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honour of having obliged Xerxes to return in disgrace to Persia, followed by such a degree of influence in Greece, that even the rivals of Athens wore under the necessity of giving up to her the future conduct of the war, now become exclusively naval. By these means the Athenians acquired an increasing command over the resources of the greater part of the islands, as well as of the colonies on the coasts of A-ia, Macedonia, and Thraee; and thus, at the very moment when the destruction of their city rendered it necessary for them to renew all their principal buildings, fortune gave them sufficient means both to maintain their ascendency in Greece, and to apply a part of the wealth at their command in the indulgence of their taste and magnificence. The Bame sources of wealth continuing, and even increasing during the half-century which intervened between the victory of Salamis and the Peloponnesian war, the injury inflicted upon the buildings of Athens by the Persians was not only fully repaired, but those new and splendid edifices were erected which continued to be one of the chief glories of Athens, until Europe becoming too unenlightened to be sensible of the beauty of such objects, they remained for more than twelve centuries unknown or unnoticed; Greece itself during all the latter part of this time having been the prey of a race of Oriental invaders far moro barbarous
than those of ancient times
"There are few problems more difficult of solution than to find a sufficient reason for tho perfection which the Greeks attained in the elegant arts, and for its wide diffusion among them during several centuries. Something may be attributed to the more acute perceptions, to tho more beautiful forms and colours of animate and inanimate nature, and to the brighter skies of a southern climate. Something more may bo ascribed to circumstances from which we are happy to be exempt; such as the eager collision of rivalry between small independent states, the excitement given to the imagination, and the encourage
ment afforded to tho display of its powers by a mythology closely allied to tho senses, and which gave tho honours of divinity to tho productions of tho artist: oven with theso advantages, to arrive at the productions of the age of Pericles required several centuries of trials and improvements, during which extremo diligence was applied by a series of gifted men to one pursuit, which, when successful, obtained as much worldly fame and advantage as that of arms, or of tho conduct of public affairs. Without such an equalization of the rewards of genius and labour, science, literature, and the arts, are more degraded than encouraged or protected."
During tho Middle Ages Athens sank into a provincial town, and is rarely mentioned by the Byzantino writers. After the capture of Constantinople by the Latins in 1204, Boniface, Marquis of Montferrat, obtained the greater part of Northern Greece, which he governed under tho title of King of Thessalonica. He bestowed Athens as a Duchy upon one of his followers, a Burgundian, named Otho de la Koche; and tho city remained in the hands of tho Franks, with various alternations of fortune, until its kincorporation with tho Turkish empiro in H56. Tho Parthenon was now converted from a church into a mosque. In 1687, the buildings on tho AcropoliB suffered severe injury in tho siege by tho Venetians under Morosini. Hitherto the Parthenon had stood almost uninjured for 2000 years; Spon and Wheler visited Athens in 1675, and have left an account of it as it then appeared; but in 1687 it was reduced to a ruin by the explosion of a quantity of powder which had been placed in it by the Turks.
