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this criticism on our “ popular" government : ' especially interesting historical papers, on Ja

" The example of the l'nited States, by the occa- cobinism" and Sorel's Europe and the French sional ostracism of estimable citizens and the corrup Revolution." The latter is an excellent contion of many of its professional politicians, abundantly densation of a remarkable book, on which it shows what bad results may ensue even when the mass

would be pleasant to dwell. The essay on Jaof a community merits our esteem."

cobinism is a review of several books, but Another result of democratic rule in America

chiefly of Taine's brilliant but misleading is truly surprising :

- French Revolution." Dr. Mivart's prejudices "In the United States wealth as an interest] tends lead him to ha incritical of its acon

lead him to be uncritical of its accuracy, so to be absolutely crushed by the incidence of taxation."

that he repeats Taine's error, pointed out by As regards the functions of the State, Dr. Dr. (Charles K. Adams, of attributing all the Mivart makes no definite contribution to this misery of the Reign of Terror * chiefly to the important question. Modernly speaking, he Revolutionary leaders: whereas, it was rooted partakes of the character of both the indi- in those relations of the different classes which vidualist and the collectivist ; but more accur- the nobility and clergy had persistently refused ately considered, he seems to belong historie- to change." ally to the palmy days of the Holy Roman Em. It is not quite fair, perhaps, to look for pire. He offers the general ethical conception much literary merit in a work devoted to abof the State as making the goods of life possi.

stract thought : though the writings of Schoble to all individuals : but how far this is to be penhauer and Professor Fiske occur at once as done by the direct action of government, is left

proof that philosophy and excellence of form Targely to the imagination of the reader. Free are by no means incompatible. But it might compulsory education he regards as opposed to

certainly be justly required of Dr. Mivart that a sound political economy; but asserts, what to

he should pay a little more attention to the many would seem a far more unsound principle, architectonics of the sentence. that " The individual as a member of the State

MARIAN MEAD. is not bound to tolerate, rather is he absolutely bound to repress, expressions and actions on the part of individuals, which actions or expressions he has good grounds for certainly

BRIEFs Ox NEW BOOKS. knowing are the manifestations of bad voli

The two volumes of - Essays on tion and not of conscientious convictions," etc. (oryfy'mory!

sm Polonia Philosophy and Literature” (MacHe also declares that the State, for its own pres.

mem illan). by Professor Edward Caird, ervation, as a means to moral, not merely ma

of Glasgow, invite the attention of thoughtful terial good, may even, “ with extreme reiuct readers. Volume I. contains papers, mostly magaance and as the last resort, justly exercise prey. zine reprints, on Dante, Rousseau, Wordsworth, sure on consciences." It is impossible to do Goethe, Carlyle, and - The Problem of Philosophy more than mention several other very ques. at the Present Time"; Volume II. contains retionable doctrines --- namely, that the waste of prints of the author's excellent articles in the Ennoble intellects in uncongenial and exhaust cyclopædia Britannica on “Cartesianism" and ing labor is not a moral loss to society; that

- Metaphysic." The trend of these essays is what

one would expect, or rather what one would ask, limitation of births is not to be approved be

from a distinguished Professor of Moral Philosophy, cause of the beneficial effects on character to

- something quite different, in a word, from the members of large families (one thinks of the desultory though delightful chat of the Lamb and conditions of existence among the classes which Hazlitt order. The thresled-out straw of personal most habitually have unlimited families ), and gossip is left untouched, and there is little discusthat armed rebellion against the State is never sion of matters of pure literary form. On the justitiable. But there is one saving of Dr. other hand, philosophical bearings and affiliations Mivart's in this connection which is a true are clearly brought out ; and in the thoughtful word of wisdom, containing the larvest promise papers on Goethe and Wordsworth the author en

deavors to indicate the sources of, and so far as of good for the future : - Each day advances

possible, to give direct expression to those deeper the movement which transforms the process of

intimations in their verse, that breath and finer civilization from an unconscious evolution to

spirit of all knowledge," wherrin great poetry a fully self-conscious and deliberate develop often forestalls and always transcends science, and ment."

