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country, is entirely surrounded by very judiciously, if he did not exemountains, he adds, that its capital, cute great things did, at least, conHermanstad, is peopled with Saxons, ceive them, Government has made who are distinguished from the Abo- great efforts to direct the natirigines by their easy circumstances, onal attention to agriculture and the result of their industry and so the arts of industry, to which briety. Their houses, cleaner and the inhabitants seem naturally inhetter built, give a smilivg air to clined. Manufactures have been the districts they inhabit. The established, and new experiments greater part profess the Lutheran, have been tried to ameliorate the religion. The men in general soil. With the exception of the are of tall stature, their dress is 'a · German provinces, where these ameinixture of the ancient German cos liorations have taken place, Austria tume with that of the Hungarians. has every thing to do in the counThe head-dress of the women and tries under its jurisdiction. A begirls is generally a bonnet adornedginning ought to be made by renwith flowers, and their dress is orna- dering communication between the mented with fur; the Saxon ladies provinces secure and easy, in order of Hermanstad have left off their to encourage the consumption of the ancient dress, which so well becanie produce of the soil. Of what imthe style of beauty peculiar to this portance, for example, this would country, a light and elegant shape, be in Hungary, one of the most fer-, a complexion of lilies and roses, tile countries in Europe, and more large blue eyes, and a skin of dazzling especially in Gallicia, on the coast, whiteness. Here the author makes and in the provinces of the centre ! a digression upon the power of the In this respect the visits of the Austrian monarchy, which appears French armies have been very useful foreign to the subject, but which to Austria. This empire owes to them , inay, nevertheless, be read with in- their excellent 'roads, executed in: terest in the work.

spite of nature and the steepness of: M. Marcel now returns again to the ground, and, what is still more. costume, and observes that the pea- extraordinary, in defiance of the in-, sant girls round Hermanstad dress habitants themselves, particularly with the most remarkable taste and the Dalmatians. They all thought judgment. After having described, that these new roads, which would very much at length, their ordinary render threir mountains accessible, dress, he says, that on holidays they would also be a certain means of adorn themselves with necklaces and reducing them to permanent slavery. ear-rings of coral or glass. The wo Among modern nations, who commen wear, like the men, boots with mupicate more with each other than fat iron heels ; they make all their the ancients, large roads are not sufown clothes, as well as those of their ficient for conveyance, especially of busbands and children.

military transports; rivers and ca-. These short observations, he says, nals are become indispensable comupon only one province ('Transyl- munications, and these Austria is in. vania) and that province not the want of. A multitude of obstacles most known in Austria, will give renders the navigation of the Daan idea of the prodigious variety nube, the principal river in Austria, there is in the large possessions of as laborious as it is dangerous. The this monarchy, and this appears in navigation of the Vistula presents the general aspect of the country. fewer obstacles, but it is not extenWe will now follow M. Marcel sive; this river, crossing only a in his remarks on matters of far small part of Gallicia. The Inn, the greater importance than that of Traun, and the Theiss, afford a safe costuine, which, though it is appa- navigation for boats, and also for rently a digression, yet becomes the rafts, with which they sail down principal subject.

the Danube; whilst the Marche, the M. Marcel gives a picture of the Wag, the Grand, and the Une, fapower of Austria, of which we will eilitate the communication of the give a sketch :

southern provinces with the rest of Ever since the reign of Joseph the empire. The commerce of the the Second, who, says our author northern provinces might be res