The condition of Athens at the close of tho 18th century is thus described by Gibbon (chap, lxii.) :—
"Athens, though no moro than the shadow of her former self, still contains about 8000 or 10,000 inhabitants; of these, three-fourths aro Greeks in religion and language; and the Turks, who composo the remainder, have relaxed, in their intercourse with the citizens, somewhat of the pride and gravity of their national character. Tho olive-tree, the gift of Minerva, flourishes iu Attica; nor has the honey of Mount Hymettus lost any part of its exquisite flavour: but the languid trado is monopolised by strangers; and the agriculture of a barren land is abandoned to the vagrant Wallochians. Tho Athenians are still distinguished by the subtlety and acuteness of their understandings: but these qualities, unless ennobled by freedom and enlightened by study, will degenerate into a low and selfish cunning; and it is a proverbial saying of tho country, 'From the Jews of Thossalonica, the Turks of Negropont, and the Greeks of Athens, good Lord deliver us!' This artful people has eluded the tyranny of the Turkish bashaws by an expedient which alleviates their servitude and aggravates their shame. About the middle of the last century, the Athenians chose for their protector the Kislar Aga, or chief black eunuch of tho Seraglio. This Ethiopian slave, who possesses the Sultan's ear, condescends to accept the tribute of 30,000 crowns: his lieutenant, the Waywode, whom ho annually confirms, may reserve for his own about 5 or 6000 more; and such is the policy of the citizens that they seldom fail to remove and punish an oppressive governor. Their private differences are decided by the Archbishop, one of the richest prelates of the Greek Church, since he possesses a revenue of 1000/. sterling, and by a tribunal of the eight geronti, or ciders, chosen in the eight quarters of the city. The noble families cannot trace their pedigree above 300 years, but their principal members are distinguished by a grave demeanour, a fur cap, and the lofty appellation of archon. By some, who delight in the contrast, the modem language of Athens is represented as the most corrupt and barbarous of the seventy dialects of the vulgar Greek: this picture is too darkly coloured, but it would not bo easy, in the country of l'lato and
Demosthenes, to find a reader, or a copy, of their works. The Athenians walk with supino indifference among the glorious ruins of antiquity; and such is the debasement of their character, that they are incapable of admiring the genius of their predecessors."
It is interesting to contrast the moral and material aspect of Athens sinoo the Revolution with that so graphically described above. The town of tho 18th centy. has been almost completely swept away. The Acropolis was again used as a fortress during tho War of Independence (1821-1827), and suffered severely from both Greeks and Turks. It was the scene of two devastating sieges and of repeated conflicts. Mr. Waddington thus describes Athens in 1824 :—" The modern town was never remarkable for beauty or regularity of construction: it has now suffered the demolition of about one-third of its buildings. Many Turkish houses were burned by tho Greeks, in the first siege of the Citadel; many Greek houses were destroyed during the occupation of the place by Omar Brioni (an Albanian general); and many of both havo fallen into the streets from mere neglect. The churches and mosques have not met with greater mercy in this religious war; and even the ashes of tho dead havo not been allowed to repose in security." Again, when Dr. Wordsworth visited Greece in 1832, he recorded that there was " scarcely any building at Athens in so perfect a state as the Temple of Theseus."
In 1S34, Athens was declared tho capital of the Kingdom of Greece; all the Turkish houses which formerly encumbered the Acropolis have been removed, and measures have beeu taken to preserve the existing remains of antiquity. The present town has sprung up since 1834.
III. Dioirions, Extent, Population, &c.—Ancient Athens consisted of three distinct parts, united within one line of fortifications. I. The Acropolis. II. The Asty [rb "A<rru), or Upper Town, in opposition to the Lower Town of Piroous, and therefore, in its widest sense, including the Acropolis. III. The Port Towns, i. e. the Piraeus, including Munychia and Phalerum.
Extent.—The entire circuit of the walls of Athens was 175 stadia (22 miles), of which 43 stadia belonged to the city, 75 to the Long Walls, and 57 to the port-towns. The Long Walls connected the city with the sea, and were built under the administrations of Themistocles and Pericles. They consisted of the wall to Phalerum on the E-, and of that to Pirasus on the W., each about 4 miles in length: between theso two, at a short distance from the latter and parallel to it, auother wall was erected, thus making two walla leading to the Pirajus (sometiems called the Legs, truiKri), with a narrow passage between them. There wt-re, therefore, three Long Walls in all, but that name seems to have been confined to the two leading to the Piraeus, while that leading to Phalerum was distinguished by the appellation of the I'halerian wall. The Long Walls were in ruins in the time of Pausanias. Their foundations may still be traced in many places near the road between Athens and the Piraius.
Population, &c.—The chief authority for the population of ancient Attica is
the census of Demetrius Phalereus, taken B.C. 317. According to this census, there were 21,000 Athenian citizens, 10,000 resident aliens (m«voikoi), and 400,000 slaves. It may be assumed from various authorities that by the term citizens all the males above the age of 20 are meant. The aggregate of the whole population of Attica must thcreforo have exceeded half a million in ancient times.
