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100 Roscommon wrote the following works: 1, 'An Essay on translated 1507 may have been the year of his death. He was the master of Fra Verse,' London, 4to, 1680; 2, "Prologues and Epilogues to Plays,' Bartolomeo. &c., collected, 8vo, 1684; 3, 'Horace's 'Art of Poetry, translated (Vasari, Vite de Pittori, &c., ed. Schorn; Rumohr, Italienische into English blank'verse, 4to, 1680; 4, Dr. Wm. Sherlock's case of Forschungen ; Platner und Bunsen, Beschreibung der Stadt Roming Resistance of Supreme Powers,' translated into French, 8vo. A short vol. ii., pt. 1; Gaye, Carteggio inedito d'Artisti, vol. ii., ap. 1.) time before his death, Roscommon, among other literary projects ROSELLI'NI, ÍPPOʻLITO, Cavaliere, was born Angust 13, 1800, formed the plan of a society for refining the English language at Pisa. His father was a merchant, and Rosellini himself was designed and fixing its standard, and he is said to have been assisted in the for his father's business; but he acquired such a love of the study of design by John Dryden.

antiquities from his first tutor, Padre Battini, a Servitant monk of St. ROSE, HEINRICH, was born at Berlin in 1795. Both his grand. Antonio, who was a tolerable numismatist, that he commenced at an father and father had possessed considerable reputation as chemists, early age to give himself up to those studies for which he afterwards and Heinrich followed the hereditary course. He learnt pharmacy in distinguished himself, and the mercantile career was wholly abandoned. Danzig, studied in the University of Berlin, and in 1819 at Stockholm In 1821 he finished his university studies in Pisa, and took the degree under Berzelius. After a short residence at Kiel, he graduated at Berlin, of Doctor of Theology. He afterwards studied the Oriental languages where in 1823 he was made professor extraordinary of chemistry in for three years with the celebrated Mezzofante at Bologna: and in the university, and in 1835 professor in ordinary. He is one of the 1824 he was appointed professor of Oriental languages in the Univerinost distinguished scholars of Berzelius, and as a practical analyst, sity of Pisa. In 1825 he appears to have devoted himself with much particularly in the department of inorganic chemistry, holds a high zeal to the study of Egyptian hieroglyphios, following the steps of rank. The results of many of his exact and acute investigations are Champollion, of whose discoveries he was an ardent advocate. When recorded in Pozzendorf's Annalen,' and have greatly contributed to Champollion, in 1826, for the further development of his system, the extension of real knowledge in that department of science, while examined the Egyptian monuments in Rome, Naples, and Turin, he has carefully avoided everything of a disputatious character, and Rosellini, by the permission of the Tuscan government, attended him rests his opinions entirely upon experiment. His great work, 'Hand in his researches; and he accompanied him to Paris, and there spent buch der analytischen Chimie,' first published in 1829-31, has gone the autumn of that year in similar researches : he published also in through several editions. It has been translated into French as well that year an explanation of an Egyptian monument in the gallery as into English, and enjoys an European fame. [See SUPPLEMENT.]. degl' Uffizj at Florence.

*ROSE, GUSTAV, his brother, was born, also in Berlin, in 1798. He In the autumn of 1827 the Grand Duke Leopoldo II. granted directed his attention more especially to mineralogy, and in 1816 was Rosellini a year and a half leave of absence, with funds for himself sent to Silesia to pursue his studies practically in the mines, but on and six companions, to carry out his design of personally exploring account of ill-health returned to the theoretical study. In 1820 he gradu- the monuments of Egypt. After a considerable delay in Paris the ated at Berlin, and in 1821 placed himself under Berzelius at Stockholm. French government of Charles X. determined upon sending ChamIn the same year he was created keeper of the mineral collection in pollion with five companions upon a similar expedition at the same the university of Berlin, in 1825 professor extraordinary, and in 1839 time, and they all embarked together at Toulon, July 31, 1828, and professor, of mineralogy. Besides numerous essays in the Annalen,' landed on the 18th of August following in Egypt, where they rehe has published `Elemente der Krystallographie,' 1846; the minera- mained fifteen months, exploring all the the principal monuments of logical and geognostic portion of the Journey to the Ural and Altai Egypt and Nubia. Mountains and to the Caspian Sea,' made by him in 1829 with Alex. Rosellini arrived at Pisa January 6, 1830, and commenced immevon Humboldt and Ehrenberg; a treatise, 'Ueber das Krystallisations- diately a course of lectures on the Egyptian hieroglypbics, the subsystem des Quarzes,' 1846; Ueber die Krystallformen der rhomboë stance of which is in the Elementa Linguæ Ægyptiacæ of Padre drischen Metalle, namentlich des Wismuths,'1850; and "Das Krystall. Ungarelli, published at Rome, in 1837. Rosellini bad himself made echemische Mineralsystem,' 1852; all of them illustrated with plates. his principles known in a letter to M. Peyron, in 1831. The great

ROSELLI, COSIMO, a celebrated old Florentine painter, was born results of the expedition however were to appear in a joint production at Florence, according to Gaye, in 1439. There are few of his works by Champollion and Rosellini; the former undertaking to explain remaining; the principal is the fresco in the convent of Sant all the historical monuments, and Rosellini the civil and religious Ambrogio, at Florence, painted in 1456, according to an inscription This design was however rendered impossible by the death of Chamn. upon it by Rumohr, when Cosimo cannot have been more than pollion, which took place March 5, 1832, and Rosellini expressed his eighteen years of age, according to the above date : Vasari however sincere regret and disappointment in a eulogium on his departed says it was painted in his youth. And Rumohr observes that Cosimo, friend, which he published under the following title: Tributo di in the commencement of his career, followed the path which was riconoscenza ed amore alla memoria di Champollion.' Rosellini was opened by Angelico da Fiesole and Masaccio; but that after a few thus compelled to undertake the whole work himself, which was his brilliant examples of his ability, he left the approximation of the original design, and the prospectus explaining the plan of the work representation of things as they really appear, to follow an uninterest had already appeared in January, 1831. Accordingly in November, ing, inanimate, and ugly manner. The fresco represents the trans. 1832, appeared the first volume of "I Monumenti deir Egitto e della portation of a miracle-working chalice from the church of Sant' Nubia,' by Rosellini alone, explaining the historical monuments; the Ambrogio to the episcopal palace; the abbess and nuns follow in the second appeared in 1833 ; and by 1836 three more, explaining civil procession, and at the palace-gate is a group of priests and choristers monuments, were published; but between the publication of the fifth ready to receive it: around

is a crowd of curious spectators. The and sixth volumes a long interval incurred, partly through Rosellini's story is told, and the picture described, in Richa's 'Chiese di Firenze.' appointment as librarian of the University of Pisa, but chiefly through The picture has been engraved by Lasinio for his series of old a serious illoess with which he was afflicted in the chest, and which Florentine paintings, and a group from it in Lastri's 'Etruria Pittrice. incapacitated him for nearly two years. At the same time, with the