by virtue of which, as Matthew Arnold said, its Little space is left in which to notice two future is immense. We do not, of course, mean


Colonial Era.

to imply that Professor Caird approaches Goethe Homeric stars and the Homeric animals, the Hoin the spirit of Mr. Donnelly, or that he mistakes meric trees and flowers and magic herbs, the 6. The Excursion” for a rebus or a quadratic equa- | metals, the amber, the ivory and the ultramarine tion. To the lover of poetry as poetry, whose ears which furnish the weapons of Homer's heroes and may perhaps still tingle with Professor Huxley's the decorations of his heroines, and gives us Hovigorous epithet “sensual caterwauling," it is a meric bills of fare without leaving “so much as a cheering thing to find a severe thinker" like dish of beans to the imagination.” In a prefatory Professor Caird holding that “in poetry the form chapter she discusses “Homer as a poet and a is the first thing. Its function is pure expression problem.” She knows what the critics have said for its own sake, and the consideration of what is of him and how the translators have ravaged him. expressed must be secondary. The Muses would | She gives her illustrative quotations now in Chapundoubtedly prefer a good bacchanalian song to man's vigorous version, now in Tennyson's, now in Zachary Boyd's metrical version of the Bible.Lord Derby's, now in Mr. Way's, now in her own Still (the author observes, touching the “ old quarrel not unequal English. As to the personality of of poets and philosophers ” of which Plato speaks), Homer, she seems not quite sure whether the author while “it is far from desirable that poetry should of the Iliad and the Odyssey be one man or two, or ever become a criticism of life,' except in the a guild of wandering bards, or the author, as Grote sense in which beauty is always a criticism upon thought, of a central Achilleid about which like ugliness," " there is undoubtedly a point — and legends had been encrusted, or a critical editor who that, indeed, the highest point in both-in which had worked prehistoric ballads into a semi-consistthey (poets and philosophers] come into close rela ent whole. tions with each other. Hence, at least in the case of the greatest poets, we are driven by a kind of

THE “Colonial Era," by Profes

A judicial view necessity to ask what was their philosophy.” Pro

of the American sor Fisher, of Yale University, is

1. fessor Caird rates Wordsworth high : “ There is

the first volume of a new Amerno poet who is more distinctly unique and of his

ican History Series, published by Scribner's Sons. own kind, no poet the annihilation of whose works

| The other volumes of the series are to be written would more obviously deprive us of a definite and

by Prof. Sloane of Princeton, President Walker original vein of sentiment. ... When Words

of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and worth is at his best he stands quite on a level with

Professor Burgess of Columbia University (two the very highest.” In the paper on Carlyle the

volumes). Professor Fisher has given us a very author notes, what we do not remember to have

compact and readable account of the period ending seen emphasized before, the masterful influence

with the year 1756. He divides the era into the upon the clothes philosopher” of Fichte's ideal

period ending with 1688 and the period from then ism. His debt to the fantastic Richter, upon whom

to 1756, and within each of these divisions he treats he founded himself and from whose strange literary

each colony by itself, with the exception that New conglomerate he made no scruple of carrying off

England is considered more as a whole. Doubtless bodily various tempting crotchets and verbal turns,

the reason for this plan is the difficulty of finding is barely noted. Professor Caird is one of the

any unity in the colonies at the time of which he leaders in the movement tending to rehabilitate,

writes ; but the result is to leave the reader with a or perhaps we may say, to naturalize, philosophy

somewhat disconnected impression of the subject, proper, as distinguished from orthodox British em

and with a knowledge of the names and deeds of piricism, in England; and, even in the literary

the various colonial governors rather than of the essays, his metaphysical habit of thinking makes

deeper elements of colonial life. Perhaps the funhim at times a little hard for unmetaphysical

damental fact of the early history of our country readers to follow. The exertion required is, how

is the differentiation of the three sections, New ever, well repaid. The articles on “ Cartesianism”

