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mess, which, it is said, he actually succeeded in devour- unavoidable uniformity of geographical description. He ing. This story, not being very effectually concealed, was has indeed been called the Homeric geographer, from his recollected when he afterwards came to the same end with admiration of the land of Smyrna; and, in his masterly Nicol Muschat. He lived in the Fleshmarket Close, as chorography of the Troad, he has at once given us, from appears from the evidence on his trial. He made away a reference to the Iliad, an enlarged and intenser interest with his wife by burning her, and said that she had in that region, and has bestowed upon the works of the caught fire by accident. But, as the door was found poet, from a reference to their geography, more illuminalocked by the neighbours who came on hearing her cries, tion than all his other commentators taken together. As and he was notorious for abusing her, besides the circum- the geographer has associated himself with so much af. stance of his not appearing to have attempted to extin- fection to the poet, so the poet, to be well understood, guish the flames, he was found guilty and executed. He should never be dissociated from the geographer. Enwas also hung in chains at the Gallowlee, where Mus. riched as the mind of Strabo was with poetical reading, chat had hung thirty years before. He did not, however, his style seems to have thence taken its peculiar strength hang long. A few mornings after having been put up, and colour, and it was found that he had been taken away during the

whispers whence it stole night. This was supposed to have been done by the

Those balmy sweets." butchers of the Edinburgh market, who considered that His diction is nervous, compact, close to a degree bordera general disgrace was thrown upon their fraternity by ing sometimes on obscurity; and he has imitated his fahis ignominious exhibition there. They were said to have vourite authors principally in the free and unlimited use thrown his body into the Quarrel Holes. *

of compound verbs, substantives, and adjectives—a noble (To be concluded in our next.)

privilege, and possessed the Greek, in superiority over all other modern and ancient languages. In the forma

tion of these expressive neologies, the geographer has STRABO THE GEOGRAPHER.

shown a dexterity, copiousness, and felicity, not exceedBy the Author of Anster Fair,” gc.

ed by any other Greek prose author. STRABO, the most learned and judicious of the ancient

The most heavy, fatiguing, and laborious portion of geographers, was born about forty or fifty years before his work will be found, by the majority of his readers, to the commencement of the Christian era at Amaseia, a

be the disputatious part of it. By far too much of his flourishing city of Cappadocia, whose situation and ap- first and second book is made up of such controversial pearance he describes, in the twelfth book, with an em

matter, whereby he endeavours, at great and yawning phasis of interest derived from its being his own city,” | length, to refute the obsolete opinions and systems of his his own romantic town. Of his personal history and predecessors. His desire of grasping at the pure truth adventures little is known, except what accidentally and alone, and his reluctance to accept of any statement unat intervals glances forth from his own pages. He seems founded on ocular or problematical evidence, if it has puto have studied in his youth under the best masterst in rified his book from the fanciful fable with which the Asia Minor ; to have employed every means, whether by narratives of his predecessors were so attractively adulreading, meditation, or conversation, for the acquisition terated, has also, on the side of virtue, misled him into of elegant and useful knowledge; and, like Herodotus, to operose and disagreeable disputations with his competihave fitted and perfected himself by travel into many va- tors, and excited in him a distrust and geographical scep'rious countries of Europe, Asia, and Africa, for the Her- ticism with regard to some points, for which not every cules-rivalling labours of giving a full description of the modern reader will be inclined to forgive him. This then known world, its climates, cities, customs, and go- may be instanced in his notions regarding the circumnavernments.

