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Hail to thee, France! land delivered once more ; ) dral bodies—by secrecy imposed from within
A waking to good may this wakening prove upon oath, instead of by free inspection And knees bent oft now which bent rarely from without. That shadow of non-interbefore
ference destroyed their independence. To Heaven above, to Heaven above.
These were popular institutions : founded
for the people,' intended to be manned The Return.
mainly by the people. Like many other Songs of our home, as we come from the strife; institutions, the want of publicity threw How sweet to our souls must your glad | them into the hands of an oligarchy. Disaccents be!
satisfaction with their working has been proBe proud, thou dear land, thou who gavest us | pitiated from time to time by partial spoliaThat gládly we staked it for honour and thee.
tions. But radical change, or free developBeautiful mountains, bright river and plain,
ment, has never been attempted. Little Back to your borders beloved we come;
effort has been made to secure good appointMeet us with welcome, returning again,
ments, or to promote efficiency. Songs of our home, songs of our home.
Every interference hitherto has been a
direct blow at their operativeness. The We can conclude with no better aspira- most far-reaching, the most effectively entions than the last four lines contain, and dowed, the most influential Christian instituwith the fervent hope that the gallant efforts, tions of the country (for the headship of which the French are now making to drive the bishop placed thein far above the monasthe invaders from their soil, may lead to a teries) were cramped and paralysed, and the lasting peace.
process has been continued till the present day. Suppression is yet withheld. For the merits, the services, and the earnestness of many who hold cathedral office, still suggest
that there is a vitality worth preserving; and Art. VIII.-1. Liber Niger, sive Consue- I awaken the suspicion that the popular gentle
tudinarium Ecclesiæ B. V. M. Lincoln- defence of them as . retiring pensions' is the iensis.
protest of an ignorant but true instinct, 2. Novum Registrum, A. D. 1450.
which distantly feels, yet fails to express, 3. Laudum Willielmi Alnwyke.
their value as standing outside of our paro4. Report of Commission on Cathedral chial system. Establishments.
Meantime Church life has been growing
poorer and thinner, in default of this activiPROFESSOR WESTCOTT recently produced ty. Not only is it true that, as the Commisan interesting account of the great princi- sioners of 1854 remark (First Report, p. ples and views upon which the cathedrals of xxx.), almost all the best writers of the the new foundation were erected. He de- Church of England bave been connected scribed the large conceptions formed of with her cathedrals ;' but the older annals their intended uses, and the partial provision both of our own and foreign Churches teem made for their development. His work was with the noble characters formed by chapter the more serviceable, because it was no fancy life and prebendal work, and the distinctive sketch or composition from the details of influences which pervaded them. For us several such institutions, but rested upon the their function rises again into importance; memoir of one.
we turn to them as to no other institution we Professor Westcott forbore to dwell on possess; our coming necessities will demand the causes which from the first impeded, the recognition of those functions, and clogged, and finally almost stopped the ac- places and means to work. tion of these instruments, sagaciously calcu- Now that popular opinion presses it upon lated, and once carefully adapted to discharge the Universities to abandon any special obliimportant, distinct.functions in our society gation of training for the Church of Engand polity. It would require a very de- land, beyond lectures which in a few years tailed, in many places a dry, disquisition to may be given, as in our foreign models, from expose these causes in full. It would be in a merely critical and negative platform, those other respects a painfully interesting chapter who claim for the Christian Church a special of national and social history. Among the influence in life and thought, for Christian most active causes are the unscrupulousness grace a distinct operation; who desire that of ministries, and the potency of great our clergy should be trained still in schools families; another is the grand mistake of which shall maintain their pure influence and the political method by which it was at that of their families in social life: schools, tempted to guard the