors. out. The object of having the divisions of unequal} The third style, called the padding style, applies height is to establish a current of water; for the } to mineral colors only. By this style a pattern may tallest vat being first supplied, overflows into the be produced on white or colored ground, and a next, and this into the third from the right, until ground may also be formed for the design in other the collected overflowings escape by the lowest vat. colors. For the latter purpose the padding machine In this way a current is kept up, and the calico, } is used. A roller covered with blanket dips partly moving in a contrary direction to that of the current, { into the trough, and above and in contact with this is completely washed.

is another roller, and the cloth to be padded passes The second style of calico-printing is by steam. between the two. When the cloth is uniformly im

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bued with the color, it is dried at a temperature of are fat resists. Others act chemically as well as 212°. If the color is to be applied to the face of mechanically.

The object of the fifth or discharge style is to produce a white or colored figure upon a colored ground. For this purpose, the dyed or mordanted cloth is printed with a substance called the discharger, which acts either on the coloring matter or on the mordant before the cloth is exposed to the dye. The discharger acts by converting the coloring matter on the mordant into colorless or soluble products, which may thus be removed so as to allow the parts thus discharged to be dyed in another color. A vegetable or animal coloring matter is usually discharged by chlorine and chromic acid; and a mordant is dissolved by an acid solution.

By this style are produced the well-known imitations of Bandana handkerchiefs, in which white figures are formed on a ground of Turkey-red by means of an aqueous solution of chlorine. This is made to flow down through the red cloth in certain points, which are defined and circumscribed by the pressure of hollow lead types inserted into plates of lead contained in a hydraulic press. The press is furnished with a pair of pattern plates, one attached to the upper block of the press, and the other to the movable part or sill. From twelve to fourteen pieces of cloth previously dyed in Turkey-red are stretched over each other as evenly as possible, and then rolled round a drum. A portion of the fourteen layers equal to the area of the plates being drawn through between them, the press is worked and the plates are brought together with a force of

upwards of 300 tons. The solution of chlorine is STEAMING APPARATUS.

then allowed to flow into the hollows of the upper

lead plate, whence it descends on the cloth, and the cloth only, the common printing machine with percolates through it, extracting the Turkey-red & roughened roller is used instead of the padding dye, the intense pressure preventing the bleaching machine. The ground is sometimes produced by } liquor from spreading beyond the limits of the figthe union of two colors in solution forming within ures perforated in the plates. When a certain the fibre of the cloth itself an insoluble colored pre- } quantity of bleaching liquor has passed through, cipitate. For this purpose the cloth is first passed water is admitted in a similar manner to wash away through one colored solution, and then dried. It is the chlorine. The pressure is then removed, and next passed through the other colored solution; the another square of the fourteen layers is moved fortwo then react upon each other, and produce the ward under the plates, and the process is repeated. desired effect. Or the cloth may be padded in one When all the pieces have been discharged, they are solution, and afterwards winced in the other. In winced in water, and further treated so as to imorder to produce a design on a white or colored prove the lustre both of the white and of the red. ground, the cloth is printed with one of the solutions, The sixth and last style of printing is for Chinaand tben padded or winced in the other.

blue, a peculiar style, practised with indigo only, In the next style of printing, the resist style, the two or three shades of color being commonly assowhite cloth is printed with a resist paste, the object ciated with white. The bleached calico is printed of which is to prevent those portions of the cloth of the required pattern with a mixture of indigo, to which it is applied in the form of a pattern, from orpiment, sulphate of iron, gum and water. It is taking up color when the cloth is passed through then aged for a day or two, and afterwards stretched the dye-beck. A white design on a colored ground { in perpendicular folds on a rectangular frame of is a simple example of this style. There are two wood. This is immersed in a certain order in threo classes of resists—one to prevent & mordant from liquids, contained in stone cisterns, the tops of attaching itself to the portions of the cloth co pro- } which are on a level with the ground: 1, in milk tected, and the other to shield the cloth from color of lime: 2, in a solution of sulphate of iron; 3, in ing matter. Somo resists act mechanically; such a solution of caustic soda. The frames are dipped




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several times alternately into the first and second { chemical arrangements of a large print-work. In cisterns, with exposure to the air for a short time addition to these, every calico-printer must have

the means of producing a constant succession of new

patterns; for, were he to neglect to satisfy the craving after novelty in dress which seems to form a part of the mental constitution of all classes, his goods would be neglected, however fine in material, excellent in weaving, elegant in design, and tasteful in the choice, variety, and combination of color. The spring or the winter fashions of each year must be new; and although million's of patterns have preceded those of any particular year, yet the patterns each year must be stamped with the characteristic of novelty, or they will not sell. The production of this novelty requires months of previous preparation; and it is the business of a peculiar set of artists or pattern designers to furnish the printer with a large variety of designs, from which he selects those which he thinks likely to suit the taste of

his customers. INDIGO VAT.

A set of designers is usually attached to

{ large print-works, consisting of two or three artists, between each dip; they are not dipped so frequently and four or five apprentices. The designs furnished into the third cistern, but the dipping into this fol by them often annount to several thousands every lows immediately after that in No. 2. By these year, from which the printer selects those which apoperations, the insoluble indigo, which had been pear likely to succeed, either from novelty of design applied to the surface becomes converted into or the tasteful distribution of form and color. Some yolublo indigo, or indigotin, which is dissolved and designers work on their own account, and sell their transferred to the interior of the fibres, where it is designs at prices varying from a few shillings to precipitated in the original insoluble form.

many dollars. In our next, we will give a descripSuch is a general outline of the mechanical and } tion of the mode of calendering various cloths,

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(Sce Plate.)