dered easy by means of the Elbe, and hair grow, which have the most increased by the Moldau and Eger, disgusting appearance, for they do also by, the Vistula, to which is not give themselves the trouble to united the Sanar and the Bug; and, tie it up, much less to comb it. lastly, by the Dniester which empties Their whole dress consists of a coarse itself into the Black Sea. All these shirt, tied round the loins with a means, the only ones open to the leathern girdle ornamented with commerce of Austria, ought to teach buttons, to which are suspended the Government the importance of their knives, forks, steel, &c., and trying new ones, and of making they never go out without these imcanals to facilitate the conveyance plements; the lower part of their of merchandize from one province clothing consists in long pantaloons, to another. To attain this, M. Mar- small buskins, and sandals tied with cel de Serre recommends the union strings of leather; in the winter they of the Marche with the Oder. After wear a fur bonnet, and in the sumthis, our author determines the li mer a round bonnet of felt. mits of the Austrian-German mo Gallicia is a sandy plain, where narchy, in doing which he enters the soil is more irregular and oninto a detail too long for insertion equal than in Hungary: small hills, here, but which may be profitably in some places fertile enough, varead in the work. We shall confine riegate it in a thousand different ourselves to a notice of his very in- ways. That part of Silesia which teresting observations upon the ge- borders on the east of Gallicia more neral aspect of Austria, and upon resembles Bohemia, which it also the character of some of its inha- adjoins, than the first of these probitants : - Austria, taken alto. vinces ; like Bohemia it is studded gether, he says, is a very moun. with lofty hills, which form towards lainous country. Tyrol, Styria, and the west a part of the Suliote chain Upper Austria, remind me at every of mountains, and towards the south step of the boasted scenery of Swit. a part of the Carpathian. zerland. Hangary is only a vast Quitting Moravia, which is less sandy plain, formed by the earthy mountainous than Silesia, and, dialluvions of the Danube and the recting your course towards the Theiss. In Transylvania, on the south, you enter lower Anstria, contrary, the soil rises abruptly.- where fertile plains are watered by The name of this province needs no the Danube, the finest river in the explanation: for it is plain that it world. Here cultivation has taken means the situation of countries be- advantage of the excellence of the yond the forests.

soil, and more particularly in the Three distinct races form the neighbourhood of Vienna; but the population of Transylvania. The soil of lower Austria does not every Saxons, who are the industrious where present the same fertility. In race; the Hungarians, who form the drawing near the southern part of nobility of the country; and lastly, Higher Austria, every thing is the Sicules and Wallachians, who changed: those hills where the vine may be considered as the most un- joined to the elm once displayed its civilized of the European nations: golden branches, those fertile without activity or industry they tures once covered with innumerable lead an idle life, following no other oc- flocks, are converted into narrow cupation than that of attending their vallies, rocks stripped of verdure, flocks. A few of them are employed thick forests, and high mountains the as carters and tanners, and exercise abode of eternal snow;, such is the their trades in Bannat : there are aspect of this part of Upper Austria. but few who take the trouble to Still farther north towards Styria cultivate the earth, they must be and Carinthia the aspect of nature is foreed to it by extreme want. These still more savage; a dark and dreary people are deceitful, vindictive, and verdure, intersected by plains of cordially detest every other nation; snow, covers the mountains. drunkenness and the basest disposi The whole empire of Austria may tions are the consequences of their be divided into three regions; that had education and the examples of of the south comprehends Southern their parents. They let their beards Tyrol, Istria, Frioul, Southern

Carinthia, Carniola, the borders of Austrian states, but of Muscovite Italy, and a part of Croatia. The ge origin, forming the palatinate of neral temperature of these provinces Marmoros, situated in Hungary on is from nine, to ten degrees. The the frontiers of Poland. spring and autumn are like those of After having explained the diviItaly, and the summer is very hot sion of the empire of Austria into when under the influence of the fatal three regions and their different sirocco; but in the mountainous , climates, M. Mansel speaks of the country the temperature follows in population. The extent of this emproportion to the elevation of the pire is 11,999 square miles, and consun: thus, in some mountains theretains about twenty-six millions of in-. are in the middle of the hottest sea habitants; the average is 2,176 inson constant, and, sometimes, eternal dividuals to one square mile. Persnows. The olive, peach, vine, fig. haps it will be asked, says he, and pomegranate thrive in the open whether the population always anair.

swers to the extent and goodness of The middle division consists of a the soil, or whether it is solely great part of Hungary, all Transyl- governed by the extent of industry vania, Arch-duchy of Austria, Styria, or cultivation. The most exact data Carinthia, and some parts of Mora- prope, that it always keeps pace via and Bohemia. The olive does with the progress of indastry or, not grow here, but the vine and civilization, rather than with the Turkish corn prosper well, except excellence and fertility of the land : in the mountainous districts. The indeed the two most populous progeneral temperature is much more vinces of Austria are far from being variable in this region than in that the most fertile. Surrounded by high of the south. In the hottest places chains of mountains, Bohemia and it is never more than eight degrees, Şilesia are nevertheless the most and often much lower.