Cosimo was one of the painters invited by Pope Sixtus IV. to above volumes of letter-press, appeared two large folios of illustraRome to paint the Cappella Sistina, built in 1473, by Baccio Pintelli, tions, the historical monuments were completed in 1832, and the civil for that pope. Cosimo's paintings in this chapel are still in good in 1834. The description of the historical monuments was completed preservation; they are—the Destruction of Pharaoh's Host in the in 1838-41, in two volumes, the third being divided into two parts, Red Sea, in which the Israelites are also represented returning thanks making in all four volumes in five on the historical, and three on the for their deliverance; Moses receiving the Tables of the Law while civil monuments, and these were all that were published during the Israelites are worshipping the golden Calf; the Sermon on the Rosellini's lifetime. The remaining part were the religious monuMount and the Healing of the Leper; and the Last Supper. The ments of the Egyptians, which he was occupied upon until the period landscape of the third picture was painted by Cosimo's pupil, the of his death, and though he did not live to see the publication, he eccentric Piero di Cosimo, afterwards the master of Andrea del Sarto. completed the manuscript of this part. These works were painted for a prize in competition with others in In 1839 he gave up the professorship of Oriental languages and the same chapel by Sandro Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandajo, Don commenced a series of archæological lectures; but in 1841 these Bartolomeo, Luca da Cortona, and Pietro Perugino. Cosimo was labours were remitted him on account of his extremely bad health, very anxious to get the prize, but he doubted his ability, at the and in order that he might bestow what time he could devote to study same time that he had little faith in the pope's judgment; he there to the completion of his great work on Egypt. On the 16th of May, fore, knowing his weakness in composition and design, painted his 1843, however, his case was found hopeless, and he died on the 4th of picture very high in colour, and used plenty of ultramarine and gold, June following, in his forty-third year. The third part of the work counting upon attracting the pope's fancy by his gaudy display. was published in 1844, under the direction of the professors Bonaini When the pictures were all uncovered, his fellow painters laughed and Severi, in one volume of illustrations and one volume of text. at Cosimo for bis puerilities. Cosimo however proved himself a good This great work on Egypt may be thus briefly described:-its title man of the world, if not a good painter; his gay works fixed the is—'I Monumenti dell'Egitto e della Nubia disegnati della Spedizione pope's attention and he obtained the prize; the other painters were Scientifico-Letteraria Toscana in Egitto, distribuiti in Ordine di censured by his holiness for not using finer colours, and they were Materie, interpretati ed illustrati del Dottore Ippolito Rosellini'-The obliged to retouch them and heighten their effect in the same Monuments of Egypt and of Nubia drawn by the Tuscan Literary manner, to the great triumph of Cosimo, whose works however were and Scientific Expedition in Egypt, arranged according to their in reality inferior to all the others.

Subjects, and explained and illustrated by Dr. Ippolito Rosellini. It Cosimo Roselli was still living in 1506: Vasari says he was sixty. is in three parts

, each of which is in one large folio volume with eight years old when he died ; if therefore he were born in 1439, illustrative letter-press in octavo. The first volume, Tavole, M. R,





contains the historical monuments, 'Monumenti Storici,' in 169 plates, he had to study the oldest of the grammatical works of the Hindus. with four volumes of text, 1832-41 ; the second, Tavole M. D. C., con- Having done this, he applied himself to the Commentaries, without a tains the civil monuments, Monumenti Civili,' in 135 plates, with full knowledge of which the texts are quite unintelligible. All this three volumes of text, 1834-36; and the third, Tavole, M. D. C., the was done under very disadvantageous circumstances, and it is a matter monuments of religious worship, 'Monumenti del Culto, in 86 plates, of great regret that he was not placed in a situation which would have with one volume of text, 1844. Rosellini bequeathed bis Egyptian made other labour unnecessary. manuscripts to the University of Pisa; the drawings and plates are Among his various literary labours at this period was the revision all the property of the Grand Duke. Among the manuscripts is a of the 'Dictionary, Bengali, Sanscrit, and English,' published by Sir voluminous but unfinished "Diccionario Geroglyphico' ("Hieroglyphic Graves Houghton, London, 1833-34. He also made the Catalogus Dictionary'), with several thousand names.

