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ing view of this popular Fair was taken, sents, that “Persons of rank were also its the drama was considered of some im- occasional visitors, and the figure on the portance, and a series of minor, although right (with the star) is also supposed to be regular, pieces, were acted in its various that of sir Robert Walpole, then prime mibooths. At Lee and Harper's, the : Siege nister. Fawkes, the famous conjuror, of Berthulia' is performing, in which is forms a conspicuous feature, and is the introduced the tragedy of Holophernes.”” only portrait of him known to exist."
Mr. Setchel's account further repre
There is, however, another portrait of him in the midst of his performances. Fawkes, the conjuror: it is a sheet, en- Hogarth's frontispiece to a scarce tract on graved by Sutton Nichols, representing “Taste," wherein he bespatters Burling
ton-gate, further tends to perpetuate the other, with a fan in her hand, is in a Fawkes's fame, by an inscription an- tawny gown, striped with red, and cuffs of nouncing his celebrated feats. It is re- the same; the lady and gentleman in corded, too, in the first volume of the mourning are evidently about to follow “ Gentleman's Magazine," that on the them. From hence we see the costume 15th of February, 1731, the Algerine am- of the quality, and that at that time Barbassadors went to see Mr. Fawkes, who, tholomew Fair was honoured with such at their request, showed them a prospect visitors. of Algiers, “ and raised up an apple-tree, The boy picking the gentleman's pocket which bore ripe apples in less than a mi is removed from another part of Mr. nute's time, which several of the company Setchel's print, which could not be intasted of.” This was one of his last per- cluded in the present engraving, to show formances, for, in the same volume, his that the artist had not forgotten to reprename is in the list of “ Deaths,” on the sent that the picking of pockets succeeded 25th of May, that year, thus: “ Mr. to the cutting of purses. The person Fawkes, noted for his dexterity of hand, in black, whose gaze the baker, or man said to die worth 10,0001.” The news- with the apron, is directing with his finger, papers of the period relate, that “ he had looks wonderfully like old Tom Hearne. honestly acquired” it, by his dexterity," Indeed, this fan-print is exceedingly cuand add, that it was “no more than he rious, and indispensable to every “illusreally deserved for his great ingenuity, trator of Pennant," and collector of by which he had surpassed all that ever manners. In that print to the right of Lee pretended to that art." It will be observed and Harper's is another show,with “ Ropefrom the show-cloth of the tumblers, that dancing is here,” on a show-cloth, representFawkes was also " a famous posture-mas- ing a female with a pole on the tight-rope; ter:"
stout middle-aged man, in a green coat,
and leather breeches, walks the platform The tumbler whirles the flip-flap round, and blows a trumpet ; the door below is With sommersets he shakes the ground; kept by a woman, and the figures on the The cord beneath the dancer springs; printed posting-bills against the boards Aloft in air the vaulter swings,
exhibit a man on the tight-rope, and two Distorted now, now prone depends,
slack-ropes; a figure is seated and swing-, Now through his twisted arms descends; The crowd in wonder and delight,
ing on one rope, and on the other a man
swings by the hams, with his head downWith clapping hands applaud the sight.
ward : the bills state this to be “ At the Gay.