It is impossible to determine the exact population of Athens itself. Xenophon states that the city contained upwards of 10,000 houses. If wo assume about 12 persons to a house, we obtain 120,000 for the population of the city; and we may perhaps assign 40,000 more for the collective population of the ports. Although wo know that the Athenians were fond of a country life, and that the deme of Acharnaj alone furnished 3000 hoplites, still we cannot be very far wrong in calculating that Athens contained at least a third of the aggregate population of Attica,
Athens was undoubtedly inferior to Eome in the pavement of its streets, in its sewers, its supply of water, &c. Put the magnificence of the public buildings compensated for such inferiority and for the poverty and meanness of the domestic architecture.
The Acropolis restored. IV. Topography of the Acropolis.— I first, with respect to its natuial feaThe Acropolis may bo considered, | turcs; secondly, in its earlier state
before tho invasion of tho Persians; thirdly, in its meridian splendour; and, lastly, in its present condition. Its general form is that of a rocky platform, of coarse red marble or highly crystalline limestone. It is very irregular in shape—its length being about 1100 feet, its extreme breadth near the middle about 450. It is precipitous, except towards the W., where a narrow neck of high ground connects it with the Areopagus. The sides of the table-rock rise abruptly, in some places nearly 150 feet, from the steeply eloping hill-side upon which it rests, and with which the neck just mentioned to the W. is continuous. The summit is about 300 feet above the town, 270 above the pavement of the Theseum, and 250 above that of the temple of Jupiter Olympius. Although the Acropolis is not precipitous towards the W., the slope is steep, and that point, whilst it gives facilities for access, could be strengthened by art. The Propylaja, which spanned the entire space between the precipices from N. to S., was made sufficiently strong in its outworks to defend the Acropolis, considered as a citadel.
When we pass the Propylaja, and go eastwards, we find that tho surface of the rock rises at first at a slopo which forms a steep road, and, becoming more gentle as it proceeds, finally reaches its highest point near the eastern end of the Parthenon. Tho rise between the Propylaja and this point is about 40 feet. It then falls about 15 feet to tho eastern extremity of tho enclosure.
In height the Acropolis is greatly exceeded by Lycabettus, more than a mile distant to the N.E., but it commands extensive views on every other side, excepting that the summit of the Museum, the hill surmounted by the Monument of Philopappus to the 8.S.W., rises high enough to interfere with, and to detract from, the Acropolis from some points of view, and has often proved an inconvenient and dangerous neighbour. Both in tho times of the successors of Alexander, when the town was overawed by a Macedonian garrison which occupied
that height, and still more during tho last 200 years, in the Turkish wars, irreparable injury was inflicted therefrom on the Parthenon and other monuments. Venetian, Greek, and Turkish batteries have been at various times there planted. However, the greater extent of the Acropolis makes it in the general view domineer over this eminence, and all tho other contiguous heights are so subordinate as by their contrast rather to enhance its dignity than otherwiso. Thus, from all sides, except from such a distanco to the N.E. that Lycabettus, or from such a nearer point to the S.W. that the Museum interferes, commanding views are to be obtained of the Acropolis. The finest of all these are from the N.; from the N.E., near tho King's Palace, and from the slopes of Lycabettus; from the S.E., beyond the Ilissus, not far from the temple of Jupiter Olympius; from the slopes and summit of the Pnyx, S.S.W. and W.; and, above all, from the N.W., at the commencement of the olive-grove near the Academy. But rides or rambles in any direction through this grove afford enchanting views of tho Acropolis, especially in an afternoon, when the temples sparkle in the sunlight, and the deep purple of the background—tho " purpureos colles florentis Hymetti"—throws them out in relief. If a traveller could so disengage himself from the cares of his luggage on his arrival as to take a horse and guide at the Piraeus, and, following the course of the Kephissus northwards, to enter Athens by the sacred road which leads from Eleusis by Daphne, his first impression of the Citadel of