Codicum Manuscriptorum Syriacorum et Carshunicorum in Museo ROSEN, FREDERIC AUGUSTUS, was born on the 2nd of Sep Britannico,' which has been published, since his death, under the care tember 1805, at Hanover. He received his earliest education from of the Rev. Mr. Forshall, who, in bis address to the reader, has justly his father, who held a high official situation in the government of the attributed to Dr. Rosen all the merit of this catalogue. Unfortuprince of Lippe Detmold. He afterwards went to the gymnasium at nately, Dr. Rosen's name does not appear either on the title-page of Göttingen. In the year 1822 Rosen went to the university of Leipzig, this catalogue, nor after the præfatio which he wrote, and which is and two years afterwards to Berlin. The energy with which he applied printed at the head of the catalogue. To qualify himself for this himself to all branches of science and literature, and his great powers labour, Rosen made himself master of the Syriac language, with for acquiring knowledge, encouraged his friends to form the highest wbich he was hitherto imperfectly acquainted. At Colebrooke's expectations of his future career. At an early period he had become request he undertook the collection of his "Miscellaneous Essays,' to distinguished for his classical attainments and bis knowledge of the which he added an excellent index, 2 vols., London, 1827. He also Semitic languages; but it was not until the year 1824 that he turned wrote all the articles relating to Oriental literature in the 'Penny his attention to the Sanskrit, a language which at that time was almost Cyclopædia,' from the article .Abbasides' to the article Ethiopian unknown in Germany, although its importance in all questions con- Language, both included, together with several articles on Eastern nected with the early history of civilisation had been pointed out by geography, such as Arabia' and 'Armenia.' He revised the work on the two Schlegels, Creuzer, and William von Humboldt. During a the Hindus, which was published in the 'Library of Entertaining short visit which he paid to his family, he made himself acquainted, Knowledge;' the chapter on the literature is entirely by his hand. with his father's assistance, with the ancient language of the Brahmins, For the Journal of Education he wrote a review of Bopp's 'Verin which he received further instruction at Berlin from Professor Bopp, gleichende Grammatik,' &c. (vol. viii.), and two reviews of Pott's who bad just returned from London, and been appointed professor of Etymologische Forschungen' (vols. ix., x.). He maintained a conSanskrit at the University of Berlin. William von Humboldt, who stant correspondence with almost all the distinguished scholars on the devoted bis time to the same pursuits, also encouraged him to proceed Continent, and for the last ten years of his life no important publiin bis Sanskrit studies. The total want of all useful aids towards cation connected with Eastern philology or history was projected on obtaining a knowledge of this difficult language, suggested to Rosen the Continent to which he did not contribute either by his advice or the idea of supplying the deficiency, which his acquisitions rendered by the supply of materials. His worth was fully appreciated on the him well able to do. Accordingly, in 1826, when he took his degree Continent, and a desire was often expressed that he should return to of doctor of philosophy, he published his Corporis Radicum Sans- bis native country; but being anxious to accomplish his design of scritarum Prolusio,' which was only the forerunner of his larger work, publishing the Vedas,' and conceiving that he was placed in a wider * Radices Sanscritæ,' Berlin, 1827. This work, which abounds in sphere of utility in England, he preferred remaining in London, where learning and sound criticism, has contributed more than any other to be found such valuable treasures of Oriental literature. recommend and facilitate the study of the Sanskrit language in Ger In the year 1836 he began to print the collection of the hymns of many. Rosen also had applied himself with the greatest success to the 'Rig Veda,' giving the Sanskrit text, a Latin translation, and the study of Arabic and Persian ; and be had prepared for publication explanatory notes. In the autumn of 1837 he had advanced so far several large episodes of the 'Sháh Náhmah,' the great epic poem of that he intended to publish a first volume, when his sudden death, on the Persians. This intense application to the literature and the the 12th of September 1837, in the prime of life and in the full vigour languages of the East gave birth to a strong desire to visit Asia. A of his intellectual powers, interrupted an undertaking for which no favourable opportunity presented itself, and he was appointed attaché man in Europe was so well qualified or prepared as himself. The to the Prussian embassy at Constantinople. Shortly before he started Translation Committee published the book after his death, as far as however he received a flattering invitation to become Professor of it was completed, under the title 'Rig Veda Sanbita Liber Primus, Oriental Languages in the University of London (now University Sanscrite et Latine,' 4to, London, 1838. Those who may hereafter College), then just established. He accepted the offer, hoping to find profit by the study of this work, should know at what price it has in this country a wide field for his literary labours. Before going to been obtained : it is only a fragment, but it contains the energy of a London he visited Paris, in order to become acquainted with De Sacy, whole life. Rosen's posthumous papers and collections were confided Remusat, and De Chézy; and after a short stay in that city he came for publication to the able hands of Professor Lassen of Bonn. to London. But his expectations of honour and profit were greatly Although Rosen had acquired so honourable a rank as an Oriental disappointed; for though he had a few pupils in Sauskrit, Arabic, and scholar, his position in society was no less distinguished. The highest Persian, it soon became evident that a teacher of the Hindustani lan. admiration for his talents and attainments was accompanied with guage was more wanted at the London University than a professor of universal respect for his virtues. The simplicity of his pure and Oriental languages as the term is understood in Germany. His energy elevated mind, the gentleness of his manners, and, above all, the did not however fail him; and seeing that he could be useful in a genuine kindness of heart which formed the striking feature of his secondary capacity, he applied himself for several months with great character, secured for him, in an eminent degree, the affection of all industry to the Hindustani, in order that he might qualify himself to who knew him. His readiness on all occasions to aid and advise his teach the language. Some years afterwards he resigned his professor- literary friends, at any cost of labour, is well known to many who will ship of Oriental languages, but subsequently accepted the Sanskrit read this notice. professorship in University College. The high opinion which the The loss of such a man was severely felt by all who were interested College entertained of his services may be collected from the Annual in the studies to which he had dedicated his life, but especially was he Report' of the College for the year 1837-38, which was made after his mourned by those who were intimately acquainted with him. His death.

numerous friends, both English and German, presented his father He derived more satisfaction from his occupation as honorary foreign with a marble bust of his son, by Richard Westmacott, as a mark of secretary of the Royal Asiatic Society, and as secretary to the Oriental their esteem for his character and regret for his loss, and erected a Translation Committee, then just established. This brought him into monument to his memory in the cemetery at Kensall Green, near communication with that great oriental scholar, Colebrooke, for whom London, where he was interred. he entertained the highest admiration. By Colebrooke's advice he ROSENMÜLLER, JOHN GEORGE, was appointed professor of published, under the sanction of the Translation Committee, the divinity in the University of Leipzig, and superintendent in the Arabic text of the 'Algebra' of Mohammed ben Musa, with an English Lutheran church at the same place in 1785, and died in 1815. His translation, accompanied with excellent notes (Musa); he also pre chief works are:-1, "Historia Interpretationis Librorum Sanctorum parrd for publication the great · Biographical Dictionary of Ibn in Ecclesia Christiana, ab Apostolorum Aetate ad Literarum InstauraKballikan; but this, as well as another work, in which he intended to tionem,' 5 parts, 8vo, 1795, 1814; and 2, 'Scholia in Novum Testagive a comprehensive view of the system of Indian jurisprudence, was mentum,

' 5 vols. 8vo. The latter is a useful work, especially for never completed.

young students, but the author cannot be placed in the first rank of Amidst these various occupations he had not lost sight of a higher commentators. His labours were more directed to the explanation of and more arduous task, in which he wished to concentrate all his particular words and phrases than to the general comprehension of the attainments. Having discovered that the character of the Indian sacred writings. He seldom gives a satisfactory solution of any formidliterature and language could only be completely understood by able difficulty: tracing them back to the earliest periods to which the Vedas' belong, ROSENMÜLLER, ERNEST FREDERIC CHARLES, son of the he desired to remove the obscurity by which they are surrounded. In preceding, was born in 1768, and died on the 17th of September 1885, 1830 he published his “Rig Vedae Specimen (Taylor, London), and after having for many years held the office of professor of oriental from that time his principal attention was directed to this great object languages in the University of Leipzig: His chief works are :-1, In order to understand the obsolete languages of these ancient

writings, Scholia in Vetus Testamentum,' 23 vols. 8vo, which is a philological BIOG. DIV. VOL. V.