vigation of Africa, the most curious particular in the genHis work is divided into seventeen books, of which graphy of the ancients. On this interesting subject he the seventh is mutilated ; and of others, the text is broken disappoints his reader by saying but little; and even that and vitiated by the negligence or ignorance of transcri- little is contrary to expectation; he appears to have doubtbers. The general character of the writer is, good sense- ed of the possibility of a periplus; what Herodotus pubcomprest and forcible style brief, masterly, and impressive lished four hundred years before, of its accomplishment description. He leads us by the hand, as it were, in gra- by the expedition dispatched by Necho, is suppressed ; dual progress through countries, provinces, and cities; the evidence given by persons who declared they had perand by a few touches of striking and rapid delineation, at formed it is rejected, and the very plausible account giren once introduces us into the heart of almost every scene, by Eudoxus, of the prow of the Cadiz vessel found on town, temple, and palace of antiquity. The dry names the eastern shores of Africa, though its first perusal with which, ere his work be perused, maps seem to be produces immediate conviction on the modern reader, is, dull and confusedly crowded, become animated and illu- to that reader's surprise, attacked, wrangled upon, and minated, as it were, with a living interest, after the per- depreciated with an ingenious incredulity, which one has usal of his short but graphic elucidations. He expands to regret rather than to admire. not into secondary or unimpressive details, but, catching With these abatements, however, Strabo must be conat once the prominent peculiarities of places and man- sidered one of the soundest and most judicious writers of ners, he sets them down in all the energy of his simple antiquity. Vitiated and mutilated as his work is, it is yet significance, and leaves his reader satisfied in the fulness

a fortunate thing for learning that it has been, even in of that emphatic brevity. His work is also interspersed that vulnerated state, preserved. Possessed of him, we and enlivened with notices and anecdotes of the learned need the less to regret the loss of the other eminent genmen of every country; and numerous quotations, from graphers.---In concluding this short notice of an auHomer and the poets, gem, almost at every page, the thor whom we so much esteem and admire, we cannot for

. It is perhaps worth recording, as the recollection of a venerable bear to observe, that it is discreditable to the vernacular linative of Edinburgh who remembered seeing the son of Rob Roy terature of Great Britain that this respectable classic, which walk down the West Bow to execution, in 1751, that that unfortui. diffuses so much light over antiquity, is not yet made a nate hero then wore a pair of black silk breeches, and was attended by a Roman Catholic clergyman.

denizen of our land and language; and when inferior clas7 of one of these, Christodemus, not the least celebrated, who sics have been long ago translated, that it remains yet a taught at Rhodes and Nysa, it may be amusing to observe, that he

sealed and inaccessible book to our great reading commucombined in his boos TaiMSUTıxoş the duties of the modern schools master and professor, having two schools, one in the morning, where nity. A translation of Strabo should have been furnished he gave prelections on rhetoric, and another in the evening, where long ago, as the most agreeable and pertinent accompani. Pompey the Great, contenting himself in that higher appointment ment to the English versions of Homer, Herodotus, and rith teaching grammar alone. -- Lib, 11.

Thucydides; and should be read, for one day in the week

at least, to the higher classes of Greek and Latin of our from the spike,—otherwise, on account of the sunless skies universities, particularly those books illustrative of Italy, and copious rains, it would rot and become useless.”—Lib. Greece, and the Troad.

4, chap. 5. We subjoin a translation of a few sentences from Devon-Grove, Clackmannanshire, Strabo, which are given, not as a specimen of his best

3d July, 1829 manner, but merely to show what opinions, about the time of our Saviour's birth, were entertained in the polished city of Athens and Rome regarding our forefa

ORIGINAL POETRY. thers, the inhabitants of Great Britain and Ireland.

“Of Britannia, the greatest part is champaign country, and shaded with woods; yet many of the grounds are

POEMS. heaved into fair elevations. It abounds in corn, cattle,

By Thomas Todd Stoddart. gold, silver, iron; all which are exported, together with