Minerva would be more agreeable than ho would obtain by following the usual course along tho dusty road to Athens from the Pirasus. The Tyrrheni Pelasgi, that mysterious race, who flourished before the dawn of history, probably in tho first instance occupied Athens and its Acropolis. It is not within the compass of a guide-book to go into tho question of tho origin and migrations of this people. Suffice it to say that it is certain that one race, or several so nearly allied as to be almost identical in their mythology, occupied, at a period anterior to the Trojan war, the Peloponnesus, the greater part of continental Greece, nnd a large portion of Italy and Sicily. Tho introduction into Athens of the worship of Minerva by Cecrops, and the story of Neptune's yielding to her the tulela of the city, seem to point out the arrival of the Ionian race; the latter soon afterwards took the lend, and ultimately made Atbens what she was. Herodotus tells us that the people bad originally been called Pelasgi, afterwards Cecropidae, and lastly, under Erechtheus, Athenians. The Pelasgi, therefore, it would seem, had in the first instance established themselves in the Acropolis. According to an Athenian tradition a body of the Tyrrheni Pelasgi sought refuge in Attica from their enemies, and were employed by the Athenians to fortify the Oecropian hill. A place immediately underneath the rock, near the western end of tho
N. side, was assigned for their abode, and called Pelasgicum. They were
afterwards expelled from there because
they conspired against tho Athenians.
After this, no one was allowed to build
or cultivate in that part, possibly from an apprehension of attack, for there
the rock, though steep, is full of fissures, and there would be some danger
lest the basis of the walls should be
undermined if an enemy should be
able to conceal himself among houses
built close up to it; or it might be injured by excavations made for domestic
purposes. Later it has been found
necesssary to support the wall in that
part with an enormous buttress, and
several largo masses seem to have
fallen down from time to time. To
figure to ourselves, therefore, the
Acropolis as it existed before the Persian invasion, wo must suppose tho
rock crested with the original polygonal walls of the Pelasgi, to which
the Cecropida) had added little or nothing: the western access defended by
an elaborate system of works called
Enneapylon (ivvehrvhov) or the Nine
Gates; a name showing that, after
the manner of the Pelasgi, the inner[ffrwee.]
most keep was strengthened by enclosures, with avenues constructed on the principlo of obliging the assailant to expose his unshielded side to tho enemy. The strength of these works was great. At the time of tho in vasirn of Xerxes some of the Athenians did not follow Themistocles to the ships, but thought that the wooden mills required by the oracle, was rather the strengthening the weaker parts of tho Acropolis with wooden palisades. They were enabled to defend tbo Enneapylon; and the Acropolis was taken by some mountaineers in the Persian army climbing up on the N. side, near the Erechtheum, where the steepness of the rock being supposed a sufficient protection, was left un» watched by the garrison; or, perhaps, as Dr. Wordsworth suggests, by tho treachery of the Pisistratidce they may have become possessed of the stair and passage which leads from the Aglaurium up into tho Acropolis. The Persians seem to have destroyed tho Pelasgic defences, and the Athenians were afterwards obliged to reconstruct them; although the rebuilding of tho walls was a matter of the greatest urgency, in consequence of the ambition of the Spartans, the old walls could not bo repaired, but were obliged to be built afresh. This perhaps was not necessary on the S. side, whero the wall was afterwards rebuilt on a grander scale by Cimon; but for a great portion—as the existing remains show—and probably over the wholo extent of the N. side, they were entirely reconstructed with the remains of the temples which the Persians had thrown down. This forms a very interesting illustration to tho account by Thucydides of the diplomatic success of Themistocles in gaining time during his embassy to Sparta, while all hands at home were employed in rebuilding tho city walls. A very small piece of the polygonal wall of the imirvKoy remains to the S. of the Propylsea, extending to the outer wall in a direction N. and S. There are also some marble foundations near it, which are not parallel with the Propyla:a, but they can hardly be so old as the Persian