164 and exegetical commentary on the Pentateuch, Isaiah, the Psalms, extended along the north and south sides." The Alexander, being a Job, Ezekiel, the minor prophets, Jeremiah, the writings of Solomon, slow-sailing vessel, was a considerable distance behind the Isabella. Daniel, Joshua, Judges, and Ruth. The first edition was published Parry however and his officers could see no mountains, and were greatly 1795-1826, the second 1823-34. In the second edition several Rational surprised and disappointed when the Isabella turned her head eastistic interpretations which appeared in the first are greatly modified. wards, and gave the signal for the Alexander to follow the example. Rosenmüller's profound oriental learning and untiring industry have Ross named the supposed high land the Croker Mountains, and has laid made this work one of the most valuable commentaries upon the old them down in his chart as a continuous chain closing up the bottom Testament. In some cases he leans too much to the interpretations of the supposed bay. This was a mistake, as Parry believed at the of the Jewish Rabbis. A Compendium of the Scholia,' in 5 vols. 8vo, time, and as he proved the following year when he sailed through containing the Pentateuch, Isaiah, the Psalms, Job, Ezekiel, and the Lancaster Sound into Barrow's Strait. (PARRY, SIR WILLIAM EDWARD.) minor prophets, has been executed by Dr. J. C. S. Lechner, under the The ships arrived in the Thames on the 14th of November, 1818. author's superintendence. Rosenmüller did not live to complete his On the 7th of December, the same year, Ross was advanced to the rank larger work. 2, · Handbuch der Biblischen Alterthumskunde,' 4 vols. of post-captain. In 1819 he published 'A Voyage of Discovery, made 8vo, 1823-31. This work was also left incomplete at the author's under the Orders of the Admiralty, in his Majesty's ships Isabella and death. The volumes published were three on the geograpby and one Alexander, for the purpose of exploring Baffin's Bay, and enquiring on the natural history of the Bible. Translations of parts of this work into the Probability of a North-West Passage,' 2 vols. 8vo. are published in the Biblical Cabinet,' namely, The Geography of After the unsuccessful attempt of Captain Parry to reach the north Central Asia,' 2 vols., and The Mineralogy and Botany of the Bible,' pole, in 1827, Captain Ross submitted to the Lords of the Admiralty and 1 vol. 3,' Institutiones Linguæ Arabicæ,' the best manual of Arabic to the Lord High Admiral the plan of another voyage of discovery to grammar, chiefly founded upon De Sacy's "Grammaire Arabe.'. 4, the Arctic seas. The government however did not undertake it; but *Analecta Arabica.' 5, Vocabularium Veteris Testamenti.' 6, 'Das after some delay a steam ship was equipped at the expense of Mr. Alte und das Neue Morgenland,' 6 vols. 8vo.

Felix Booth (afterwards Sir Felix Booth), then sheriff of London. ROSMI'NI, CARLO DE' was born in 1758 at Roveredo, in the The ship was named the Victory, and was fitted with an engine, Italian Tyrol. He studied first at Innsbruck, and then in his native invented and patented by Messrs. Braithwaite and Erickson, which town, where he began early to show his aptitude for literary composi- proved to be so bad as to be almost useless. Commander James tion by writing several disquisitions on poetry. He afterwards removed Clark Ross, nephew of Captain Ross, was chosen as second in command. to Ferrara, where he published in 1789 a Life of Ovid :- Vita di They had an attendant vessel of 16 tons burden, granted to them by Ovidio Nasone,' to which were added a letter by Vannetti on the style the Admiralty, named the Krusenstern. The Victory, with its and the language of Ovid, and

a parallel between the Orpheus of Ovid attendant, left the Thames May 24, 1829, and using partly her sails, and the same character in Virgil. This work obtained for Rosmini and partly her "execrable machinery," as Ross calls it, entered the honour of being inscribed among the members of the Florentine Davis's Straits, July 5. Captain Ross expected to find a porth-west academy. He next wrote ‘Della Vita di L. Anneo Seneca libri quattro,' passage through Prince Regent Inlet, which Parry had discovered, Roveredo, 1793. In 1801 he wrote an account of Vittorino da Feltre, and in which one of his ships, the Fury, had been wrecked. The a celebrated preceptor of the 15th century, and of his system of Victory and the Krusenstern entered the Inlet on the 12th of August, education, 'Idea dell'ottimo Precettore nella Vita e Disciplina di and on the following day discovered the wreck of the Fury. They Vittorino da Feltre e de' suoi Discepoli.' This book may be called a afterwards took such of her stores as they required, passed farther treatise on pedagogy, as well as the next work published by Rosmini down the lulet, and on the 8th of October were frozen up in Felix on Guarino Veronese, a contemporary of Vittorino da Feltre, and upon Harbour, on the west side of the Gulf of Boothia. They were not his school, Vita e Disciplina di Guarino Veronese e de' suoi Discepoli,' released from the ice till the 17th of September 1830, and were able 3 vols. 8vo, Brescia, 1805-6. In 1808 Rosmini published an elaborate to advance but a very short distance before they were again frozen up biography of the learned Filelfo, Vita di Francesco Filelfo da Tolen- on the 31st of October. On the 29th of August 1831, the Victory tino, 3 vols. 8vo. His next work was a Life of Trivulzio, a great was again released from the ice, but on the 25th of September was captain of the 16th century, Dell' Istoria intorne alle Militari Imprese forced by the pressure into another harbour. In April 1832 the ed alla Vita di Gian Jacopo Trivulzio detto il Magno Libri XV.,'2 vols. sailors commenced carrying northwards two boats, with sledges and 4to, 1815, a biography enriched with handsome engravings and valuable provisions, and on the 29th of May the vessels were finally abandoned. documents. The last work of Rosmini was his history of Milan, Captain Ross, in his journal, observes, "In the evening I took my own • Dell' Istoria di Milano Libri XVIII.' This history embraces the adieu of the Victory. It was the first vessel that I had ever been period from the reign of Frederic Barbarossa down to 1535, when obliged to abandon, after having served in thirty-six, during a period Milan was annexed to the domivions of Charles V. The author wrote of forty-two years." Some of the crew had died, and the rest were a continuation of it down to the beginning of the reign of the Empress much weakened, but they struggled on till the 15th of August 1833, Maria Theresa in 1740, which continuation is still inedited. Rosmini when the ice broke, and they were enabled to set sail in the boats. ranks among the principal Italian biographers of our times. He died On the 26th of August, when near the entrance of Lancaster Sound, at Milan in 1827.