England, the Middle Region, and the South. The (covering the systems of Des Cartes, Spinoza, and

unity of the subject lies rather in England than Malebranche) and “Metaphysic" display the same

on this continent, and by more attention to the rare turn for exposition that makes the author's

English basis of the period, and to the fundamental admirable book on Kant the best in the English

| economic and social factors in the history of these language.

various sections, a newer view of the subject might

have been presented. By following the time-honored In Miss Agnes M. Clerke's “ Famil mode of procedure, however, Professor Fisher has iar Studies in Homer ” (Longmans) contented himself with a more or less annalistic

we have certain aspects of Hellenic method of treatment. The distinctly valuable fealife in the Homeric period well brought before us in tures of the book lie in its judicious presentation of the light of the higher criticism and of recent archæo- | the religious history of the period. As was to be logical research. The writer is a loving student of | expected from the Professor of Ecclesiastical Hisher author ; his least peculiarities are precious to tory at Yale, the author deals with the Puritans in her. The flower which he has named blooms for a sympathetic manner, and is disposed to extenuate her henceforth a sacred thing. She tells us of the l some of the actions for which they have been criti

Studies of Homer as a poet and a problem.

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cised ; at the same time it cannot be said that he is sketches, beyond their charm of girlish sprightliat all extreme in his conclusions. It is in this field, : ness, have an undeniable literary quality, evincing particularly, that he seems to have made use of origi- an admirable power of developing narrative. That nal material. The least valuable portions of the work called - Summer in the Prättigau " is as simple and are the early ones. He writes somewhat indefinitely lovely as the sweet mountain-girt orchard it deof the relation of the mound-builders to the other scribes. It is interesting to trace the marked Indians, but leaves the impression that he considers intellectual family likeness between the father and them to have been a distinct people -- a view not in daughter, and to compare the grace and freedom accord with opinions of the best authorities. The of the younger mind with the manly breadth of settlements of the Norsemen were not on the eastern the mature thinker. * I have never been able," says shore of Greenland, as the author says, but on the Jr. Symonds (and here lies the secret of much of his western. He is wrong again in saying that the power as a writer). - to take literature very seri* erroneous representation that the mainland was ously. Life seems so much graver, more importdiscovered by Americus Vespuccius in 1497. resulted ant, more permanently interesting, than books." in the attaching of his name to the New World." And it is a deep thought of life, a rich humanity This error is the less to be excused, since, even if indeed, which breathes in certain pages of the ar. Professor Fisher were not a student of the mono- 'ticle on “Swiss Athletic Sports," and in the really graphs upon this subject, the recent works of Win. wonderful description of a bell-ringing in that ensor and Fiske should have set him right. It is at titled - Winter Nights at Davos." Other interestleast doubtful whether he is correct in the assertioning points in the book are some accounts of the that " as long as Henry VIII. acknowledged the natural history of avalanches and Swiss hotel-porters; papacy, he had felt bound to respect the Pope's as well as an historical sketch of Davos, formerly grant to Spain." The degree of respect paid to the an elaborately-developed community, whose records papal division of the new discoveries, even by Catho ought certainly to be worked up as a social and polilic countries, was very moderate. In spite of these tical study by some enterprising university student. and similar slips, the work is on the whole accurate.

The average married man, who reMR. J. A. SYMONDS and his daughter is flects upon the details of his happidere obter to the Margaret have put into a volume 4 R

