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both sides : let them be lions, but yet lions under the throne : being circumspect that they do not check or oppose any points of sovereignty. Let not judges also be so ignorant of their own right, as to think there is not left to them, as a principal part of their office, a wise use and application of laws ; for they may remember what the apostle saith of a greater law than theirs : “Nos scimus quia lex bona est, modo quis eâ utatur legitime."y




To seek to extinguish anger utterly is but a bravery of the Stoics. We have better oracles : “Be angry, but sin not : let not the sun go down upon your anger. Anger must be limited and confined both in race and in tine.

We will first speak how the natural inclination and habit, “ to be angry," may be attempered and calmed ; secondly, how the particular motions of anger may be repressed, or, at least, refrained from doing mischief ; thirdly, how to raise anger, or appease anger in another.

For the first, there is no other way but to meditate and ruminate well upon the effects of anger, how it troubles man's life : and the best time to do this, is to look back upon anger when the fit is thoroughly over. Seneca saith well, “ that anger is like ruin, which breaks itself upon that it falls.' The Scripture exhorteth us “ to possess our souls in patience ;”c whosoever is out of patience, is out of possession of his soul. Men must not turn bees;

."animasque in vulnere ponunt."d Anger is certainly a kind of baseness ; as it appears well in side on the place of the seat, and two lions stood beside the stays. And twelve lions stood there on the one side and on the other upon the six steps.” The same verses are repeated in 1 Chronicles ix. 18, 19.

' 1 Tim. i. 8—“We know that the law is good, if a man use it law. fully."

· A boast. 6 Ephes. iv. 26. In our version it is thus rendered : “Be ye angry and sin not : let not the sun go down upon your wrath."

“In your patience possess ye your souls.”—Luke xvi. 19.

“And leave their lives in the wound.” The quotation is froid Virgil's Georgics, iv. 238.

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the weakness of those subjects in whom it reigns: children, women, old folks, sick folks. Only men must beware that they carry their anger rather with scorn than with fear ; so that they may seem rather to be above the injury than lelow it; which is a thing easily done, if a man will give law to himself in it.

For the second point, the causes and motives of anger are chiefly three : first, to be too sensible of hurt ; for no man is angry that feels not himself hurt; and therefore tender and delicate persons must needs be oft angry, they have so many things to trouble them, which more robust natures have little sense of : the next is, the apprehension and construction of the injury offered, to be, i the circumstances thereof, full of contempt: for contempt is that which putteth an edge upon anger, as much, or more, than the hurt itself ; and, therefore, when men are ingenious in picking out circumstances of contempt, they do kindle their anger much : lastly, opinion of the touche of a man's reputation doth multiply and sharpen anger; wherein the remedy is, that a man should have, as Gonsalvo was wont to say,

66 Telam honoris crassiorem.” But in all refrainings of anger, it is

f the best remedy to win time, and to make a man's self believe that the opportunity of his revenge is not yet come; but that he foresees a time for it, and so to still himself in the mean time, and reserve it.

To contain anger from mischief, though it take hold of a man, there be two things whereof you must have special caution : the one, of extreme bitterness of words, especially if they be aculeate and proper ;g for “communia maledicta”h are nothing so much ; and again, that in anger a man reveal no secrets ; for that makes him not fit for society : the other, that

you do not peremptorily break off in any business in a fit of anger ; but howsoever you show bitterness, do not act anything that is not revocable.

For raising and appeasing anger in another, it is done chiefly by choosing of times, when men are frowardest and worst disposed to incense them ; again, by gathering (as we touched

Susceptibility upon.
"A thicker covering for his honour.”
Pointed and peculiarly appropriate to the party attacked,
Ordinary abuse."

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before) all that you can find out to aggravate the contempt : and the two remedies are by the contraries; the former to take good times, when first to relate to a man an angry business; for the first impression is much ; and the other is, to sever, as much as may be, the construction of the injury from the point of contempt; imputing it to misunderstanding, fear, passion, or what you will.

" That

LVIII-OF VICISSITUDE OF THINGS. SOLOMON saith, “ There is no new thing upon the earth ; "a so that as Platob had an imagination that all knowledge was but remembrance ; so Solomon giveth his sentence, all novelty is but oblivion ;'( whereby you may see, that the river of Lethe runneth as well above ground as below. There is an abstruse astrologer that saith, if it were not for two things that are constant (the one is, that the fixed stars ever stand at like distance one from another, and never come nearer together, nor go further asunder; the other, that the diurnal motion perpetually keepeth time), no individual would last one moment: certain it is, that the matter is in a perpetual flux, and never at a stay. The great windingsheets that bury all things in oblivion are two; deluges and earthquakes. As for conflagrations and great droughts, they do not merely dispeople, but destroy. Phaeton's car went but a day; and the three years' drought in the time of Elias,d was but particular, and left people alive. As for the

* Ecclesiastes i. 9, 10—“The thing that hath been, it is that which shall be: and that which is done is that which shall be done : and there is no new thing under the sun. Is there anything whereof it may be said, See, this is new? It hath been already of old time, which was before us.

b In his Phædo. c Ecclesiastes i. 11–"There is no remembrance of former things : neither shall there be any remembrance of things that are to come with those that shall come hereafter."