they came in sight of the Isabella, which was out on a whaling ROSS, REAR-ADMIRAL SIR JOHN, Knight, was born June 24, voyage. The mate in command of a boat that was sent to them, on 1777, at Balsarroch, Wigtownshire, Scotland. He was the fourth son Captain Ross asking him the name of the vessel, said it was the of the Rev. Andrew Ross, of Balsarroch, minister of the parish of Isabella of Hull, once commanded by Captain Ross, "on which I Inch. He entered the navy as a first-class volunteer November 11, stated that I was the identical man in question, and my people were 1786, on board the Pearl, 32 guns, and served in the Mediterranean the crew of the Victory." Unshaven as they all were, dirty, dressed till 1789. From November 7, 1790 till 1791, he served on board the in tattered skins, and wasted almost to the bones, the man doubted Impregnable, 98 guns, in the English Channel. After being some the statement, and said that Captain Ross had been dead two years. years in the merchant-service he became, in September 1799, a mid. He was easily convinced of his error, and they were received on board shipman on board the Weazel, sloop-of-war, which in that year formed the Isabella, with the yards and rigging manned, and with three hearty part of the expedition to the coast of Holland. After having served cheers. The Isabella arrived at Hull on the 18th of September 1833, on board several other king's ships, he received his commission as and on the 19th Captain Ross reached London by steamer. lieutenant, March 13, 1805. While attached to the Surinam, 18 guns, While the ships were frozen up in the Gulf of Boothia, many in 1806, he was severely wounded in four places in cutting out a journeys and surveys were made by Commander Ross, and some by Spanish vessel under the batteries of Bilbao, for which, in 1808, he Captain Ross himself, chiefly of the coasts and country which they was granted a pension of 981. a year, increased in 1815 to 1501. He named Boothia Felix. During one of these journeys Commander Ross attained the rank of commander February 1, 1812, and was appointed discovered, June 1, 1831, a spot which he considered to be the north to the Briseis, sloop-of-war, and afterwards to other vessels, till the magnetic pole, 70° 5' 17" N. lat., 96° 46' 45" W. long., where the termination of the war in 1815, during which period he performed dipping needle indicated a dip of 89° 59', or within one minute of several valuable services. He married his first wife in 1816.

the vertical. In December 1817, while in command of the Driver, sloop-of-war, On the 24th of December 1834, Captain Ross received the honour in Loch Ryan, on the coast of Scotland, he received a letter from Sir of knighthood, together with the companionship of the Bath. Many George Hope, one of the Lords of the Admiralty, informing him that other honours and several rewards were conferred upon him. two ships were to be sent out, to “ascertain the existence or non- 1835 he published a Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a existence of a north-west passage;" and inquiring whether he was North-West Passage, and of a Residence in the Arctic Regions during disposed to undertake the command of the expedition. Having the years 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833, by Sir John Ross, C.B., &c., expressed his willingness to do so, he was directed to repair to London, Captain in the Royal Navy, including the Reports of Commander (now where he arrived on the 30th of December. On the 15th of January Captain) James Clark Ross, R.N., F.R.S., F.L.S.

, &c., and the Dis1818, he received his commission as commander of the Isabella, 385 covery of the Northern Magnetic Pole,' 4to, with Maps and Plates, tons, Lieutenant W. E. Parry being appointed to the command of the In the same year was published an 'Appendix to the Narrative,' &c., Alexander, 252 tons. The two ships departed from the Thames, April also in 4to, chiefly consisting of accounts of the Esquimaux, and of the 25, 1818. They sailed up the eastern side of Davis's Strait and zoology, the meteorology, and similar matters. On the 8th of March, Baffin's Bay, and returned by the western side. They entered Lan. 1839, Sir John Ross was appointed consul at Stockholm, where he caster Sound, and after proceeding some distance up it

, Ross and the remained till February 1845. In 1850 he went out in search of Sir officer of the watch thought that they saw "land round the bottom John Franklin, in a small vessel of 90 tons, named the Felix, and of the Bay, forming a chain of mountains connected with those which remained one winter in the ice. The government lent him no assist




160 ance, and early in 1855 he wrote a pamphlet, in which he complained other prizes from the same society : in 1808 the silver medal and 201. of his own treatment, and blamed Sir John Richardson and others. for an original drawing of the Judgment of Solomon ;' in 1809 the The pamphlet is entitled 'A Narrative of the Circumstances and large silver palette for a miniature of Venus and Cupid'in 1810 the Causes which led to the Failure of the Searching Expeditions sent silver medal and 201. for an original drawing of 'Samuel presented to by government and others for the Rescue of Sir John Franklin,' 8vo. Eli;' and in 1811 the silver medal for an original drawing of the Sir John Ross's first wife having died in 1822, he married a second, Triumph of Germanicus.' Again

in 1817 he obtained the Society's October 21, 1834. By his first wife he had issue one son, who is a gold medal for an original painting, "The Judgment of Brutus ;' he magistrate at Cawnpoor in Hindustan. Sir John Ross is the author also gained the silver medal of the Royal Academy for an academical of Letters to Sea-Officers,' · Memoirs and Correspondence of Admiral drawing. (*Art-Journal,' Feb., 1849.) Lord de Saumarez,' a 'Treatise on Navigation by Steam,' and other Mr. Ross commenced his professional career as a painter of portraits smaller works. He attained the rank of Rear-Admiral July 8, 1851, and historical and poetical subjects of the order indicated in the titles and died in London August 30, 1856.