ness, does it very much in the man** some uncommonly piquant sketches ner of Mr. Robert Grant's amusing “ Reflections of their · Life in the Swiss Highlands" (Macmil- of a Married Man" (Scribner). The result is not, lan & Co.) Perhaps the most noticeable peculiarity certainly, an important book, although it is that revealed by the authors--one & consumptive, the almost rarer thing, a pleasant one. It is altogether other a young girl is an entire and delightful diss' kindly, and playful and wholesome. If one would regard for prudence or common-sense, when on ad- class it, he would put it on the shelf with Prue and venture bound. And adventures with them are de. I" and the - Reveries of a Bachelor." Its humor cidedly frequent, assuming such wild forms as to is less imaginative than the Howadji's, less sentibogganing on glaciers in the High Alps ; starting 'mental than Ik Marvel's. It is a little more of small avalanches, to ride them down-hill; coasting this present world than either. Yet it is a painting, down sheer precipices on bundles of hav; or sleigh- not a photograph. The ideal element prevades it; ing (quite needlessly) at the dead of night over one hardly thinks, he dreams a little over it* pages. passes where the snow lay thirty feet, the path was They do not incite laughter, but coax a frequent a mere thread bordered by aby'sses, and the postil meditative smile. The reader will like his own lion, trusting solely to the surer instinct of his horse, wife better, noting the foibles of Mr. Grant's herowhispered (for fear of avalanches), *One false ine. It is a book for a honeymoon, or for a hamstep- es ist mit uns um."" "Well, it was all a splen- mock by a brookside. It might be read aloud by did experience," writes Miss Symonds; proceeding a camp-fire without andaly hastening bedtime. calmly to relate that the next day we crossed eleven real big avalanches after Silvaplana, and

Mr. W. WARDE FOWLER, M.A., of had two upsets of the luggage part, - otherwise

Lincoln College, Oxford, has prequiet." The fresh and unconventional personality

pared for the - Heroes of the Na of this young woman is one of the most pleaning tions Series " Putnam) a serviceable volume to features of the book. The animal spirits and love explain to those who are comparatively unfaof outdoor life common among highly-bred English miliar with classical antiquity the place which ( girls of the day are mingled in her with a rarer sar occupies in the history of the world." Mr. poetic feeling for Nature. She recall. Woni Fowler writes from a full knowledge of his subject. worth's Lucy. * moulded by silent sympathy" with and in a simple, impressive, and popular manner. the spirit of the mountains, and finding in Nature well suited to the readers alred. His virw's ** both law and impulse." It is, however, a Lucy of (arsars career are commented to the attention rendered refreshingly human by a vigorous appetite, of all by the straightforward and impartial manner and a truly feminine predilection for *fis-jam san in which they are set forth. The author relies wiches" as sequel to a stiff mountain- limb. Her chietly upon contemporary evidence (abore all.

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upon Cæsar and Cicero ), to the exclusion of much | contributory venture in three little volumes, pubthat is said by later writers. He does not intro- lished by Messrs. E. & J. B. Young & Co., of lectures duce the discussions of obscure points and the cita- i by bishops and presbyters of the Protestant Episcotions of authorities which might be admissible in a pal Church. These volumes are entitled, respect. more extended and more critical biography. He : ively, “ History and Teachings of the Early states emphatically that Caesar was neither the Church." - The Church in the British Isles, from founder nor the organizer of the Roman Empire, 'the Earliest Times to the Restoration," " The nor were his conquests his greatest title to fame, Church in the British Isles, Post-Restoration Peneither was the fact that he tempered strong gor. riod." Their connecting thread is "the Historie ernment with justice and humanity. Conquests · Episcopate." There are those who will fancy that had been made and administered with justice and the weight of the argument will most impress those humanity before his day. It was his distinction already convinced of the conclusion, but the discus. that he was the first Roman to apply what we should sion will have its interest for others. Dr. Allen's call scientific intelligence to the problems of gor. ' paper on the Norman Church is noticeably fresh ernment. The book is supplied by the publishers and striking. with a series of likenesses of Julius Cæsar and some of his great contemporaries, and also with maps and Prevent someone

Ix Professor Shackford's posthumother illustrative material.