I. THE INFANT ONE. skins, slaves, and dogs, that by nature are admirably adapted for hunting. The Gauls employ in war both He lay upon her lap in innocence; these hounds and those of their own country. The men A feeble and a melancholy babe! are taller than the Gauls, and less yellow-haired, and of And o'er the fringes of his eyelid play'd softer texture of body. As a proof of their tall stature, A lambent glory. The Divinity we may instance that we have seen, in Rome, some of Shone through the dim material, like the sun their young men, who exceeded by half a foot the tallest Bask'd on a shadowy cloud. Luxuriant fell men of that city ; but in their limbs they were ill-formed, The cluster'd tresses on his infant brow, and in the other features of their constitution, coarse and Bathed o'er with splendour. Silently he bent inelegant. As to their customs, partly are they similar His eye above ; devotion beautiful to those of the Gauls; partly are they still more simple Seem'd gathering within, nor human lip and barbarous ; so that some of their people, though they Can picture the untold intensity abound in milk, yet, through mere ignorance, cannot That linger'd on his features, like the wish make cheese, and are utterly ignorant of gardening, and Of parting saint, but holier by far ;the most simple processes of agriculture. They are go The promise from the earliest of days verned by many divided and petty dynasties. In their Lay visible in him, fulfilling fastwars they use chariots, like their neighbours, the It was the infant Christ! Gauls. Their cities are their forests; they barricade with

Upon a bed felled trees a large circular space, within which they Of straw the mother sat, and smilingly build temporary huts for themselves, and stalls for their Bent over him—her son ! the Son of God! cattle. The atmosphere is showery, rather than snowy; Blessed of women ! that repair'd again even when the heavens are unclouded above, a dense mist The fall of Eve, and gavest glorious birth prevails below, so that during a whole day, the sun is seen To Shiloh, the Redeemer. only for three or four hours about mid-day.”

Who are they Adjoining to Britain are sundry small islets, as That bend before the infant, reverend well as the great island Hibernia, which lies on its west In years ?- These are the sages of the East, ern side, extending in an oblong form towards the north. That sought among the heavens, and follow'd far, Regarding which I can say nothing certain, excepting that The meteor of his birth, which splendidly its inhabitants are still more wild than the Britons, being Stood, like the eye of God, in holy watch anthropophagi, devourers of human flesh; and reckoning Above the child of Bethlehem ! it a goodly thing to eat the bodies of their deceased parents. These things, however, we mention, having no

II. TO sufficient evidence of their truth. Of Thule, * the history is still more obscure, on account of its great distance ; for My heart it follows thee, of all places whose names are given by geographers, this As twilight doth the day, is deemed the most remote and northern. What Pytheas When the sun is set beneath the sea hath said of this and other countries there situated, is ma In glory, far away. nifestly fabulous ; nevertheless he hath, from considerations of climate founded on mathematical calculation, hit Though ne'er a thought nor sigh upon many particulars peculiar to the places near the

Of thine be spent on me, frigid zone: that of the milder fruits and tamer animals Still, when thou goest gaily by, there is either great paucity, or total want; that people My heart it follows thee ! live on millet and other herbs, fruits, and roots; that those that abound in corn or honey, make a drink from thence ; A word, a smile, to lift and that their corn, seeing there is no clear strong sun

My heart to hope again ! shine, is carried into large houses, and there thrashed out And but this gift—this little gift

Might save a world of pain. By this word THULI, which in the Syriac or Chaldaic means

I loved thee long ago darkness, and which was most probably first applied by the CadizPhenician navigators, no particular place or island seems to be deno

That long ago is past ;
ted, but generally all the dark, unexplored regions extending from And now that it doth wound me so,
their own latitude of discovery towards the pole. Accordingly we I tell my love at last.
fiod, that when the southern parts of Britain only were known, it
was applied only, or principally, to the north of Scotland ; when the

Then take my heart; a smile
Dorthern parts were discovered, it shifted back to Orkney and the
Shetland Isles, then to Scandinavia, then to Iceland ; in short, as

Will pay it back to me;

Oh ! lifetime is too brief a time discovery advanced northwards, Thule, or the line of darkness, seems to have proportionally receded, so that Spitzbergen or Greenland

For it to follow thee! haust now be honoured with that classical appellation. It is curious that the name Scotland, Scotia, Exotie, is but this same 1990 translated into Greek; and it is certain, that the Greek poets and

III. TO THE SPIRIT OF IASTL. geographers applied the word Lopos (also signifying darkness) to

Taste! lorn Taste! love! *deaote all the dark, undiscovered regions of the north and northweste

Like to the cooing of a turtle dove,

.