just given. But he soon felt that only the promise of extraordinary ROSS, SIR JAMES CLARK, Knight, Captain in the Royal Navy, success would justify him in devoting his life to the higher

department was born April 15, 1800, in London. He is a son of George Ross, Esq., of art, while there appeared to be a favourable opportunity for the of London and Balsarroch, and is nephew of the late Rear-Admiral Sir application of superior knowledge and technical skill to what was John Ross, treated of in the preceding article. He entered the royal generally regarded as a very inferior though popular branch-that of navy April 5, 1812, as a first-class volunteer, on board the Briseis, miniature. He accordingly became a miniature painter, and he soon commanded by his uncle Captain John Ross. He continued to serve found his reward in a steady influx of patronage, which went on under his uncle as midshipman and master's mate, in other ships, in increasing until he became the admitted head of that line of art. the Baltic, the White Sea, and on the coast of Scotland. He accom. During his long career as the favourite painter of the court and arispanied Captain John Ross in the Isabella, as an admiralty midshipman, tocracy, it has fallen to his lot to paint most of the members of the on his first voyage in search of a north-west passage. [Ross, REAR- royal family from the Queen downwards, and the élite of the aristoADMIRAL SIR John.] On his return he joined the Severn, 40 guns, cratic and fashionable world, as well as many members of foreign royal lying in the Downs. From January 1819 to October 1825 he was and noble families; it would therefore be idle to attempt to enumerate engaged under Captain Parry in bis three voyages in search of a north- his works. As to their style it may suffice to say, that bringing to west

passage, and while absent on the second was promoted, Dec. 26, miniature-painting the knowledge acquired in the study of the higher 1822,

to the rank of lieutenant. In the third voyage he was on board walks of art, he was able to do something to elevate its general characthe Fury when that ship was wrecked in Prince Regent Inlet. In 1827 ter; and though in Sir William Newton, Thorburn, and a few others, he again accompanied Captain Parry in his attempt

to reach the North he has found worthy rivals, it may fairly be said that to his example Pole. [Parry, SIR WILLIAM EDWARD.) On his return to England he even his most successful competitors owe not a little of their own received a commission as commander, Nov. 8, 1827. From 1829 till excellence. The miniatures of Sir William Ross invariably exhibit 1833 he served under his uncle Captain John Ross, in his second admirable drawing and careful execution ; a good, though it may be voyage in search of a north-west passage; and his valuable services somewhat refined likeness ; charming general colour, while the carnaduring that period, including the discovery of the northern magnetic tions are almost unequalled among miniature-painters ; and the utmost pole, were rewarded by his elevation to the rank of post-captain, taste in the arrangement of the whole. Oct. 28, 1834. In 1835 he proceeded to Baffin's Bay for the purpose Sir William Ross was appointed miniature painter to the Queen in of searching for some missing whalers, and conveying relief to them. 1837; in 1838 he was elected A.R.A.; in February 1842 be became He was subsequently, till 1838, employed by the Admiralty in making R.A.; and in the following June he received the honour of knighthood. a magnetic survey of Great Britain and Ireland.

It should be mentioned that though Sir William early abandoned Captain James Clark Ross, on the 8th of April 1839, was appointed historic for miniature painting, he did not lose either his interest or to the command of the Erebus, bomb, 370 tons, and of an expedition his skill in the former. When the first great Cartoon competition in to the Antarctic Seas. He was accompanied by Commander Francis connection with the decoration of the new houses of parliament was Rawdon Moira Crozier, in command of the Terror, 340 tons. The announced, Sir William sent to Westminster Hall a cartoon 10 feet chief purpose of the expedition was magnetic investigation, as to the 8 inches square, representing The Angel Raphael discoursing with lines of variation, the dip, and the intensity, and also as to the position Adam,' which attracted considerable notice, and obtained one of the of the southern magnetic pole or poles. The two ships sailed from additional premiums of 1001. (See SUPPLEMENT.) the mouth of the Thames Sept. 30, 1839, and anchored off Folkestone, *ROSSE, WILLIAM PARSONS, THIRD EARL OF, was born in 1800. on their return, Sept. 4, 1843. During this voyage of four years, He was educated at Magdalen College, Oxford, and graduated first class besides the investigations in magnetism and meteorology, many valu in mathematics in 1822. As Lord Oxmantown, he represented King's able additions were made to the previous knowledge of the Antarctic County in parliament from 1821 to 1834. His father, the second Regions and Seas in geography, geology, zoology, and botany. Three earl, died in 1841, when Lord Oxmantown succeeded to the peerage. persevering attempts were made to reach the South Pole, and the ships In 1845 he was elected one of the representative peers for Ireland. succeeded in reaching the latitude of 78° 10', or about 157 miles from Lord Rosse's chief distinction however has arisen from his service to the Pole. A vast continent was discovered, bordered with a barrier of astronomical science, by the series of researches and experiments ice 150 feet high, to which they gave the name of Victoria Land. An which resulted in the construction of the magnificent telescope set up active volcano was seen, which they named Mount Erebus, in 77° 32' on the lawn in front of his residence, Birr Castle, near Parsonstown, S. lat., 167° E. long., 12,000 feet in height, and in the midst of perpetual in King's County. The lenses of this enormous instrument were snow. Only four men were lost during the voyage—three by accident formed and the whole of the instrument constructed under his lordand one by illness.

ship's personal superintendence. The very beautiful contrivances for Captain James Clark Ross after his return married Oct. 8, 1843. In insuring the perfect stability and at the same time the easy movement 1844 he received the honour of knighthood, and also the honorary of the vast instrument were also invented by his lordship. Years of degree of D.C.L. from the University of Oxford. In 1847 was pub anxious experiments, and a large amount of money, were expended by lished 'A Voyage of Discovery and Research in the Southern and Lord Rosse in preparing the specula, on the perfection of which Antarctic Regions, during the years 1839-43, by Captain Sir James depended the accuracy of the observations which might be made by Clark Ross, Knt., R.N., D.C.L. Oxon., F.R.S., &c., with Plates and the telescope, and in constructing and fitting up the instrument. This Woodcuts,' 2 vols. 8vo. On the 31st of January 1848, Sir James C. unrivalled telescope has been found, as was expected, to possess a far Ross was appointed to the Enterprise, and made a voyage to Baffin's greater amount of space penetrating power than any previous instruBay in search of Sir John Franklin, which was, like the other searching ment, and several (nebulæ, which had hitherto proved impermeable, voyages, unsuccessful.

