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done before or after him, and made the Sublimity of his Style equal to tnMof his Sentiments.

I have been the more particular in these Observation* on Milton's Style, because it is that Part of him in which he appears the most singular. The Remarks I have here made upon the Practice of other Poets, with my Observations out of Aristotle, will perhaps alleviate the Prejudice which some have taken to his Poem upon this Ac• count; tho' after all, I must confess, that I think his Style, tho' admirable in general, is in some Places toa much stiffened and obscured by the frequent Use of those Methods, which Aristotle has prescribed for the raising of it.

This Redundancy of those several Ways of Speech, which Aristotle calls foreign Language, and with which Milton has so very much enriched, and in some Places darkened the Language of his Poem, is the more proper for his Use, because his Poem is written in BlankVerse. Rhyme, without any other Assistance, throws the Language off from Prose, and very often makes an indifferent Phrase pass unregarded; but where the Verse is not built upon Rhymes, there Pomp of Sound, and Energy of Expression, are indispenfably necessary to support the Style, and keep it from falling into the Flatness of Prose.

Those who have not a Taste for this Elevation of Style, and are apt to ridicule a Poet when he departs from the common Forms of Expression, would do, well to fee how Aristotle has treated an ancient Author, called Euclid, for his insipid Mirth upon this Occasion. Mr. Dryden used to call this Sort of Men his Prose Criticks.

I should, under this Head of the Language, consider Milton's Numbers, in which he has made use of several Elisions, that are not customary among other English Poets, as may be particularly observed in his cutting off the Letter Y, when it precedes a Vowel. This, and some other Innovations in the Measures of his Verse, has varied his Numbers in such a manner, as makes them incapable of fatiating the Ear, and cloying the Reader, which the fame uniform Measure would certainly have done, and which the perpetual Returns of Rhyme never fail to do in long narrative Poems. I shall close these Reflections upon the Language of Paradi/e Lost, with observing serving that Milton has copied after Homer, rather than Virgil, in the Length of his Periods, the Copiousness oi bis Phrases, and the running of his Verses into one another. L.

No. 286". Monday^ January 28.

Nomina honesta prætenduntur vitiis± Tacit.

Mr. Spectator, Tork, Jan. 18. 1712.

I Pretend not to inform a Gentleman of so just a Taste, whenever he pleases to use it; but it may not be amiss to inform your Reader that there is a false Delicacy as well as a true one. True Delicacy, as I take it, consists in Exactness of Judgmant and Dignity of Sentiment, or if you will, Purity of Affection, as this is opposed to Corruption and Grossness. There are Pedants in Breeding as well as in Learning. The Eye that cannot bear the Light is not delicate but sore; A good Constitution appears in the Soundness and Vigour of the Parts, not in the Squeamishness of the Stomach: And a false Delicacy is Affectation, not Politeness. What then can be the Standard of Delicacy but Truth and Virtue I Virtue^ which, as the Satyriil long since observed, is real Honour •* whereas the other Distinctions among Mankind are meerly titular. Judging by that Rule, in my Opinion.and in that of many of youKvirtirous Female Readers, you are so far from deserving Mr. Courtlfs Accufation, that you seem too gentle, and to allow too many Excuses for an enormous Crime, which is the Reproach of the Age, and is in all its Branches and Degrees exprefly forbidden by that Religion we pretend to profess; and whose Laws, in a Nation that calls itself Christian, one would think should take Place of those Rules which Men of corrupt 'Minds, and those of weak Understandings follow. I 'know not any thing more pernicious to good Manners, than the giving fair Names to soul Actions; for this

'con.* confounds Vice and Virtue, and takes off that natural

Horror we have to Evil. An innocent Creature, who

would start at the Name of a Strumpet, may think it

pretty to be called a Mistress, especially if her Seducer

"has taken Care to inform her, that a Union of Hearts

is the principal Matter in the Sight of Heaven.and that

the Business at Church is a meer idle Ceremony. Who

knows not that the Difference between obscene and

modest Words expressing'the fame Action, consists only

in the accessary Idea, for there is nothing immodest in

'Letters and Syllables. Fornication andAdultery are mo

'dest Words, because they express an Evil Action as cri

"minal,and so as to excite Horror andAversion : Where

'as Words representing the Pleasure rather than the Sin,

'are for this Reason indecent and dishonest. Your Pa

* pers would be chargeable with something worse than

* Indelicacy, they would be Immoral, did you treat 'the detestable Sins of Uncleanness in the fame manner

