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one of them, of a child's being inoculated from another with a whooping-cough, and receiving the Small-pox, but not the cough. On the other hand, he gives an account of one child's being inoculated from another under an epidemical rash, which had the rash, as well as the Small-pox; and from whom others, being inoculated, had the rash allo: but he adds, that many think fuch rash was owing rather to its being epidemic, than to the variolous matter; which certainly seems reasonable, Some children who were inoculated in England a great many years fince have had the Measles fupervene, when epidemical, upon the Pock by Inoculation ; though the patients from whom the matter was taken had not the least symptom of the Measles. In the course of his answer to this query, he observes, that more of the deceased by Inoculation lost their lives when convulled, either about the time of the eruption, or of the subsiding of the puftules, than by any other cause. Now, as very young children at the breast are generally more liable to convulsions, from whatever cause, than others who are more advanced, who have got through the greater part of dentition, and are stronger, we think this fatality by variolous convulsions, from Inoculation, ought considerably to interdict or leften that too popular practice ofinoculating very young infants at the breast, or under dentition, whence convulsions frequently fupervene. We find several pages in the fecond edition of the Analysis of Insculation ( 229 to 233) written with such an intention : but whether the motive that author has mentioned in the last of these pages, has strongly contributed, as he thinks, to produce and still to continue the practice of inoculating very young infants, we shall not pretend to determine.
As to the fifth query, Dr. M. ftates, and as it appears, in the most impartial manner, the informations received from his correspondents. Several smaller complaints or greater disorders are admitted and specified, as occurring to the Inoculated, after palling through the disease. But in answer to the second part, or clause, of this query, he afirms, his correspondents leem all to agree, that these bad consequences are not near so numerous or various after Inoculation, as after the accidental Small-pox; adding verbatim- And when I assure you (i. e. the dean and delegates) that I have been so fortunate, or perhaps timorously cautious, that not one of those whose Inoculation I advised, had a dangerous fymptom during the disease, nor a bad consequence from it, you will conclude, that I must be of the same opinion.'
The whole of this small pamphlet seems to be drawn up with great impartiality, and the stricteft attachment to truth; and it must have coft Dr. M.not a little time and attention to procure lo numerous and exteníive a correspondence on this interesting topic. It is also wrote in a very plain, intelligible manner, though many of the northern phrases and idioms make it found a little uncouthly here.
The Divine Legation of Mofes demonstrated. In Nine Books. The
Fourth Edition. By William, Lord Bishop of Gloucefter. 8yo, 5 Vols. 1. 10 s. Millar.
$ many of the readers of the Divine Legation, we appre
edition of it, on account of the additions which the learned Author has made, it will naturally be expected that we thould give an account of the most considerable of these additions.
We shall, therefore, enter directly upon this task, after acquainting our Readers, that the first and second volumes of the third edition remain unaltered: the third and fourth are much altered, and enlarged into three volumes.
The first considerable addition we meet with, is in the dedication to Lord Mansfield ; (see our Review for October 1758) it is a bon morceau, and we shall make no apology for inserting it.
- I have detained your Lordship, (says he) with a tedious story; and still I must beg your patience a little longer. We are not yet got to the end of a bad prospect-While I, and others of my order, have been thus vainly contending pro aris with the unequal arms of reason, we had the further displeasure to find, that our rulers (who, as I observed above, had needlessly suffered those ties of religion to be unloosed, by which, till of late, the passions of the people had been restrained) were Aruggling, almost as unsuccessfully, pro focis, with a corrupt and debauched community,
« General history, in its records of the rise and decay of ftates, hath delivered down to us, amongst the more important of its leffons, a faithful detail of every fymptom, which is wont to forerun and to prognosticate their approaching ruin. It might be juftly deemed the extravagance of folly to believe, that those very hgns, which bave constantly preceded the fall of other ftates, thould fignify nothing fatal or alarming to our own. On the other hand, I would not totally condemn, in such a dearth of religious provision, even that species of piety, which arises from a national pride, and flatters us with being the peculiar attention of Heaven; who will ayert those cvils from his favoured people, which the natural course of things would otherwise make inevitable : for, indeed, we have seen (and, what is as Atrange as the blessing itself, the little attention which is paid to -it) something very like such an extraordinary protection already exerted; which refifts, and, till now, hath arrested, the torrent just ready to overwhelm us. The circumstance, I mean, is this :-that while every other part of the community seems to lie in fæce Romuli, the administration of public justice in Eng
Jand, runs as pure as where nearest to its cæleftial source; pureş than Plato dared venture to conceive it, even in his feigned republic.
• Now, whether we are not to call this, the interposing hand of Providence ; for sure I am, all history doth not afford another instance of so much purity and integrity in one part, coexisting with so much decay and so many infirmities in the rest: or whether, profound politicians may not be able to difcover some hidden force, some peculiar virtue in the essential parts, or in the well-adapted fraine, of our excellent conftitution :- in either case this fingular and shining phenomenon, hath afforded a chearful consolation to thinking men, amidst all this dark aspect from our disorders and distresles.
• But the evil genius of England would not suffer us to enjoy it long; for as if envious of this last support of government, he hath now instigated his blackest agents to the very extent of their malignity; who, after the most villainous insults on all other orders and ranks in society, have at length proceeded to calumniate even the king's fupreme court of justice, under its ablest and most unblemishcd administration.
• After this, who will not be tempted to despair of his coungry, and say, with the good old man in the scene,
“ Ipsa fi cupiat salus “ Servare, prorsus non potest, hanc familiam.” * Athens, indeed, fell by degenerate manners like our own: but Dhe fell the later, and with the less dishonour, for having always kept inviolable that reverence which the, and indeed all Greece, had been long accustomed to pay to her august court of Areopagus.