have been readily resolved by it, and great advance has consequently Sir James C. Ross, who is skilled in astronomy, magnetism, meteoro- been made in our knowledge of these objects. A much more minute logy, zoology, botany, and other sciences, has received many testimo- and specific knowledge has also been obtained of the visible surface of nials of his merits. In 1823 he was elected a Fellow of the Linnæan the moon. The prospect of new observations of many other celestial Society, and Dec. 11, 1828, a Fellow of the Royal Society. He is also phenomena and remarkable appearances of the heavenly bodies is also a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society and the Royal Geographi- of course opened up by the adoption of instruments of such vast cal Society, and is a corresponding member of several foreiga societies. power as the results of Lord Rosse's experiments have shown to be In 1833 he received the thanks of the common council of the city of practicable. London; in 1841 he was presented with the founder's gold medal by Lord Rosse married in 1836 the eldest daughter of John Wilmer the London Geographical Society, and in 1842 with the gold medal of Field, Esq., of Heaton Hall, Yorkshire. In 1843 he was president of the Geographical Society of Paris. (See SUPPLEMENT.]

the British Association; and in 1849 he was elected president of the ROSS, SIR WILLIAM CHARLES, R.A., was born in London Royal Society. He is also a member of the Imperial Academy of June 3, 1794. From his birth he was in a measure dedicated to art. Sciences at St. Petersburg, and of other learned societies. At the His father was a miniature-painter and teacher of drawing ; his mother, close of the French Exhibition of 1855, the decoration of a Knight of the sister of Anker Smith the engraver, was also an artist of some the Legion of Honour was conferred on Lord Rosse in consideration of ability. Under their instruction and influence he had made sufficient his services to astronomical science. progress to enter the Royal Academy as a student when only ten years Lord Rosse has published the following : The Monster Telescope old. In his thirteenth year (1807) he gained a silver palette at the erected by the Earl of Rosse, Parsonstown, with an account of the Society of Arts for a copy in chalk of Smith's engraving of the Death Manufacture of the Specula, and full descriptions of the Machinery, of Wat Tyler ;' and in each of the four following years he received printed at Parsonstown in 1844; Letters on the State of Ireland;'



163 1847; "Memorandum presented to the Council of the Royal Society present century, was born on the 29th of February, 1792, at Pesaro, a for rendering the Council of the Society more efficient,' in a letter little town near Bologna. His father was a horn-player in the orchesof Sir J. South to the Royal Society, privately printed in 1856. tras of strolling theatrical companies, and his mother was a second

ROSSI, JOHN CHARLES FELIX, R.A., was born in 1762 at rate actress and singer. Young Rossini began hts career by playing Nottingham, where his father, a native of Siena, though not a licensed second horn to his father when he was only ten years old, and thus practitioner, practised as a medical man. Young Rossi was appren- gained an acquaintance with opera music and opera business. Having ticed very early to a sculptor of the name of Luccatella, with whom a beautiful voice, his fatber had him taught singing by an eminent he remained, after he had served his time, as a journeyman, at professor. He sang the treble parts as a choir-boy in the Bologna 183. per week; but being employed by his master to correct some churches, and very soon became an excellent singer and a skilful work on which Luccatella's principal assistants had been engaged, be accompanist. The breaking of his voice put an end to his occupation suspected that his own abilities were of a superior class, and he as a chorister; and at the age of fifteen he was admitted into the demanded and obtained higher wages. It was now however, having Lyceum of Bologna, and received lessons in counterpoint from the once felt the longing for praise, impossible for him to remain in his learned Padre Mattei. He did not take kindly to the severe duties then subordinate situation, and he determined upon trying to better imposed on him by his master; his temperament was too ardent and himself in London. There, still a boy, he entered himself as a student volatile for the drudgery of double counterpoint, fugues, and canons. of the Royal Academy; and in 1781 he obtained the silver medal, and Mattei, having told his pupils one day, that simple counterpoint, which in 1784 the gold one, which entitled him to three years' maintenance they had been hitherto studying, might suffice for music in the free at Rome. He went to Rome in 1785; in 1788 he returned to London; style, but that deeper knowledge was necessary for the composition of in 1800 he was elected an associate of the academy; and only two years ecclesiastical works, the quick-witted youth instantly caught at the afterwards, a very short interval, he was elected an academician. He remark: “Do you mean to say, Padre, that, with what I have learned was subsequently appointed sculptor to the Prince Regent, and he was already, I could write operas ?" "Why, yes," was the answer. “Well, employed in decorating Buckingham Palace. He was afterwards then," rejoined Rossini, “I mean to write operas : and I don't want sculptor to William IV. But his celebrity had passed away, and he any more lessons.” And thus ended the young musician's scholastic had little to do after the completion of his great public monuments in education. But, in truth, he educated himself, and was indefatigable St. Paul's Cathedral. In the latter years of his life he depended chiefly in his labour of self-instruction. He gave his days and nights not upon a pension from the Royal Academy. He died February 21, 1839. only to the great composers of the Italian musical stage, but to the He was twice married, and had eight children by each wife.