* as you rally an impertinent Self-love, and an artfuB 'Glance; as those Laws would be very unjust, that 'should chastise Murther and Petty Larceny with the 'fame Punishment. Even Delicacy requires that the Pity 'shewn to distressed indigent Wickedness, sirst betrayed 'into, and then expelled the Harbours of the Brothel,

* should be changed to Detestation, when we consider

* pamperedVice in theHabitations of theWealthy. The

* most free Person of Quality, in Mr. Courtly's Phrase,

* that is to speak properly, a Woman of Figure who has 'forgot her Birth and Breeding,- dishonoured her Relati

* ons and her self, abandoned her Virtue and Reputation,

* together with the natural Modesty of her Sex, and ris

* qued her very Soul, is sovfar! from deserving to be trea

* ted with no worse Character than that of a kind Wo'man, {which is doubtless Mr. Courtly1s Meaning, if he 'has any) that one can scarce be too severe on her, in

* as much as she sins against greater Restraints, is less ex. ' posed, and liable to fewer Temptations, than Beauty in

'Poverty and Distress. It is hoped therefore, Sir, that

'you will not lay aside your generous Design of exposing

'that monstrous Wickedness of the Town, whereby a

'Multitude of Innocents are facrisiced in a morebarba

* rous Manner than those who. were offered to Moloch.

,. 'The The Unchaste are provoked to see their Vice exposed , and the Chaste cannot rake into such Filth withoutDanger of Desilement; but ameer Spectator maylook into the Bottom, and come off without partaking, in the Guilt. The doing so will convince us you pursue publick Good, and not merely your own Advantage: But if your Zeal slackens, how can one help thinking that Mr. Courtis & Letter is but a Feint to get off from a Subject, in which either your own, or the private and base Ends of others to whom you are partial, or those of whom you are afraid, would not endure a Reformation ?1

lam, Sir,your humble Servant and Admirer, so long at you tread in the Paths of Truth, Virtue and Honour.

Mr< Spectator,

Trin. Coll. Cantab. Jan. 12, 1711-12.

IT is my Fortune to have a Chamber-Fellow, with * whom, tho' I agree very well in many Sentiments, yet there: is one in which we are as contrary as Light and Darkness. We are both in Love; his Mistress is a lovely Fair, and mine a lovely Brown . Now as the- Praise of our Mistresses Eeauty employs much of our Time, we have frequent Quarrels in entringupon that Subject, while each fays all he can to defend his Choice. For my own Part, I have racked my Fancy to the utmost ; and sometimes, with the greatest Warmth of Imagination, have told him, that Night was made before Day, and many more sine Things,tho' without any effect: Nay, last Night I could not forbear faying, with more Heat than Judgment, that the Devil ought to be painted white. Now my Desire is, Sir, that you would be pleased to give us in Black and White your Opinion in the Matter of Dispute between us; which will either furnish me with fresh and prevailing Arguments to maintain my own Taste, or make me with less Repining allow that of my Chamber-Fellow. I know very well that I have J' ackClcvelandaxidBontsi Horace on my Side; but then he has such a B^nd of Rhymers and Romance-Writers, with which he opposes me, and is so continually chiming to the Tune of

* Golden

* Golden Tresses, yellow Locks, Milk, Marble, Ivory, 'Silver, Swans, Snow, Dazies, Doves, and the Lord

* knows what; which he is always sounding with so 'much Vehemence in my Ears, that he often puts me « into a brown Study how to answer him; and I sind 'that I'm in a fair Way to be quite confounded, without 'your timely Assistance afforded to,


Tour bumble Servant,

T Philobrune.

No. 287. Tuesday, January zp.

si $;at«t,i y% IxSJTip, to; sefiycv ffdloSp it

Tor? vuv 'xaei xlfaa- • Menand.

I Look upon it as a peculiar Happiness, that were I to chuse of what Religion I would be, and under what Government I would live,I should most certainly give the Preference to that Form of Religion and Government which is established in my own Country. In this Point I think I am determined by Reason and Conviction; but if I shall be told that I am acted by Prejudice, I am sure it is an honest Prejudice, it is a Prejudice that arises from the Love of my Country, and therefore such an one as I will always indulge. I have in several Papers endeavoured to express my Duty and Esteem for the Church of England, and design this as an Essay upon the Civil Part of our Constitution. Having often entertained my self with Reflections on this Subject, which I have not met with in other Writers.

That Form of Government appears to me the most reasonable, which is most conformable to the Equality that we sind in human Nature, provided it be consistent •with publick Peace and Tranquility. This is what may properly be called Liberty, which exempts one Man


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