Of this modeft reserve, amidst a general disorder, we have a striking instance in the conduct of one of the principal inftruments of her ruin. The witty Aristophanes began, as all such instruments do, (whether with wit or without) by deriding virtue and religion; and this, in the brightest exemplar of both, the godlike Socrates. The libeller went on to attack all conditions
He calumniated the magistrates; he turned the public assemblies into ridicule; and, with the most beastly and blafphemous abuse, outraged their priests, their altars, nay, the very established Gods * themselves.-But here he stopped ; and, unawed by all besides, whether of divine or human, he did not dare to caft so much as one licentious trait against that venerable judicature. A circumstance, which the readers of his witty itbaldry, cannot but observe with surprize and admiration ; not at the poet's modesty, for he had none, but at the remaining virtue of a debauched and ruined people; who yet would not bear to see that clear fountain of justice defiled by the odious spawn of buffoons and libellers. There is something droll enough in the idea of an ofiablifoed God,
« Nor was this the only consolation which Athens had in its Balamities. Its pride was Aattered in falling by apoftate wits of the first order: while the agents of public mischief amongst us, with the hoarse notes and blunt pens of ballad-makers, not only accelerate our ruin, but accumulate our disgraces: wretches the most contemptible for their parts, the most infernal for their manners.
• To conclude. Great Men, my Lord, are sent for the Times ; the Times are fitted for the rest, of common make. ERASMUS and the present CHIEF JUSTICE OF ENGLAND (what ever he may think) were sent by Providence, for the sake of hu? manity, to adorn two periods, when RELIGION at one time, and Society at another, most needed their support; I do not say, of their great talents, but of that HEROIC MODERATION so necessary to allay the violence of public disorders : for to be moDERATE amidst party-extremes, requires no common degree of patriotic courage.
• Such characters rarely fail to perform much of the task for which they were fent; but never without finding their labour ill repaid, even by those in whose service it was employed. That glory of the Priesthood left the World, he had so nobly benefited, with this tender complaint, -" Hoc tempore nihil « scribi aut Agi poteft quod non pateat CALUMNIÆ ; nec raro * fit, ut dum agis CIRCUMSPECTISSIME utramque Partem of. “ fendas, quum in utraque sint qui PARITER INSANIANT." A complaint, fated, alas ! to be the motto of every Man who greatly serves his country.'
Leaving our Readers to their own reflections on this precious piece of adulation, we now proceed to the work itself. -In section 4th, book 4th, we have the following short addition, which the curious Reader will be pleased with. After speaking of what the Egyptians called their EPISTOLIC writing, and observing that it was the first literary writing, not the first hieroglyphical, which was invented for secrecy, our learned Author goes on thus :
• But now it may be said, that though the progress from a Picture to a simple Mark hath been traced out, step by step, and may be easily followed, till we come to that untried ground where Art takes the lead of nature, the point where real characters end and the literary begin ; yet here, art seeing a precipice before her, which seems to divide the two characters to as great a distance as at first setting out, she takes so immense a leap as hath been thought to exceed all human efforts : which made Tully fay, Summæ sapientiæ fuisse fonos vocis *, qui infi
: . By fonos vocis, Cicero means words: it was imposible he could
niti videbantur, paucis literarum notis terminare ti and many of the ancients to believe that LITERARY WRITING was an invention of the Gods.
• However, if we would but reflect a little on the nature of found, and its unheeded connection with the objects of fight, we should be able to conceive how the charm closed, and how the passage from a real to a literary character was begun and smoothed out.
• While the picture, or image of the thing represented, continued to be objected to the fight of the reader, it could raise no idea but of the thing itself. But when the pikture lost its form, by being contracted into a mark or note, the view of this mark or note would, in course of time, as naturally raise, in the mind, the found expressing the idea of the thing, as the idea itself. How this extenfion, from the idea to the found, in the use of the real character furft arose, will be easily conceived by those who reflect on the numerous tribe of words in all languages, which is formed on the found emitted by the thing or animal 1.
( Yet the use to which this new connection might be applied, would never be thought of till the nature of human sounds had been well ftudied.
• But when men had once observed, (and this they could but observe early and easily, by the brute and inarticulate sounds which they were perpetually hearing emitted) how small the number is of primitive rounds, and how infinite the words are which may be formed by various combinations of those simple founds, it would naturally and easily occur to them, that a very ever conceive that brute and inarticulate founds were almost infinite. „See what is said on this matter below.
• Long, before this addition was made to the discourse on hieroglyphic writing one of the ableft philosophers of this age, M. l'Abbé de Condillac, in his Efjci jur l'origine des connoiffances humaines
, had the candour to say, that I had perfectly well discovered the progress by wbich men arrived to the invention of letters. Cette fection [De L'ecriture fays he, etoit presque achevée, quand l' Efai fier les Hieroglyphes traduit de l' Anglois de M. Warburton me tomba entre les mains : Ouvrage ou l'efprit philosophique et l'erudition régnent egalement, &c. mes propres irefleđions m'avoientaufi conduit à remarquer que l'écriture n'avoit d'abord été qu'une simple peinture: mais je n'avois point encore tenté de découvrir par guels progrès on étoit arrivé a l'invention des lettres, et il me paroistait difficile d'y reusfir. La chose a été parfaitement executée par M. Warburton, p. 178. Ju partie.--My own country men have been loss candid: and to them the above addition is owing.
+ Tusc. i 25:
# For example, (to ufe the words of St. Auflin) wben we fay in - Latin, æris tinnitum, equorum hinni'um, ovium balatum, tubarum clare gorem, ftriderem catenarum, perfpicis hæc verba ita fonare, ut res quæ Niis verbis fignificantur.'