liberties of the cathe meantime, which shall advance and not retard a full appreciation by our clerics of It will be understood then, that, unless the thought and science of their own time: reference is made to others, the system here those, who looking out on the fields of Non- described is that of a single cathedral, the conformity, see little reason why many a Church of Lincoln.' And first it will be separation should not be absorbed in a necessary to say a few words on the docularger charity: those again who, in whatever ment which supplies the materials of the attitude, desire to approach foreign Churches past and to explain the present condition of with something of mutual understanding that system. who believe that to effect all these great ends The MS. copy now before us is a transcript set before our generation, there is needed no made about a century ago from an older narrowing scheme but a manifoldly multi-document which is still in existence. Anplied host of cultivated, politic, tolerant other copy is in the possession of the chapmnen, students and masters, pastors and mis- ter. Extracts from it have been printed in sioners of every order; and that this training Wilkins' Concilia,' and thence transferred will require every possible gradation of to some parliamentary reports. But as a knowledge and experience, modern and whole it.is unknown,* and a most interestethnic, Continental, Oriental, American, to be brought to bear on it-cannot but look * It must have been almost unknown, one to the cathedrals, so adequate, so ready for would think, in 1852, to the chapter of that date, the emergency in particulars which it would
when they informed the commission then sitting
that the statutes' relating to the duties of the be impossible to create, as the basis from
dean and residentiary chapter having been estawhich our new work must begin. Specially | blished during the prevalence of the Roman they look to their moral as well as their Catholic religion in this kingdom, the duties material outlines, to the type of society
detailed in the statutes relate to forms and pro
ceedings during divine service in the cathedral which they preserve to us—type of strength
in accordance with that form of worship. The in co-operation, strength in due subordina statutes have not been remodelled at the time of, tion of varying gifts, strength in religious or since, the Reformation, and are not applicable fellowship. For it is almost amazing to
to the performance of divine service according observe the clearness with which the lines of
to the Reformed Church of England. In point
of fact, directions as to divine service form a very plans, grand beyond any recent conceptions,
small part of the whole, and even as to this part remain traced in the ground when roof and the only inapplicable directions are those rubrics pillar are gone to build the neighbouring (often from missal and breviary) incorporamansions Retrenchment diversion and ted in the statutes, for which other rubrics.
and services are legally substituted in the Prayer. redistribution have done their work with
Book; services such as those of installations, axe and hammer, plane and file; but the regulations concerning the places of the dignidawning age gives signs of being an age of taries, the apportioned psalms whose daily reci. reconstruction. As in art, so in polity, we
tation is solemnly assigned to each member of have, when the principles are lost, to study
the body, and numerous smaller usages, even as
to the cathedral services, are still carried on in and reproduce before we can develop a style conformity with the statutes, which the whole all our own. To be constructive has rarely chapter swear to obey in all things legal, and been the function of civil powers, rarely of which comprise a large body of enactments, still the highest ranks. Other classes create; and
acted on as the valid constitution of the body
As to the Divinity Lecturer (whose office was in creating new-create themselves. The
also, in the answers of 1852, ignored), he is not English laity are less indifferent than ever to only provided by the statutes, but the present the standard assumed for clerical obliga- holder of the office duly lectures. tions, more impatient of perfunctoriness and
| It is singular that the then body should have incapacity. Abolition is, however, not so
taken a view so different from that taken by
other cathedral bodies ; e.g., Exeter, which states popular a specific of late, and in all depart that the fundamental provisions of its “customents of national life the balance of means mary” have been acknowledged and acted upon.' to end is receiving truer adjustment.