ANDY CAVENDER was a sad trifler in his way. There had come to Woodland, to pass a few There was scarcely a maiden in the village to whom months during the warm summer-time, a city maiden, he had not made love at one time or another, and whose charms were too potent for the village flirt. all as a pleasant piece of pastime; not seeming to She came, he saw, and was conquered. It was 8007 understand that maidens' hearts were tender things, plain to every one that it was all over with Andy and liable to be burt in the handling.

Cavender. Kate—the lively, witty, darling Kate Many tears had he caused to flow from beautiful Archer bad subdued him with her charms, though eyes, yet, if he knew of the fact, it did not appear to all unconscious herself of the conquest she had give him serious concem. There was always a { made. smile on his lip and a light word on his tongue.

But others saw what she perceived not, and looked At last, however, Andy's heart received an im on curious for the issue. pression. The image of a fair young girl rested “What do you think of this, Jenny?" said Kate upon it; not as of old, like the image in a speculum, { Archer, one day, to the young friend with whom she to pass with the object, but like the sun-fixed im- } was spending her summer in the country, and she age of the Daguerreotype. Strange fact! the fickle, } laughed as she spoke, at the same time holding up light-hearted Andy Cavender was in love; really and } a letter. truly in love.

“News from home ?” remarked Jenny, smiling.

« Oh dear, no! It's a love-letter."

“Oh, that depends on your feelings." “ What !"

“He's a regular flirt you say ?” A real righty love-letter, and, as they say, no “I could name you a dozen girls at least, to whom thing else. Oh dear! To think that I should have his attentions have been of a character to make made a conquest already!"

them believe that his designs were serious. Two or “A love-letter, Kate? Well, here is an adven three were made very unhappy when he turned ture, sure enough! Whose heart have you broken?" from them, like a gay insect, to seek another

“You shall see and hear for yourself,” replied the { flower.” laughing girl. Then, as she unfolded the letter, she “Then he must be punished," said Kate, resoput on a grave countenance, and, opening the pages { lutely; "and be mine the task to lay the smarting to the eyes of her friend, read aloud

lash upon his shoulders. For the man who delibe

rately trifles with a woman's feelings I have no pity. • “MY DEAR Miss ArchER: Will you permit one { He has been the cause of pain beyond what it is who, from the moment he saw you, became an possible for himself to feel; and, if I can reach his ardent admirer, to lay his heart at your feet? Un- } sensibilities in any way, you may be sure that I will til you appeared in our quiet village, no maiden had do it with a hearty good-will." passed before me who had power to win my love. “I do not like the thought of giving pain,” reBut, from the moment I saw you, I no longer had marked Jenny, “even to a reptile." control over my affections. They few to you like a " Pain is salutary in most cases; and will be parbird to its mate. You cannot but have observed, in ticularly so in this, I hope. He will have some all our recent meetings, that I regarded you with idea of how it feels, as the woman said, when she more than a common interest, and I have permitted rapped her boy over the head with a stick for strikmyself to believe that you read the language of my { ing his sister." eyes, and understood its meaning. You did not } It was as Jenny supposed, and as we intimated in turn from me ; you did not look coldly on me. Havo the beginning; Andy Cavender was really and truly I erred in believing that your heart responded to over head and ears in love with Kate Archer, and the warm emotions of my own? I trust not. If it every line of his amatory epistle was from his heart. be so, then am I of all men most miserable. I will Two or three letters were written and destroyed bewait, with trembling and impatient hope, your fore he produced one exactly to his mind, and this answer to this.

he finally dispatched in full confidence that, as it “ Tenderly and faithfully yours,

came from his heart, it must reach the heart of the “ANDREW Cavender." lovely maiden.

Two days went by, and no answer was received “Now, Jenny dear, what do you think of that?" by the enamored swain. He began to feel anxious. said Kate, gayly, as she folded up her letter. On the third day, a neat little perfumed envelop “ Havn't I made a real conquest ?"

came into his hands, which, on opening, he found to “Andy Cavender! Well, that beats everything!" contain a pink, perfumed, satin-edged sheet of note

“None of your country maidens for him," laughed paper, on which were a few lines most delicately Kate. “He must have a city belle."

written. They were as follows :“Country maidens! He's made love to every good-looking girl within ten miles round.”

“MY DEAR Sır: Your letter, containing a most “ He ?"

flattering avowal of regard for one who is compara“Yes. There 's no counting the hearts he has tively a stranger, has been received. Its effect I broken."

will not attempt to describe ; nor will I, at this “Did he ever make love to you ?”

time, venture to put in written language what I feel. “Oh, certainly,” replied Jenny, gayly.

To-morrow evening I will spend at Mrs.

T i s. “ In real earnest ?"

May I hope to see you there? “Ah! now you come to the point. Perhaps

“Yours, &c.,

Kate." you've not heard that Andy is our village flirt ?"

“A flirt, indeed! And so I am to be one of his Andy was in ecstasies at this answer to his epistle. victims. Oh dear!"

Its meaning to him was as plain as if Kate had said, “I don't know as to that. I more than half sus “Dear Andrew, my heart is yours." pect him to be in earnest now. In fact, I've heard, On the next evening, he repaired to Mrs. T— 's, from more than one source, that he is desperately in trembling with fond anticipation. On entering the love with you."

parlor, he found but a single person therein, and “Will he hang himself if I'm inexorable ?" that a young lady named Herbert, to whom he had “There 's no telling. But what kind of an

formerly paid very marked attentions. Aware that answer are you going to make to his arowal of she had been made unhappy by his fickleness, not love ?"

to call it by a harsher name, the meeting rather “What shall I say?"

threw a damper over his foelings. But Andy had

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