1 Kings xvii. 1—"And Elijah the Tishbite, who was of the inhabitants of Gilead, said unto Ahab, As the Lord God of Israei liveth, before whom I stand, there shall not be dew nor rain these years but according to my word.” 1 Kings xviii. 1—“And it came to pass after many days, that the word of the Lord came to Elijah, in the third year, saying, Go, show thyself unto Ahab : and I will send rain upon the earth.”

e Confined to a limited space.





great burnings by lightnings, which are often in the West Indies, they are but narrow ;8 but in the other two destructions, by deluge and earthquake, it is further to be noted, that the remnant of people which happen to be reserved, are commonly ignorant and mountainous people, that can give no account of the time past ; so that the oblivion is all one as if none had been left. If


consider well of the people of the West Indies, it is very probable that they are a newer, or a younger people than the people of the old world ; and it is much more likely that the destruction that hath heretofore been there, was not by earthquakes (as the Egyptian priest told solon, concerning the island of Atlantis, that it was swallowed by an earthquake), but rather that it was desolated by a particular deluge ; for earthquakes are seldom in those parts : but of the other side, they have such pouring rivers, as the rivers of Asia, and Africa, and Europe, are but brooks to them. Their Andes, likewise, or mountains, are far higher than those with us; whereby it seems, that the remnants of generation of men were in such a particular deluge saved. As for the observation that Machiavel hath, that the jealousy of sects doth much extinguish the memory of things; traducing Gregory the Great, that he did what in him lay to extinguish all heathen antiquities; I do not find that those zeals do any great effects, nor last long; as it appeared in the succession of Sabinian,h who did revive the former antiquities.

The vicissitude, or mutations, in the superior globe, are no fit matter for this present argument. It may be, Plato's great year,i if the world should last so long, would have some effect, not in renewing the state of like individuals (for that is the fumek of those that conceive the celestial bodies have

{ The whole of the continent of America then discovered is included under this name.

8 Limited. b Sabinianus of Volaterra was elected bishop of Rome on the death of Gregory the Great, A.D. 604. He was of an avaricious disposition, and thereby incurred the popular hatred. He died in eighteen months after his election.

This Cicero speaks of as “the great year of the mathematicians," “On the Nature of the Gods,” B. 4, ch. 20. By some it was supposed to occur after a period of 12,954 years, while according to others, it was of 25,920 years' duration.

* Conceit.


more accurate influences upon these things below, than indeed they have), but in gros3. Comets, out of question, have likewise power and effect over the gross and mass of things; but they are rather gazed, and waited upon in their journey, than wisely observed in their effects ; especially in their respective effects ; that is, what kind of comet for magnitude, colour, version of the beams, placing in the region of heaven, or lasting, produceth what kind of effects.

There is a toy,m which I have heard, and I would not have it given over, but waited upon a little. They say it is observed in the Low Countries (I know not in what part), that every five and thirty years the same kind and suit of years

and weather comes about again ; as great frosts, great wet, great droughts, warm winters, summers with little heat, and the like ; and they call it the prime; it is a thing I do the rather mention, because, computing backwards, I have found some concurrence.

But to leave these points of nature, and to come to men. The greatest vicissitude of things amongst men, is the vicissitude of sects and religions : for those orbs rule in men's minds most. The true religion is built upon the rock ; the rest are tossed upon the waves of time. To speak, there. fore, of the causes of new sects, and to give some counsel concerning them, as far as the weakness of human judgment can give stay to so great revolutions.

When the religion formerly received is rent by discords, and when the holiness of the professors of religion is decayed and full of scandal, and withal the times be stupid, ignorant, and barbarous, you may doubt the springing up of a new sect; if then also there should arise any extravagant and strange spirit to make himself author thereof; all which points held when Mahomet published his law. If a new sect have not two properties, fear it not, for it will not spread : the one is the supplanting or the opposing of authority estab jished ; for nothing is more popular than that, the other is, the giving license to pleasures and a voluptuous life : for as for speculative heresies (such as were in ancient times the Arians, and now the Arminians)," though they work mightily I Observed.

m A curious fancy or odd conceit. 1 The followers of Arminius, or James Harmensen, a celebrated divine of the 16th and 17th centuries. Though called a heresy by


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