The most ancient existing customs of the In the following pages we propose to carry
churches in question are no less detailed in one
| statute book than in the other. out a hint of Professor Westcott, and by a
It was stated also to the Cathedral Commission sketch of a cathedral of the old foundation (1st Rep., 1854, p. 254) that 'the statutes (of to make, however unworthily, a pendant to Lincoln) embodied in the “Registrum Novum" do his masterly picture of one of the new not appear to have been altered or modified except
as to the time of residence, and except by the foundation.
award or determination of Bishop Alnwick, anno We are sure he will rejoice with us that | Domini, 1440. the outlines are in many respects different. | However, the “Novum Registrum,' date A true intelligence will deprecate, in the | Michaelmas, A.D. 1440, is posterior to the process of reconstruction, nothing more than
| Laudum' of Bishop Alnwick, which is
dated! 23 June, 1439, and was sealed at Netuniformity of structure under varying condi- 1 tlelam. 29 June, 1439 : so that the Laudum tions.
| did not modify the statutes as contained in the
ing document it is. The volume contains :— months he pronounced an elaborate Lau(1) The Novum Registrum,* or New Cus- dum,* or arbitration, on forty-two articles tom Book drawn up and formally passed, as exhibited by the chapter and fourteen exhiwe shall presently relate, as a complete bited by the dean. This was only the last body and summary of statutes for the cathe- of many such trials, sumptuosæ quampludral in the year 1440. (2) The old Vicars' | rimum,' which had been brought before Statutes,' which are re-enacted. (3) The various prelates, and been carried even to
Laudum,' or Arbitration of Bishop Aln- the Roman curia. On nearly all the articles wick, and two or three Indentures. A lit- the dean was shown to have been the agtle before the middle of the fifteenth centu- gressor and in the wrong. Nothing can ry the divisions between the dean and the exceed the delicacy with which he is treated. chapters of this cathedral bad reached a Precautions are taken against the repetition complication which induced both sides to of disorders, and the past is condoned. have recourse to the visitor's arbitration. But then a new and still more important The chapter and the dean of the day (* De- business was undertaken, and within another canus modernus'), Macworth by name, year completed. Bishop Alnwick reviewed Chancellor to the Prince of Wales, made the whole of the ancient statutes, which apunqualified submission or "compromission' pear to have existed in four different docuof their cause 'ex alto et basso, absolute et ments, dating from the year 1000 A.D., and libere,' into the bishop's hands. William to have been derived from the statutes of Alnwick, lately come to his throne, was Rouen Cathedral ; of the various Landa an able, statesmanlike prelate. After twelve pronounced by at least six different bishops; .
of the numerons private agreements with the
founders of not less than twenty chantries; Sovum Registrum.' The ‘Novum Registrum' and the ‘Laudum' both give ample evidence of
and of the record of traditional custom by very frequent modifications. The following which much both of the business and of Lauda are expressly mentioned, and partly the religious work of the cathedral was reaccepted, partly overruled ; viz., of Bp. Robert gulated ; on this head Bishop Alnwick cited Grosted, 1235-1253, of Bp. Rd. Gravesend, 1258 1279, Bp. John Dalderby, 1299-1319, Bp. John
and examined numerous witnesses. There Gynewell, 1951-1362, Bp. Hen. Beaufort, 1997- was much that was contradictory and
was much that was contradictory and ob. 1404, Bp. Wm. Gray, 1420-1435, besides some scure in this mass of material ; nothing can important modifications called 'Articuli quos be more creditable than the compact and ipsemet Decanus in præsentia Dni Thesaurarii | distinct work which, divided into five books. Angliæ inter se et capitulum concordatos fore fatebatur ac ibidem ratificavit et subscripsit.'
was shortly presented to the chapter by the The rule traceable through this interesting bishop, by them accepted, and then ratified Register is the same which prevailed elsewhere. and authenticated with the seals of both' "The statutes were enacted from time to time
as the sole embodiment of their law--and pro re nata. They were framed in the form of injunctions from the bishop as visitor, requiring
which, together with the Laudum itself, is the more accurate observance of existing ordi.
at the present day accepted upon oath by nances, or of new statutes, either suggested by every canon or prebendary on his admission. the chapter to the visitor, or framed by him at The subjects of the five books of the New their request and with their concurrence, and | Register are as follows: finally accepted by the body. No instrument | has ever been allowed to be of any force unless
1. The primaria institutio of the Church ratified by the bishop and chapter, and authenti- of Lincoln, and the number and value of the cated by the seals of both.'-Ånswer of Chapter dignities, canonries, and prebends. of Exeter.