1

I sob away the dewy night,

Mas HEMANS. Our readers will be glad to learn that this dis Until the stars do gather in their light,

tinguished lady-the poetess of the domestic affections, and of all

that endears a Briton to the And the moon lifts her holy shade

stately homes of England,"—is at From the green grave where thou art laid

present in Edinburgh. She is in delicate health, but able to go into Iaste ! gentle maid !

society, and has of course been visited by most of the literati at present in town. She has two of her children with her.

MONSIEUR CHABERT.-We are a good deal surprised to obserre, No breath of breezy zephyr stirs

that the London papers, for want of something better to speak about, Amid the blossom of the golden furze;

are occupying their columns with long accounts of the wonderful No melancholy murmurs break

performances of this quack. When he was in Edinburgh, some time On the wild shore, that girds the mountain lake ;

ago, we went to see his exhibition, which was a piece of complete But half I fancy it is thee

fudge. We entered the oven ourselves after he had come out of it,

and found the heat to be by no means oppressive, and certainly not Returning with thy ancient glee

more than the engine men in steam-boats, bottle blowers, and others, Iaste ! back to me,

submit to every day in their lives. As to his swallowing boiling oil,

phosphorus, and similar pleasant things, we believe the oil to be no Spirit of her, that art

hotter than can be easily borne, and the phosphorus, we have a The other relic of my broken heart,

shrewd suspicion, is something very like green wax. If, from the heaven where afar

THE BARDS OF BRITAIN.-We have received the following com. Thou shinest gorgeous, like a morning star,

munication from one of the gentlemen mentioned in the Ettrick One fondling memory left to thee

Shepherd's poem in last Saturday's JOURNAL:-“ Mr Editor,-In On earth may bend, oh ! let it be,

justice to an injured trampled vegetable, which has long flourished Iaste! breathed for me.

in a corner of your Literary Paradise, I request you will give insertion to the following complaint against that voracious animal which

has lately issued from the solitudes of Mount Benger, to devour up LITERARY CHIT-CHAT AND VARIETIES.

and trample down all the young shoots in the country. Charles

Doyne Sillery." A NEW Plan of Edinburgh and its Environs, by James Knox, Esq.

Gods! do I live Land Surveyor, has just been published, in which all the Improve

To see a Hog ments as yet determined on and in progress are accurately delineated;

Crush all our poets, also all the boundaries of the different parishes very useful addi.

Like a log tion.

Thrown down from some high gallery!

Besides, he bites The Memoirs of the Court and Reign of Louis the Eighteenth,

So furiously which have recently appeared at Paris, will very shortly be translated

In all he writes : into English.

Injuriously Tales of my Time, by the authoress of Blue-Stocking Hall, are

He made a snap at Vallery:

Blew all the fruit Dearly ready.

Into a bog, A work, that recommends itself to the military reader under the

And gnaw'd the root:attractive title of Stories of Waterloo, may be very shortly ex

All know a Hog.

With most unearthly raillery, pected.

May bite a Bell, Tales of the Classics, designed to convey the traditions of the

And do no ill; Heathen Mythology in a familiar and agreeable manner to the mind,

But who can tell are in preparation. The work is said to be written by a lady, who

How soon he will

Devour a bunch of Celery! has spent several years in its execution.