' 'lishwoment ous volume of essays entitled - So

cial and Literary Papers" (Scribner) THOMAS RAMBAUT. whose biogra. | we have a pleasant suggestion of how an old-fashor some of phy has been written by the Rer. ioned scholar amused himself reading and thinking ley Pendel

Norman Fox and published by Fords. for half a century. The modern scholar is for the Howard and Hulbert, was a hard-working Baptist most part over-absorbed in the technical part of his preacher and college president. Although born in studies, and very likely the professor's pupils at Dublin, he was, as his biographer is very careful to' Cornell may have thought his attention too alert in inform us at some length in the chapter on An- the matter of Greek particles. But here he drops cestry." of noble French Huguenot extraction. Dr. his scholastic methods and indulges himself in broad Rambaut's first pastorate, of which we are given a human interests. He reads his Greek as less learned charming picture, was at Robertville, South Caro- men read their English, not as a study of gramlina. It was in that colden age befo' de wah." mar, but from a delight in literature. His insight when the whites worshipped in the body of the into the difficulties of Eschylus has only quickchurch and their negroes filled the galleries. After ened his sensitive enjoyment of Shakespeare and a second pastorate at Savannah. Dr. Rambaut went. Browning: he finds Pope Innocent XII. and king into educational work, and was president first of ! Lear as well worth studying as Prometheus. HuCherokee College, Georgia, and later of William man life is yet nearer to him than classical or roJewell College, Missouri. No matter to what re, mantic literature, and as he turns the pages of his ligious denomination they may belong, these small Aristotle or his Plato he is ever glancing off to note and struggling Western colleges may all fitly be the everyday wants and woes of his contemporaries denominated president-killers; and it was not more and ever seeking to apply to modern social prothan five years before Dr. Rambaut's health broke gress some of the old-time wisdom not yet obsolete. down under the strain of carrying forward work Culture does not always refine away the heart even enough for three men. It was only after years of of dons in the universities. rest that he was able to resume work, and to enter upon successive pastorates at Brooklyn, Newark,

THERE are three paths along which

Ta till inne and other places in the East. The story of his life. elemente un curious minds are travelling back to though told in a somewhat effusive and superficial

the reconstruction of the prehistoric manner, is that of an active and self-sacrificing de ages. Two of them, archæology and philology, votion to the great causes of religion and education.

though recently opened, are already well-worn.

The third, folklore, is now for the first time atIs these days when men are doubt tempted. In a little volume in Appletons'". Modern ing whether “a church termagant" Science Series," entitled - Ethnology in Folklore,"

has not, cuckoo-like, thrust itself Mr. George Lawrence Gomme, the president of into the nest of the church militant, any honest the Folklore Society, undertakes to set forth the effort toward the organic unity of Christendom is principles by which the peasant and local elenot without interest. It may prove a failure, and ments in modern culture" may be classified, and then we see what road is no thoroughfare. It may to trace the ethnological results. He reaches the prove a partial success, and so suggest in what conclusion that side by side with modern industrial direction to turn for the future. It may not be very and scientific and literary England lies a prehis detinable as either success or failure, and then it toric England visible in the obscure usages and serves to keep attention awake and set investigators superstitions of the peasant class; and the further off, each on his own track, toward the desired goal. conclusion that these are a survival not from The Church ('lub of New York City has made its our Aryan ancestors, but from unknown pre-Aryan

in euiture

races whom they conquered and displaced. Mr.) of all others who took part in the anti-slavery Gomme has "blazed " a path. Later investigators | movement, in order to exalt himself and Mr. Eli will decide whether it leads into a swamp or a far Thayer. John Brown, Jim Lane, and President viewing mountain top. Meanwhile, there are in Lincoln share alike the vials of Robinson's wrath ; teresting glimpses to be had all along the road. James Redpath, F. B. Sanborn, and other histori

ans of the movement, likewise come in for their porThe publishers of the excellent tion. The newspapers of the day are largely drawn A boon to

and indispensable · Bohn's LibraGoethe Students.

upon for material to pad out the book to double its ries” (Macmillan & Company ) proper dimensions. The future historian of the have rendered a real service to students of Ger movement will have to search long in this bushel of man literature by issuing in a single volume the chaff before he finds the kernels of sound and unoriginal text of Goethe's " Faust” (Part I.), and the prejudiced information it unquestionably contains ; literal prose rendering of Abraham Hayward-pro- | for the book is not only garrulous but one-sided. nounced by Matthew Arnold“ the best ” because “ the most straightforward," — together with Hayward's useful Appendices and Prefaces, “ A General Survey of the Faust Legend” by C. H. Buc