2. On the ingressus (admission) of canons * Registrum-(1) The volume into which pre- and prebendaries cedents are entered (regesta) as they occur.
pre: , and prebendaries.
Štatuta Arelat. MSS. Art. 95, De Regestro Comunis.
3. On their life (progressus). Item statuimus. Quod Comune teneatur habere
4. On their egressus, which may occur nnum librum de pergameno, in quo transcri. through resolution in death,' through cesbantur omnia instrumenta ad Comune perti. ' sion. privation, or translation, and their nentia.'--Lit. Phil. vi. ann. 1339, tom. 6. Ordi. nat. reg. Franc. p. 529, Gardez les Registres,
rights on all of these occasions. bons usaiges, et coustumes anciens.'— Ducange.
5. On the perpetual chaplains of the (2) The customs themselves. The older book was called . Consuetudinarium,' at Exeter the * Laudare, from the tenth century onward, is Customary,
of frequent use in the sense of arbitrari, to arbi† A copy of the Old Custom Book was recently trate ; as 'convicta culpa quæ sit Laudata per discovered in a dilapidated condition. The name judicium parium suorum.' Laudum-1. A decigiven it in the New Statutes, “Le Black Book,' sion by arbitrenient-Rex Angliæ dicto eorum indicates either a French notary, or is a strange et Laudo . . . se submittet. 2. Consent,' 'apsample of the mixed tongues. It occurs again proval.' 3. Statutes, “Lauda formare ac reforin 'Le Galilee Court. Compare forms frequent mare. The instances are from Ducange. It is in Lincolnshire, such as Hoiton-le-Clay, Ashby. in the first precise sense that the word occurs de-la-Launde, Carlton-le-Scroope, &c.
I throughout the · Novum Registrum.'
chantries, and on the vicars and other inferior | their occupations will be such as not, in most ministers. *
| instances, to admit of their residing in the The interesting and often amusing detail close,* or if they do reside, of their attending into which a full discussion would lead us more than one of the hours of service daily. If may be reserved for another occasion. For they undertake to reside for thirty-four the present we must simply glean what we weeks of the year, a house is to be provided may out of the five books, illustrative of the for them, and they are to draw a dividend true principles of Cathedral life and Cathe- from certain funds. Their name is derived dral work.' •Gleaning' describes the ope- from their præbenda,f each having one or ration, for the primaria institutio and the more estates stationed throughout the dio: life and progressus of the canons are, as re- cese ; on each estate a house of residence gards enunciation of principles, the tantalis- with a familia,' usually a church, either serving parts of the work. The first is brief, a ed by themselves .cum cura animarum,'I or few historical memoranda ; the second is al- of which the patronage is in their hands, and most purely technical and legal. In fact, a school under their direction. Each prethe theory and principles of the life and benda was a centre of civilisation to its diswork are assumed to be so clear and familiar trict. The duties and powers of the preas to require no expression. Yet in some re- bendarius with respect to his prebend are spects the · Laudum' and the New Re-defined and urged in this view. He is ergister' are more valuable than a book of horted so to administer it that his people principles would have been. They take the may appetant commorari' under his headsystem at full work. They show what was ship. It is systematically connected with the considered possible and practicable after cathedral, and visited at regular intervals by above four centuries of experience; they the dean, chapter, and bishop; any abuses give glimpses of what the great institution observed in the holder's administration are was doing, not what it was supposed that it to be corrected by these authorities at his ought to do; and, in plain language, they expense, and appeals lie against him or from expose social corruptions (e. g., with regard him to the cathedral courts. to wills and inheritances, and not as to these! The prebendaries and officers formed the alone), which under the then circumstances chapter. There was no line drawn between (pathetically called moderna') must be re- | little chapter and grand chapter. There was garded as once inevitable, but under our only one body. Whatever portion of this changed ones would be not only inexcusable, met, according to rule, in the chapter-house, but impossible.