Lieutenant Rose announces a work, under the title of Letters Theatrical Gossip.- The King's Theatre is now closed. Madame Written during a Residence in South Africa. It will contain an ac Pasta, who has lately been performing at Vienna with unparalleled count of the state of society at the Cape, personal observations on the success, and is now at Milan, is expected to return to this country country, and a variety of other interesting details.

before next season. At the Haymarket, a translation of a little drama Mr William Andrew Mitchell, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, has in pre from the French, entitled, “ The Happiest Day of my Life," has paration a Tragedy upon the story of Masaniello, the Fisherman of been well received. There is nothing very new at the English Opera.

house; the critics complain that there is a dearth of singers at this Naples.

theatre. Shortly will be published, Thesaurus Ellipsium Latinarum, sive

Miss Kelly seems to be its principal prop.- The Coburg Vocum quæ in Sermone Latino suppressæ indicantur, et ex præstan

and the Surrey Theatres go on thrivingly.-The weather has been a tissimis auctoribus illustrantur, cum Indicibus necessariis, auctore good deal against Vauxhall.–At Astley's Royal Amphitheatre, Du. Elia Palairet, 1760.

crow and the “Cataract of the Ganges," are drawing crowds-The A Translation of the Library of Entertaining Knowledge is about affairs of Covent Garden seem to be in a sad state. It is in the hands

of the parish officers of St Paul's for debt.-Miss Love, who was perto appear in France. A History of Germany, from the earliest period to the present forming at Nottingham, has gone away in a coach with somebody, in

the middle of her engagement.-The Liverpool Theatre must be the time, is preparing for the press by Mr Bernays, the editor of the Ger

best worth visiting in the kingdom at present. Kean is there, toge man Poetical Anthology.

An account of the Early Reformation in Spain and the Inquisition ther with Warde, Vandenhoff, Blanchard, Bianchi Taylor, Miss is about to appear, translated from the French, by the late Dr A. F. Smithson, and Miss Lacy, all of whom play on the same night, and

frequently in the same piece. This is an example for provincial Ramsay ; to which will be appended, a Memoir of the Translator.

managers.-At the Caledonian Theatre here the melo-drama of Mr Swan is preparing for publication a Demonstration of the

“ Masaniello" has been brought out in exceedingly creditable style; Nerves of the Human Body, founded on the subjects of the two col.

and the dancing still continues to attract crowds. We are glad to legial anatomical prizes adjudged to him by the Royal College of Sur

learn that there is a probability of Pritchard being re-engaged for the geons. The Abbé Angelo Mai, librarian of the Vatican, to whom learning Theatre-Royal, in which case he and the new actor, Barton, will ap

pear together. is so much indebted for the discovery of Cicero's Treatise “ De Republica," has just presented to the Sovereign Pontiff some curious

TO OUR CORRESPONDENTS. fragments of Sallust, Tacitus, and Cornelius Nepos, which he lately discovered.

SEVERAL reviews of interesting works are unavoidably postponed A LITERARY JOURNAL was established, at the commencement of “ Some Remarks on the Progress of the Fine Arts in Scotland," the present year, at Constantinople, which has met with distinguished by the Rev. Dr Morehead, and “ Letters from the West, No. III.*

in our next.-We have just received the communication from Gobe success.

PHRENOLOGY.-An address has just been circulated by the contingen, and the packet from Callander, both of which will meet with ductors of the Phrenological Journal, by which it appears that com our best attention. plete sets of that work, the full price of which is £1, are henceforth We have perused the volume concerning which we have received to be sold for £2; and that the separate Numbers, which were for a letter from Glasgow. There is some cleverness in it; but it is too merly sold at 4s. each, are now to be reduced somewhat in size, and full of coarse descriptions, and very objectionable morality; and for to cost only 2s. The Phrenologists may put what construction they this reason we have not noticed it. like upon these alterations, but they certainly seem to us to imply We cannot give any encouragement to the “Poor but honest West that the Phienological Journal is on its last legs-a circumstance we yer” of Stonehaven. The Poetical Communications of “ N. C." cannot very much regret, because that ingenious periodical has all its Glasgow,-of" T. D." of Taisley, -and of " M." of Dalkeith, w life been attempting to disseminate nonsense.

not be overlooked.