German masters, who were then neither appreciated por understood Rossi was both a classical and a monumental sculptor, and his style in Italy. To Mozart he especially devoted himself

, and he retains to was manly and vigorous, especially in his monumental works, but this day the deepest veneration for his illustrious predecessor. In they are not remarkable for any refinement either of sentiment or this way he made himself a musician; and his works show bis mastery execution. Of the first class the following may be mentioned :-A of all the resources of art which are necessary for that branch of it Mercury in marble, executed in Rome; a recumbent figure of Eve, in to which he applied himself. He continued this process of self-tuition marble; Edwin and Eleanora ; Celadon and Amelia ; Musidora ; during the whole of his career. It was a course of constant progress; Zephyrus and Aurora ; and Venus and Cupid. A statue of Thomson a progress which may be measured by comparing his first great work the poet by him is in the possession of Sir Robert Peel; and there is a with his last-bis . Tancredi' with bis Guillaume Tell.' large colossal statue of Britannia on the Exchange at Liverpool. His Before the beautiful opera which made him at once famous, he had best works however, and those by which he is and will be known, produced several juvenile pieces, which obtained some degree of are the following monuments in St. Paul's cathedral :-The Marquis success; but they need not now be enumerated, as they have all Cornwallis, in the nave; Captain Faulkner and Lord Heathfield, in the passed into oblivion except ‘L'Inganno Felice,' performed at Venice in south transept; and Captains Mosse and Riou, and Lord Rodney, in 1812. This opera became known beyond the confines of Italy, and the north transept. The principal of these are those to Lords Corn. we once (many years ago) witnessed its representation in London. It wallis, Heathfield, and Rodney, and Captain Faulkner; all of which contains some beauties; but, as a whole, it is feeble, and not worthy except the second, are groups of three or more figures of the heroic of preservation. size." That to Lord Cornwallis is placed opposite to Flaxman's monu Tancredi' was produced at Venice in 1813. No work of genius ment to Nelson, and is in a similar style of composition and on a ever excited in a higher degree that sensation which the Italians so similar scale: it is a pyramidal group, the Marquis, as a Knight of the emphatically designate by the term furore. The susceptible Venetians Garter, on a pedestal forming the apex; below are three allegorical were enchanted with its freshness and spirit, its noble chivalrous tone, figures-Britannia, and impersonations of the Begareth and Ganges, its beautiful melodies, and brilliant yet simple accompaniments. The representing the British empire in the East. The sitting male figure dilettanti exclaimed that Cimarosa had come back to the world. or Ganges has much grandeur of form. Lord Heathfield is a single Nothing was to be heard in the saloons, the streets and public walks, statue, represented in his regimentals : on the pedestal is an alto-rilievo the places of amusement-nay, even the courts of justice, but snatches of Victory descending from a castellated rock to crown a warrior on of airs from Tancredi.' Its renown flew over all Italy, and over all the sea-shore with laurel. Against the same pier is the monument to Europe. In Germany, France, Spain, and Portugal, there was not a Captain Faulkner, R.N., who was killed on board the Blanche frigate musical theatre, great or small, where it was not performed and in 1795: Neptune, seated on a rock, is in the act of catching the received with enthusiasm, within a year or two of its first production; naked figure of a dying sailor; Victory is about to crown him with a and in a very few years more it had crossed the Atlantic, and pursued laurel. Lord Rodney's monument is a pyramid group, the statue of its triumphant course over the great American continent. In short, the admiral forming the apex; below is Fame communicating with Rossini, with his "Tancredi,' speedily made the conquest of the whole History. As will be seen, he depended mainly for religious sentiment world of music. This work indeed raised him at once to the summit and poetic effect on the admixture of allegory borrowed from classical of fame, and all his subsequert labours could do no more than sustain mythology with literal fact, which was so favourite a practice with the him at the same elevation. sculptors of the 18th and early part of the present century, but which Rossini now produced opera after opera with astonishing rapidity, appears very difficult to reconcile with the requirements of monu- but he was not for some time able again to reach the level of mental works in a Christian temple, or with common sense.

“Tancredi.' 'L'Italiana in Algieri,' 'La Pietra di Paragone,'' DemeROSSI, ROSSO DE', or IL ROSSO, called in France, ‘Maitre Roux,' trio e Polibio,' ' Il Turco in Italia,' and 'Aureliano in Palmira,' were a celebrated Florentine painter, was born in Florence in 1496. He all favourably received at the different theatres where they were studied the works of Michel Angelo, and was distinguished for the brought out, but none of them has kept possession of the stage. boldness and freedom of his style. He executed several works in “L'Italiana in Algieri,' and Il Turco in Italia,' were performed at Her various cities of Italy, but his paintings are not numerous in Italy, as Majesty's Theatre; and the former was revived at the Royal Italian he passed the best portion of his career from about 1538 in the service Opera during Mademoiselle Alboni's first season at that theatre; but of Francis I. at Fontainebleau, where he superintended all the works neither of them proved attractive in Eugland : as to the others, they of the palace, with a princely allowance, and a house in Paris, given to appear to be entirely forgotten. 'Aureliano in Palmira ' was successbim by Francis. In the year 1541 however, while still at Fontaine- ful at first, the principal character having been performed by Velluti, bleau, a few hundred ducats were stolen from him, and he accused his then in the height of bis popularity. This celebrated singer, who was friend and assistant Francesco Pellegrini of the theft, who was put to a great master of the 'florid' style, covered his airs with such a prothe torture and was declared to be innocent. Rosso's sorrow for what fusion of brilliant embellishments, that Rossini exclaimed, “Non had happened, and the taunts of Pellegrini and his friends together, conosco più la mia musica" ("I do not know my own music"), and, annoyed him to that extent that he poisoned himself, to the great it is said, was induced by this circumstance to write bis airs with all astonishment and grief of Francis and his own pupils and assistants. their ornaments, so as to prevent them from being spoiled by the preHe is said to have been called Il Rosso on account of his red hair: he sumption and bad taste of singers; though his expedient has not been was remarkable for his large and handsome person and general accom- very successful, for the favourite warblers of the day cannot be plishments and acquirements. Rosso was the boldest painter that had restrained from embellishing even his embellishments. appeared in Italy up to the time of Vasari. Very few of his works In the year 1815 Rossini was appointed musical director of the were left at Fontainebleau; many of them were destroyed by his suc- great theatre of San Carlo at Naples; a situation which he held for cessor Primaticcio. Many of his works have been engraved. (Vasari, seven years. The first opera composed by him for Naples was Vite de Pittori, &c.; Lettere Pittoriche ; D'Argenville, Vies des Elisabetta Regina d'Inghilterra,' which had great success ; owing, Peintres.)

it would seem, to the manner in which the character of the queen * ROSSINI, GIOACCHINO, the greatest dramatic composer of the was performed by Mademoiselle Colbrand, one of the greatest

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