was “a chapter.' They absolutely elected There was not in the minds of the old their dean, and nominally their bishop; for cathedral lawgivers the slightest idea that the rest, we find members of the body accathedral life and cathedral work began and tively employed at the royal and papal courts, ended with • Cathedral service. The service as well as in their more distinct functions of: was an essential part of the life, but it was counsel and assistance to the bishop who the smallest part of the work. Of it the selected them, and in business which is • Novum Registrum' says (MS. Part ii. p. 49), that on the part of the canon or pre
* Two hundred and fifty years before this, the
wiser and truer policy prevailed of appointing bendary, • assiduitatem exigimus moderatam,
only such as could reside. non ut omnibus horis cogatur interesse ... f It is interesting to notice the vicissitudes of sed uni horæ (daily) vel missae majori ...names. The cathedral body were canonici (canunless he has leave of absence or is ill, or
ons) originally : but many were unendowed, liv.
ing on their own means, or merely by their dialias in negotiis ecclesiæ occupatus.
vidends from the common fund (communa). The The corps of the cathedral consisted of the more dignified were canonici præbendati or præprebendaries with their vicars and their su bendarii. If they resided they were canonici reperior officers. They were fifty-two in num
sidentiarii, præbendati or not as the case might ber, each for one week in his turn taking the
be. Since the prebends have been confiscated
to non-cathedral purposes, the name of canons principal position in the cathedral services;
has been retained by the residentiaries wlio are in the rest of the year it is assumed that alone endowed, and that of prebendaries desig.
nates the unendowed holders of stalls. * In this 5th Book is inserted entire what ap f Rob. Grosseteste, Ep. lxxiv. pears to be a much more ancient document en $ Quinquaginta et sex canonici cum capite sno tire-the · Vicars' Statutes.' They frequently (sc. bishop) corpus et capitulum constituunt: necorrespond word for word, for sometimes twenty gotia ecclesiæ et secreta tractant. p. 35. or thirty lines together, with the statutes of the [In praebendis viros sapientes et scientia Church of Sarum, other parts not to the same ex- præditos lateri suo sociare satagebat, quia als tent. A comparison of the Statutes of Rouen may que virorum proborum adjutorio nec populo nec explain this. In the Cathedral Commission Report clero convenienter prodesse sufficeret. Horum the Salisbury Statutes are dated 1268, and attri. consiliis fretus et comitatus auxiliis, &c. Vita buted to the Dean and Chapter.
S. Hugonis, Ep. Linc. 1200, iii. 8.
described as latorious, under his direction. ther archdeacon) in his Epistle to Walter,* Accordingly we find among them not only some very touching reminiscences. of the theologians and preachers, but famous legists. spiritual and secular activity of the first They were not all priests ; * some, too, be- group of canons who occupied the stalls of longed to monastic orders, but these could Lincoln. • Remigius its founder I never saw, not hold prebends, and resigned them if they but of the venerable clergy to whom first he had been prebendaries before their vow, and gave places in his church I have seen every so remained as simple canons. Not only one. He then mentions by name thirtystudy is contemplated in the statutes, and three of the original clergy and their first in part provided for by the still noble thougb successors, with various touches of character. despoiled library, but higher education was The whole passage is too long to quote, and systematised in the schools' which the too beautiful to spoil. Perhaps the followchancellor “ruled,' and in which he with his ing are among the most interesting : staff lectured. The results appeared in the
• Ralph, the first dean, a venerable pricet. fact, that from among the prebendaries of
Reiner, the first treasurer, full of religion; he the particular cathedral in question every