BRIEFER MENTION. heim, and “A List of Books for the Study of

CATHCART's “Literary Reader" has been for a long Faust.” The editor, Dr. Bucheim of King's Col

time one of the best reading books for advanced pupils. lege, London, has carefully revised Hayward's not It has now been still further improved by a new introaltogether trustworthy work, simplifying his rather duction, several new chapters, and by more extended pedantic prose, pruning away irrelevant notes and notices of the writers from whom the selections are adding new ones where needed. For the conven taken. The book is thus adapted more than ever to ience of the student, the original text and the trans serve as an introduction to English literature. (Amerlation are set opposite each other on alternate pages,

ican Book Co.) and the reference numbers to the notes are inserted

“BROWNING’s Criticism of Life," by William F. in the translation. The editing is thorough and the

Revell, and “Walt Whitman,” by William Clarke, are

two volumes of the “ Dilettante Library” (Macmillan). arrangement practical; and we commend Dr. Buc

The former consists of chapters upon Browning's reheim's work to students wishing to enter upon a con

ligious thought and philosophy of conduct, rather vaguescientious study of one of the greatest poems of all

ly put, and leading to nothing very definite. The latter ages.

is one of the most careful and appreciative studies of

its subject yet made, both quotations and comments The Life of Charles Sumner, by Anna Charles Sumner

being in good taste and suggestive. Americans will as a maker Laurens Dawes, in the “ Makers of

wince at Mr. Clarke's handling of our civilization, and of America.

America. America " series (Dodd, Mead & it is not in all respects quite just, but it makes wholeCo.), is an especially thorough and thoughtful piece some reading of work. The style is condensed and “ meaty,” but Each one of Mr. Howells's inimitable farces seems not always careful or correct. The book contains more delightful than its predecessors, and “ A Letter in moderate space a reasonably satisfactory account of Introduction” (Harpers) is simply irresistible in its of the stirring times in which Sumner lived and of mirth-provoking qualities. The central figure is that the great struggles in which he was engaged ; and

of the travelling Englishman who waxes enthusiastic yet it never abandons the narrative form nor

about everything that seems to him peculiarly Americeases to make him the principal figure. He is

can, and invariably sees a joke within five minutes or

so of its enunciation. portrayed fully in his weaknesses as well as in his

GOLDWIN SMITH's “A Trip to England” (Macstrength. It is evident that the author considers

millan) has been reissued in a neat volume of hardly Sumner a man great enough to be judged on his

more than vest pocket dimensions. This sketch is at merits. Though, perhaps, she may be able to

times so weighty in its suggestiveness that it has a conjustify her allusion to the Virginia (sic) mud in the siderable element of permanent value. It well illusstreets of Washington, it would be more difficult to trates the difference between what the cultivated objustify her implied statement that Milton left his server and the ordinary traveller see in their surroundautograph in an Italian guest-book in 1600 A.D.,— ings. that is, eight years before his birth. But notwith UNDER the title, “ An Edinburgh Eleven” (Lovell, standing numerous little slips, many readers will be

Coryell & Co.), J. M. Barrie has drawn an amusing grateful to author and publishers for this cheap,

series of “pencil portraits from college life.” His succinct, and readable biography of Charles Sumner.

student experiences at Edinburgh gave him a distinguished series of subjects to draw upon, for his gallery

includes Robert Louis Stevenson, Lord Rosebery, and It is a disappointment to find that An injudicious

Professors Blackie, Sellar, and Tait. and one-sided one who knows so much of the early Kansas History. history of Kansas as Gov. Charles

CHAMBERS's Encyclopædia, in its rewritten form, is

approaching completion, the ninth volume, extending Robinson cannot impart his knowledge better than

well through the letter S, being just published (Liphe does in his “Kansas Conflict” (Harper). The pincott). Maps of Russia, Scotland, and Spain are inbook is little better than a series of denunciations cluded, and a great variety of specially prepared arti

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