populous. The great fertility of the In general the air is pure and soil of Hungary does not produce serene. The winter lasts three or a population at all equal to either of four months ; the spring is mild, these two provinces ; the difference is though generally very damp. The in the ratio of ten to seventeen. summer is hot, but variable, and often Lower Austria which has an excel. accompanied by violent storms. lent soil, and where industry is not

There are few fine days, except in far advanced, and which contains the autumn. The air is never un the capital of the empire, is not so

. Hungary, which is called the tomb in Bohemia they reckon 867 inhabiof the Germans.

tants to one square league; in SileThe third or northern division sia 847, and in Lower Austria, only comprehends Gallicia, a part of the 766. The population diminishes in north of Hungary, Bohemia and proportion as industry and civiliza, Moravia, as well as Austrian Silesia. tion decrease, and on the military The general temperature is scarcely frontiers there are but 295 inhabiever more than six degrees, rarely tants to the square league. seven ; for which reason there are The two extremes of population in do vines nor, maize, even corn can the provinces of Austria are from not be well cultivated, except in three to one, or rather from six to certain parts, and the culture of it seventeen. The average population ceases altogether in the higher parts is 793 inhabitants to the square of Bohemia, and the porth of Hun- league. If this account is compared gary: the air is generally pure and sa, with that of France, Austria will be lubrious: the winter, though very found much inferior in this respect, severe, seldom lasts longer than five for there is in that country, from the months; the heat of summer is often best authorities, about 1,094 inhabiinsupportable in the deep vallies of tants to a square league: the popuBohemia, or the deserts of the lation then of the two empires is as Vistula.

six to eleven, so that the average There is a very interesting ac. population of Austria is little more count in this work of a singular than half that of France, but it is people, dwelling in the midst of the more equally distributed. Some of

the French departments have but with less vivacity and a less decided 421 inhabitants to the square league, character. They are not united whilst others contain 3,869, or 2,786, together, though they are all under or 2,274 inhabitants on the same one power. The principal nations, extent. It is not so in Austria. This spread over the vast territory of empire is divided on nearly the same Austria, are, the Germans, the Sclaplan as France was formerly: vonians, and the Hungarians pro

Most of the provinces have a perly so called; there are also-Wagoveroor and a supreme council, fachians, Bohemians, Greeks, and which issue and communicate their a few Armenians, French and Walorders to the different captains or loons; but their differentraces do not chiefs of the circles charged with form an important part of the populathe civil administration, who have tion. The Jews are very numerous consequently less responsibility. in Bohemia, Moravia, Hungary, Ever since 1812 the territories un Gallicia and Transylvania ; but there der the power of Austria have been are only a few of them in Styria, divided into ten principal provinces. Carinthia and Lower Austria. There Each of these divisions is regulated are 1600 Jewish families in Transylby a governor, who constantly re vania, and, according to a very exact sides in the chief town.

account, three hundred families in The governor of Hungary resides the Austrian capital only. Comat Buda, under whose jurisdiction merce attracts so many Jews to Austhere is a population of more than tria, though the government does seven millions ; whilst the governor not grant them any particular priof Croatia has not more than two vileges The Jews of Austria, in hundred and fifty thousand, so that their property and persons,enjoy the the administrators of the provinces same protection as other denizens exercise their authority over a very and foreigners : excepting military unequal number of inhabitants; and service which they are jealous of, it appears, that on the distribution and situations under government of the Austrian provinces, this im- which they could not occupy, they portant object was not regarded enjoy the same rights as the other as it ought to be in all partitions. citizens, with the free exercise of Without comparing Hungary to the their religion; but, although they other Austrian provinces, because are free from a personal tax, more this kingdom forms a separate state degrading perhaps than oppressive, in the midst of the empire, it would severe laws have been enacted against seem that some governors superin. their monopolies. tend three millions of souls, whilst ** It is generally thought that the others have not three hundred Germans form the chief part of the thousand. There is no better ar- Austrian population, but it is far rangement in the sub-divisions, that from being so; there is only Austria, is, in the circles or districts.