had prepared a tomb against the day of his English see has been filled, and many of death, and there he often sate to sing psalms, them twice; for of the fifty-two stalls all but and prayed long spaces, using himself to his one, and some of them more than once, eternal home. Hugh, worthy of all memory, have given a bishop to our Church. Among the mainstay and, as it were, the foundation of great foreigners. Thorlak the ecclesiastical | the Church (he was chancellor). Osbert [Archlawgiver, and first saint of the Icelandic
deacon of Bedford, afterwards chancellor), vir Church (whose day is still a national festi
omnino comis et desiderabilis. Willielmus ju
venis magnæ indolis. Albin, under whom val), studied first at Paris and then at Lin
Henry of Huntingdon himself studied. Then coln; his nephew and successor Paul was come Albin's brothers, “most honourable men, probably a Lincoln student too.I
my dearest friends--men of profoundest Henry of Huntingdon the Chronicler science, brightest purity, utter innocence, (fl. 1135-1154), Canon and Prebendary of yet by God's secret judgment were they smitLincoln, and Archdeacon of Huntingdon in / ten with leprosy, but death hath made them
clean." Nicolas, Archdeacon of Cambridge, that church, addresses (apparently to a bro
| Huntingdon, and Hertford, “none more beauti
ful than he in person, and his character beau| * The Emperor, the kings of France and
tiful no less." [In his epitaph he was styled Spain, and certain foreign peers, always were,
“Stella Cleri," a married canon, and he was and in some cases are still, canons of various eburches.
| Henry's father ; his son and successor was ^ Studium' is one of the employments in
avowedly, though in dangerous times, and by which the dean is warned not to interrupt the
many a cutting sarcasm, a strong advocate for canons by too frequent chapters.
a married clergy.) Walter, the prince of ora1. Bp. Thorlak was born A.D. 1133, was or tors. Gislebert, elegant in prose, in verse, in dained priest about 1152, and shortly afterwards dress. With so many other most honoured went abroad ; first to the University of Paris, names I may not tax your patience. “Amaand thence to Lincoln, where he “contracted bant quæ amamus ; optabant quæ optamus ; much learning useful to himself and to others.”
sperabant quæ speramus." A noble society ! He returned to Iceland after being six years
The lesson which Henry reads his friend from abroad ; his stay in Lincoln would fall in about 1158-1160. In 1178 he received ordination as Laz
their memory is activity-something “quod Bishop of Skalhalt, and died 23rd of December,
differat a somno." 1193. In 1199 he was by the Icelandic Parlia
Altogether prebendal life was then very went declared Saint (Thorlákr Helgi), and a Very popular saint he was. The Thorlak's Missa | laborious; one of the reasons which Alnwick is at present the introductioa to Christmas. It is gives for assigning good salaries to the holda signficant token of the independence of the an |ers of stalls is the way in which they utilicient Church that he was canonized by the Par
| tatibus desudant' in extra work (* volunhiament without any confirmation from Rome
tariæ obsequiorum necessitates') over and asked for or given. His name is not, therefore, in the Roman Calendar; in his own country he
above the tractatus quotidiani, continuique was an undisputed national saint.
labores, multaque onera. The advantages, L'A minute account of his life as bishop is con- | however, of the position were such as even tained in the Thorlák's Saga' (published in ["Bishopæ Saga,' i. 87-199), written by a con
then to excite the mundane cupidity of those emporary cleric. and bearing witness to his who had no intention of working; while the learning, gentleness, and purity of life. | honour of being associated vel perexili titu, 'Saint Thorlak's nephew and successor, Paul | lo' with the insignis multitudo clericorum' d. 1211), also studied in England. The place is who frequented Lincoln was earnestly covetAgt recorded ; it may have well been the place Where his uncle studied before him.' We have to
| ed even by famous savants of the University thank for this note the learned author of the (Icelandic Dictionary,' Mr. Gudbrandt Vigfús
* Wharton's · Anglia Sacra,' vol. ii. p. 694. + MS. 'Nov. Reg.,' p. 61.
son, of Oxford.