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LITERARY CRITICISM.

phrase first elements is so ambiguous, that seventeen cen

turies passed away before its meaning was found out ; Lectures on the Elements of Hieroglyphics and Egyptian and at length the discovery was owing to accident, and

Antiquities. By the Marquis Spineto. Rivingtons. not at all to antiquarian ingenuity or classical learning. London. 1829.

While a party of French soldiers, during their invasion

of Egypt, were employed in digging for the foundation THESE Lectures were originally delivered by the author of Fort St Julian, they lighted upon a huge block or pillar in the course of his official duties as assistant Professor of dark-coloured stone, which fortunately contained an inof Modern History in the University of Cambridge, and scription in three different languages or sets of characters, afterwards at the Royal Institution in London, where namely, bieroglyphic, demoticor enchorial, and Greek. This they appear to have been received with much applause. stone, which soon afterwards fell into the hands of the The object of the publication is to give a brief history of English, and is now in the British Museum, is mutilated those discoveries by means of which, since the year 1814, in several places. The top part of the hieroglyphical ingreat light has been thrown on the structure and use of scription is gone. The beginning of the second and the hieroglyphical writing, and, of consequence, upon the an- end of the third are also wanting ; but enough was still tiquities of the Egyptian monarchy. The Marquis him- left to afford the means of arriving at a proper idea of its self lays no claim to the honour of discovery, either in import and contents, and of ascertaining the meaning of point of fact or of reasoning. He pretends to nothing Clement's " initial elements." more than the merit of giving a correct and impartial ac It is not our intention to detail minutely the various Count of what has been done by others; and, in this re- steps by which M. Silvestre de Sacy, M. Ackerbald, Dr spect, he performs for Dr Young and M. Champollion Young, and M. Champollion, completed the important the service which was rendered to Newton by the affec- discovery, that one portion of the hieroglyphies used by tionate zeal of the learned Maclaurin. Such an historian the ancient Egyptians did not denote things, but sounds. becomes doubly valuable at the present moment, when Hence the name of phonetic or vocal hieroglyphics, in conthe opinions of France and of England are divided as to tradistinction to those which are properly symbolic, and which of the two countries the priority of discovery be- express not alphabetical sounds, but ideas and even conlongs to; and as Spineto draws his birth from a land fo- ceptions of the mind. The use of the phonetic, or, as reign to both, his judgment is less liable to be warped by Clement of Alexandria called them, the kuriologic hieronational feelings and local associations. So far as we are glyphics, may be illustrated by a familiar example, taken qualified to determine, we think his book well entitled to from an able article in the Edinburgh Review. Suppose the praise of impartiality ; while, with regard to the the spoken language of England to be what it is, but that narrative of facts, it is equally full and perspicuously no other sort of writing, except by pictures or symbols, written.

had yet been invented; and that it was wanted to record The less learned reader may require to be informed, in some legend or inscription, that an individual called that the word hieroglyphics literally means sacred carving, James, had done or suffered something. The word James and is used to denote those inscriptions, whether of figures here was evidently a mere sound, and could not be deor of symbols, which are found upon the ancient temples, scribed or defined in any other way than as that sound pillars, and tombs of Egypt. The most ancient account by which the individual in question was suggested to that we have of these carvings is to be found in the works those who heard it. It could not, therefore, be directly of Clemens Alexandrinus, a Christian priest, who lived intimated to posterity by a mere visible symbol or picture, about the second century of our era, and who, it is clear, that such a sound had in his day been associated with that had paid great attention to the study of antiquities. He individual : And if this was what was proposed to be tells us that the Egyptians had three different modes of done, it is plain that some new device or contrivance writing, or rather perhaps three different sorts of characters. must of necessity be adopted. According to the late disThese were the epistolographic, or common characters, coveries in phonetic hieroglyphics, the device was as folcalled, by other authors, demotic or enchorial; the se- lows. They set down a series of pictures of familiar obcond were the hieratic or sacerdotal, employed merely in jects, the names of which in the spoken language began the writing of books by the priesthood; and the third with the sounds which were to be successively expressed, were the hieroglyphics, destined to religious uses, and ge- and which, taken together in that order, made up the nerally inscribed on public monuments. With the first compound sound or name that was wanted. For the sound and second classes we have no concern at present, there now expressed by the letter J, for example, they would set being nothing particular either in their form or use. The down the figure of a jug or jar—for that corresponding to third, or hieroglyphic, he divides into two sorts : the ku- A, they would set down an ape or acorn-for M, a man,or riologic, which are expressive of objects by means of the mouse—and for S, a spear or spur ; and thus would they first or initial elements; and the symbolic, which denote indicate the sound Jams as the name of the person whom objects by representation, either imitatively, tropically, or they wished to commemorate. If this was generally enigmatically.