properly so called, that is entirely The population of Austria is com- peopled' by Germans ; they are very posed of different races with manners much scattered in Styria and Carinpeculiar to themselves, and some of thia. The circle of Ellingen in ihem have even a particular fan- Bohemia is said to be entirely peoguage. These people have not all pled by them, but they are not nuthe same character nor the same kind merous in Moravia, still less so in of attachment to their country, which Hungary;"more are seen in Tranis one of the great causes of the poli-sylvania, Galicia and Austrian Sitical weakness of Austria; a' weakness lesia. The Sclavonians are the most very obvious in the event of invasion. numerous race in the empire of The different inhabitants of the em- Austria, they are divided into a pire possess weither the same inter- great many branches, some of which ests nor the same way of thinking: inhabit Prussia and Poland, and others The Hungarians, the Tyrolese, and the Austrian dominions : among the the Bohemians, are very jealous of latter are the Techecks, Slowaquians, their independance, do not consider Hannaquians, Poles, Windians, Rasthemselves of the same nation as the cians, Croatians and Russians, these Austrians, whom they consider as last are not numerous in Austria, inferiors, being in general 'endued there being but one hundred families

of them. The Bohemian language, The Walachians with the Sclayo-
spoken in Bohemia and Moravia, nians are the most ancient inhabi-
is only a dialect of the Sclavonic; tants of the countries watered by
but the Sclavonians, living in a the Danube. Though less in num-
German country, have adopted an ber than the Sclavonians, they are
alphabet which differs very little nearly as numerous as the Hunga-
from that used in Germany. This rians, and it is probable that they
dialect is remarkable for its rich- originated in a mixture of Dacians,
ness and the mildness of its pro Romans and Sclavonians; their lan-
nunciation, as well as for the facility guage is composed of many expres.
of its adaption to music; it un sions, more or less altered, which
doubtedly owes these advantages to evidently belong to these people ;
the mixture of Sclavonic; it is soft, they are without religion and the
sonorous, and agreeable to the ear, arts, and almost without civilization.
and, though spoken by people not far The Walachian peasants, acquainted
advanced in the sciences and the only with the wants and pleasures
arts, it has, notwithstanding, attained of a wandering life, are in general
a high degree of perfection; it has deceitful, vindictive, and inclined to
even all the characters of a modern hate every other nation; and are by
language, and may hold a distin. the Hungarian and Sclavonian's
guished place amongst the languages treated like slaves. The Walachians,
of nations more advanced in civili: like the Sclavonians, multiply very
zation. The tones of expression much ; perhaps it is on this account
which it is susceptible of, and the that they appear dangerous to the
inflexions it has in common with the Hungarians, amongst whom they
Greek and German, render it as ex live.
pressive as it is energetic: rich and The Czingarians, a still more
harmonious in varied expressions, it wandering or rather vagabond race,
rivals the Italian in melody and are very prevalent in Bukovino,
sweetness, particularly when sung: Hungary, Gallicia and Transylva-
all the inflexions are formed by the nia ; in this last province, there are
vowels, and this circumstance is fa more than 60,000: and amongst
vorable to the harmony of a lan- 70,000 inhabitants, which formed
guage. If we consider that to this the population of Bukovino when it
advantage is joined that of having a was ceded in 1778 to Austria, there
regular prosody, and of being more were more than ten thousand Czin-
capable of adaptation to the ancient garians. They have been erróne-
Greek metre than any modern lan- ously called Bohemians and Egyp-
guage, we may hope that, if ever tians, because it was supposed,
spoken by the learned, it would con- though without foundation, that they
sole us for the loss of the language were the descendants of the ancient
of Homer and Pindar, so favorable vagabonds of Egypt, expelled at the
is its structure, and organization. beginning of the 7th Century by the
This language is more general than sultan Selim when he conquered that
any other European language ex country; but the most probable
cept the French : it extends as far as opinion is, that they are Híndoos of
Turkey, and is in use even in Nova the much despised cast of Parias,

who were driven from their country The Hungarians are, next to the in 1408 and 1409 at the conquest of Sclavonians and Germans, the most India by Timur. The period of extensive race in the Austrian mo their arrival in Transylvania is narchy: probably they derive their unknown. In spite of the endeaorigin from Asia, as they preserve vours of Maria Theresa and Joseph some traces of Asiatic manners. Ig. II. to habituate them to a settled norant and little inclined to arts or mode of life, they could scarcely commerce, they lead that indolent induce a part of them to settle in apathetic life which forms the happi- some of the Transylvanian districts, ness of the Eastern nations. Hun where they attend to the cultivation gary then would be a very poor

of the earth. This people speak a country if the fertility of the soil did particular idiom amongstthemselves, not make up for the want of indus but with other people, they make try.

use of the language of the country

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