great booth over against the hospital-gate On the platform of Lee and Harper's in Smithfield." Near to where the hosshow, with “ Judith and Holophernes," pital-gate may be supposed to stand is a in Mr. Setchel's print, which is hand- cook, or landlord, at the door of a house, somely coloured in the manner of the fan, with“ Right Redstreak Cyder, at рег the clown, behind the trumpeter, is dress- quart, on the jamb; on the other jamb, ed in black. The lady who represents a skittle is painted standing on a ball, and Judith, as she is painted on the show- an inscription “ Sketle ground;" above cloth, is herself on the platform, with his head, on a red portcullis-work, is the feathers on her head ; the middle feather sign of a punch-bowl and ladle, inscribed is blue, the others red. She wears a laced “ Fine punch ;" at the window-way of stomacher, white hanging sleeves with the house hang two Bartholomew “ pigs rosettes, and a crimson petticoat with with curly tails," and a side of large pork. white rosettes in triangles, and suitably There is an “ up and down,” or swing, flounced. Holophernes, in a rich robe lined of massive wood-work, with two children with crimson and edged with gold lace, in three of the boxes, and one empty box wears light brown buskins, the colour of waiting for another pair. Then there is untanned leather; Harlequin, instead of the a spacious sausage-stall; a toy-stall, kept little flat three-corner flexible cap, wherein by a female, with bows, halberts, rattles, he appears at our present theatres, has long whistles, dolls, and other knick a round beaver of the same light colour. knackeries: a little boy in a cocked hat Two females entering at the door below are, is in possession of a large halbert, and his apparently, a lady and her maid ; the first older sister is looking wistfully at a Chiis in green, and wears a cap with lappets nese doll on the counter; a showman erfalling behind, and white laced ruffles ; hibits the “ Siege of Gibraltar” to two
girls looking through the glasses. These mob" may be traced so far back as the are part of the amusements which are al- times of the commonwealth, when the luded to, in the inscription on the print ruling powers made considerable efforts now describing, as “ not unlike those of to suppress the Fair altogether; and when, our day, except in the articles of Hollands without going into particulars to corrobos and gin, with which the lower orders rate the conjecture, it may be presumed were then accustomed to indulge, unfet- that the populace determined to support tered by licence or excise.” A man with what they called their “ charter," under tubs of “Right Hollands Geneva, and the colour of the “ Holland" interest, in Anniseed,” having a cock in each, is serve opposition to the civic authorities. The ing a bearded beggar with a wooden-leg scene of uproar always commenced in to a glass, much nearer to the capacity of Cloth-fair, and the present existence of an half a pint, than one of “ three outs of annual custom there, throws some light on the present day; while a woman, with a the matter. At“ the Hand and Shears," pipe in one hand, holds up a full spirit- a public-house in that place, it is the measure, of at least half a pint, to her own usage, at this time, for tailors to assemble share; there is toping from a barrel of the night before the Fair is proclaimed by “ Geneva" at another stall; and the pos- the lord mayor. They appoint a chairtures of a couple of oyster-women denote man, and exactly as the clock strikes that the uncivil provocative has raised the twelve, he and his companions, each with retort uncourteous. The visit of sir Ro- a pair of shears in his hand, leave the bert Walpole to this scene might have house, and, in the open street of Clothsuggested to him, that his licence and ex- fair, the chairman makes a speech and eise scheme, afterwards so unpopular, proclaims “ Bartholomew Fair." As though ultimately carried, would aid a soon as he concludes, every tailor holds reformation of manners.
up and snaps his shears with a shout, and
they retire, shears in hand, snapping and Lady Holland's Mob.
shouting, to the “ Hand and Shears," On the night before the day whereon from whence they came forth ; but the the lord mayor proclaims the Fair, a mob, who await without, to witness the riotous assemblage persons heretofore ceremony, immediately upon its being disturbed Smithfield and its environs, un- ended, run out into Smithfield, and being der the denomination of “ Lady Holland's joined by others there shout again. This mob.". This multitude, composed of the second assemblage and shouting is called most degraded characters of the metropo
" the mob proclaiming the Fair ;” and so lis, was accustomed to knock at the doors begins the annual mob, called “ Lady and ring the bells, with loud shouting Holland's mob.” Since 1822, the great and vociferation; and they often com- body have confined their noise to Smithmitted gross outrages on persons
field itself, and their number and disorder perty. The year 1822, was the last year annually decrease, wherein they appeared in any alarming force, and then the inmates of the houses
ORIGIN they assailed, or before which they paraded, were aroused and kept in terror by their violence. In Skinner-street, especi
Bartholomew Fair. ally, they rioted undisturbed until between three and four in the morning: at
About the year 1102, in the reign of one period that morning their number was Henry I., the priory, hospital, and church not less than five thousand, but it varied of St. Bartholomew, in Smithfield, were as parties went off, or came in, to and founded by one Rahere, a minstrel of the from the assault of other places. Their king, and a pleasant witted gentleman.” force was so overwhelming, that the
It seems that Rahere was determined to
patrol and watchmen feared to interfere, this pious work in a fit of sickness, during and the riot continued till they had ex
a pilgrimage he made to Rome agreeably hausted their fury.