known to be the way of representing such sounds, and if We request the attention of the reader, in the first the painter or sculptor gave an intelligible warning when place, to the kuriologic hieroglyphics, or such as express his figures were to be so deciphered or applied, it is plain objects by means of the initial or first elements. The that the device would be very tolerably successful, and

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that the object would be attained with considerable ease the ship and the pole star for the letters D and N; for it and precision. It is very remarkable, accordingly, that would not readily occur to the reader that the one was to all the groups of figures which are found to represent be restricted to deck, and the other to north. In his love proper names, are insulated and set apart, in the hiero- for sea terms and figures he might have thought of the glyphic sculptures, by being surrounded with an oval dolphin and the needle ; but we admit that his example ring of an appropriate and invariable form.

serves the purpose of illustration, and fully explains the In a word, the phonetic or kuriological hieroglyphics use of phonetic hieroglyphics. proceed on the very familiar principle long ago adopted The symbolic hieroglyphics are more familiar to the comby mothers for teaching their children the sounds of the mon reader. We may remark that they are divided into alphabet, when they instruct the little ones to associate three classes; the imitative, the tropical or figurative, and the letter M with Mamma, and P with Papa, N with the enigmatical. Nurse, T with Top, and B with Bird. Hence, in in The first consists in employing the most remarkable terpreting a kuriologic inscription, it is only necessary to circumstance attending any subject, to express the subject learn the names of the several objects which it compre- itself. Thus, if they wished to represent two armies hends, and then to arrange the initial sounds of those ready to come to battle, they painted two hands, one of names, according to the established order of reading in which held a bow and the other a shield. every particular case. It is obvious that, in the differ The second was more ingenious, and it consisted in ent provinces of Egypt, where different dialects prevail- substituting for the thing which they wished to exhibit, ed, the same animals might be variously named, a cir- the real or metaphorical instrument by which the thing cumstance which cannot fail to give rise to some obscu- itself could be done. Thus, an eye and a sceptre reprerity in the process of deciphering ancient legends. But, sented a king; a sword, a tyrant; and a vessel with a piupon the whole, there is little doubt that the Coptic lan- lot, the ruling power of the universe. guage, still used throughout the greater part of that coun The third mode went still farther; it employed one try, preserves the structure and vocables of the tongue thing for another, in which there was no other resemwhich was spoken even in the times of the Pharaohs. blance than that which convention had established. Thas,