to the fashion of the times, when St. Bar. It has been supposed that this mob tholomew appeared to him, and required first arose, and has been continued, in him to undertake the work and perform celebration of a verdict obtained by a Mr. it in Smithfield.* Before that time SmithHolland, which freed the Fair from toll; but this is erroneous, “ Lady Holland's
field, or the greater part of it, was called complaints of the violence to the bishop " thé Elms," because it was covered with of London, who sent four of them to the elm trees; “ since the which time,” saith king at Westminster, but he would neither Stow,“ building there hath so increased hear nor see them. In the mean time, that now remaineth not one tree growing," the city was in an uproar, and the people Smithfield derives its name from its being would“ have hewed the archbishop into “ a plain or smooth field."* Regarding small peeces,” if he had not secretly withRahere's occupation as a minstrel, it may drawn to Lambeth, from whence he went be observed, that minstrels were reciters over to the king, “ with a great complaint of poems, story tellers, performers upon against the canons, whereas himself was musical instruments, and sometimes jug- guilty.” * How the affair ended does not glers and buffoons. Rahere “ofte hawnted appear. the kyng's palice, and amo’ge the noyse- Slow says, that “ to this priory king full presse of that tumultuous courte, en- Henry the second granted the priviledge forsed hymselfe with jolite and carnal of a Faire to bee kept yeerly at Bartholo suavite: ther yn spectaclis, yn metys, yn mew-tide, for three daies, to wit, the eve, playes, and other courtely mokkys, and the day, and the next morrow, to the trifyllis intrudyng, he lede forth the besy. which the clothiers of England, and nesse of alle the day.” + It is related of drapers of London repaired, and had their a person in this capacity, that he was em- boothes and standings within the churchployed by a king as a story teller, on pur- yard of this priory, closed in with wals pose to lull him to sleep every night; and gates locked every night, and watched and that the king's requiring him to tell for safety of mens goods and wares; a longer stories, the romancer began one of court of piepowders was daily during the so great length, that he himself fell asleep Faire holden, for debts and coutracts. in the midst of it.f Racine, the French But,” continues Stow, “notwithstand. poet, was scarcely higher employed when ing all proclamations of the prince, and he was engaged in reading Louis XIV. to also the act of parliament, in place of sleep with " Plutarch's Lives :" to such booths within this church-yard (only a king the narratives of the philosophical letten out in the Faire time, and closed biographer were fables.
up all the yeere after) bee many large Rahere was the first prior of his monas- houses builded, and the north wall to tery. There was a remarkable visitation wards Long-lane taken downe, a number of it by Boniface, archbishop of Canter- of tenements are there erected, for such bury, who being received with a proces- as will give great rents.” “ The forsion in a solemn manner, said he did not rainers," he adds, were licensed for require that honour, but came to visit three days, the freemen so long as they them; whereto the canons answered, that would, which was sixe or seven daies." to submit to the visitation of any other This was the origin of Bartholomew Fair, than their own prelate, the bishop of Lon- over which the charter of Henry II. gave don, would be in contempt of his autho- the mayor and aldermen criminal jurisrity; whereupon the archbishop conceiv- diction during its continuance. ing great offence, struck the sub-prior in Bolton was the last prior of this house, the face, and “ raging, with oathes not to to which he added many buildings, and bee recited, hee rent in peeces the rich built“ the manor of Canonbury, at Islingcope of the sub-prior, and trode it under ton, which belonged to the canons.” In his feete, and thrust him against a pillar 1554, on the dissolution of the religious of the chancell, with such violence that houses, Henry VIII., in consideration of hee had almost killed him.” Then the 10641. 118. 3d. granted to Richard Rich, canons dragged off the archbishop with so knt. attorney-general, and chancellor of great force that they threw him backwards, the court of augmentations of the revenues and thus perceived that he was armed, of the crown, the dissolved monastery or and prepared to fight; and the arche priory of St. Bartholomew, and the Close bishop's followers falling upon the canons, with the messuages and buildings therein beat and tore them, and trod them under appertaining to the monastery. He also foot; who thereupon ran bleeding with granted to the said Richard Rich, knt.
and to the inhabitants of the parish of St.