It might be conjectured that there would be some room a serpent with its tail in its mouth, forming a circle, befor taste and flattery in selecting objects to supply the came the symbol of the universe, and the spots on its alphabetical sounds, and that, in recording the name of a skin the emblems of the stars. In process of time the popular sovereign, a choice would be made of such ani- use of this third method was extended so far as to exmals, for example, as denote courage, generosity, and press the qualities of substances by sensible images; for inmagnanimity. In writing, says Champollion, the arti- stance, a hare meant simplicity and openness of characculated sounds of a word, they chose, amongst the great ter; a fly, impudence ; an ant, science; a client Aying for number of characters which they were at liberty to em- relief to his patron, and finding none, was represented by ploy, those figures which by their form represented the a sparrow and an owl; a king, inexorable, and estranged object which had a relation to the idea which these cha- from his people, by an eagle ; a man who through poverracters were to express. The lion, for instance, which in ty exposes his children, by a hawk; a woman who bates the ancient Coptic was labo, and the eagle, which in the her husband, by a viper; one initiated in the mysteries, same language was akhom, were usually selected to ex or under the obligation of secrecy, by a grasshopper, press 1 and a in the names of great personages. The which was thought to have no mouth. Marquis gives an illustration of the principle, which will It is no part of our undertaking to set forth what has be at once understood and felt, and throw greater light been accomplished in the way of interpretation, by means on the practice of the Egyptians than would be effected of the hieroglyphic key thus obtained. For this purpose by the most lengthened description :

we must refer the reader to the able lectures now before “ Suppose we were to imagine an alphabet of our own : us, in which the successful labours of Young, Barker, to write the name of London, for instance, we might choose and Champollion, are described with great accuracy and for the several letters the following images or hieroglyphics. at full length. On this interesting subject Spineto writes For the letter L we might take the figure of a lion, or of a with a kindred spirit. He follows the footsteps of the lamb, or of a lancet, or a leaf, or any other such objects distinguished men who have brought the literary Sphinx whose names begin with an L. Again, to express the letter N, we might select a net, a negro, the north star, or the nave

to the light of day; and he anticipates, as they do, as the of a temple. To denote the letter D, we might choose the approaching reward of their toils, a complete knowledge figure of a dromedary, or a dagger, the deck of a ship, or of the ancient history and chronology of the most inteeven the whole of the ship, to signify the deck: And for resting people of the East. The dynasties of Maretho, the letter 0, we might pick out the figure of an oak-tree, an it is said, have already received considerable confirmation ostrich, an ox, or an owl. Now, if from all these images from the names and dates discovered on certain national or hieroglyphics we should be obliged to write the word

monuments; and hence the best-founded hopes are enLondon, we ought not to select the lamb, but the lion, as the expression of the letter L, because the lion is the ac- tertained that the credit of his chronicle, even in those knowledged emblem of England. For the O, we should parts which most greatly exceeded the belief of modern prefer the representation of the oak-tree, or of the acorn, its writers, will at length be placed beyond all objection. fruit, as connected with the building of a ship; for the N, With such views, we need scarcely add, that we recomyou certainly would not pick out the negro slave, for this mend to our readers the Lectures of Marquis Spineto as choice would be contrary to the decided antipathy which one of the most interesting books that have been publishthe English have to slavery; nor would you select the re-ed since we commenced our critical career. presentation of the nave of a church, because this emblem would better suit an ecclesiastical government, and by no possible means could it apply to your nation; but you would The Book of the Boudoir.. By Lady Morgan. Two choose in preference the fishing-net or the north star, as

volumes. London. Henry Colburn. 1829. the only images which would convey to the mind of the beholders two of the characteristics of a seafaring nation, The Quarterly Review sometimes calls Lady Morgan as the English are. And last of all, for the letter D), you “ a lively little lady,” and sometimes “a poor worm.” would, I am certain, decidedly prefer the representation of The latter designation is not in the least applicable. Lady with the very existence of the nation. Thus, the whole Morgan is always clever—not unfrequently disgustingly word, London, written hieroglyphically, would thus be re- clever- but she is never “ a poor worm.” She is terribly presented by a lion, an oak-tree, a net, a ship, and the north masculine, awfully conceited, shockingly irreligious, and star; for, you remember that we have no need to repeat the fearfully metaphysical ; but she is withal a right "bold second 0."

dragoon,” and with her long sword slashes away not in We do not think the Marquis happy in the selection of effectively both right and left. After all, we believe her

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