# Cotton MS, Harl. M8. Strutt,
* Stow. ]
Bartholomew, and the church of St. was likewise a market-place for cattle, hay, Bartholomew, all the void ground eighty straw, and other necessary provisions; and seven feet in length, and sixty in also, saith Stow, “it hath been a place for breadth, adjoining the church westward, honourable justs and triumphs, by reason for a church-yard. In the first year it was unpaid.” After it had ceased to of Edward VI. that king confirmed the be a place of recreative exercise with the grant to sir Richard Rich, who was crea- gentry, loose serving men and quarrel. ted lord Rich, and appointed lord chan- some persons resorted thither, and made cellor of England; but under Mary the uproars; and thus becoming the rendezejected monks were restored to the priory, vous of bullies and bravoes, it obtained where they remained till the accession of the name of “ Ruffians’-hall.” The queen Elizabeth, who renewed the grant “sword and buckler” were at that time to lord Rich and his heirs; and lord Rich in use, and a serving-man carried a bucktook up his residence in Cloth-fair. The ler, or shield, at his back, which hung by lord Rich ultimately became earl of War- the hilt or pommel of his sword hanging wick and Holland, and the property re- before him.* Fellows of this sort who gularly descended to the present lord hectored and blustered were called Kensington, through William Edwards, “Swash-bucklers,” from the noise they who was son of the lady Elizabeth Rich, made with the “ sword and buckler” to and created, in 1776, baron of Kensington frighten an antagonist :“ a bully," or felof the kingdom of Ireland.
low all noise and no courage, was called Henry VIII. having in this way disposed a "swasher.”+ of the priory and church of St. Bartholo- With the disuse of pageants, the necesa mew, he gave the hospital, with certain sity for Smithfield remaining a messuages and appurtenances, to the city ground” ceased; and, accordingly, as "it of London. When connected with the was continually subject to the iniquity of priory, it had been governed by a master, weather, and being a place of such goodly brethren, and eight sisters.
extendure, deserved to be much better On the 13th of January, 1546, the respected, it pleased the king's majesty, bishop of Rochester (Holbetch,) preaching (James I.) with the advice of his honourat Paul's-cross, declared the gift of St. able lords of the counsell, to write gras Bartholomew's hospital to the citizens ciously to the lord maior and the aldera “ for relieving of the poore;" and there. men his brethren, that Smithfield might be upon the inhabitants of the city were sufficiently paved, which would bee the called together in their parish churches, onely meanes, whereby to have it kept in where sir Richard Dobbs the lord mayor, far cleaner condition : And” says Stow, the several aldermen, and other principal “as no motion (to any good end and incitizens, showing the great good of taking tent) can be made to the city, but they as the poor from their miserable habitations, gladly embrace and willingly pursue it; and providing for them in hospitals even so this honourable motion found as abroad, men were moved liberally to con- acceptable entertainment, and it was very tribute what they would towards such speedily proceeded withall. Some volunhospitals, and so weekly, towards their tary contribution in the severall parishes maintenance for a time, until they were (what each man willingly would give) was fully endowed; and in July 1552 the re- bestowed on the worke; but, (indeed,) paration of the St. Bartholomew's hospi- hardly deserving any report. Notwithial commenced, and it was endowed and standing, on the fourth day of February, furnished at the charges of the citizens. * in An. 1614, the city began the intended The number of the poor and sick to be labour, and before Bartholomew-tide then maintained therein, was limited under the next ensuing, to the credit aud honour of foundation of Henry VIII. to one hun. the city for ever, it was fully finished, and dred; but, at this time, several thousands Bartholomew Faire there kept, without of persons who need surgical aid are an- breaking any of the paved ground, but nually received and relieved, under the the boothes discreetly ordered, to stand management of the most eminent surgeons fast upon the pavement. The citizens
charge thereof (as I have been credibly
told by Master Arthur Strangwaies,) Smithfield, whereon the Fair was held,
of our age.
* Maitland, † Nares.