صور الصفحة
[merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

was the leader of the insurgents, and he was subsequently executed.

Alhucemas, a small island lielonging to Spain, in the Mediterranean Sea, and about 5 m. S.E. of Cape Morro, on the Moroccan coast. It is fortified and contains a prison. Lat. 35° 15' N.; long. 3° 54' \v.

All (d. 661), cousin and son-inlaw of Mohammed, was the first to believe in the mission of the prophet, whom he served as an intrepid soldier and able vicegerent. He became the fourth caliph, succeeding Othman (656); his appointment was the occasion of the schism between the Shiitcs and the Sunnites. AH crushed his opponents. He was succeeded, on his assassination, by his son Hassan.

Allaea, pueb., Nueva Ecija prov., Luzon, Philippines, 15 m. N. of San Isidro, near the Tarlac border, and between the Pamnanga Grande and the Pampanga Chico. The country is mountainous and wooded and the valleys produce corn, rice. etc. Five important roads converge at Ahaga. Pop. (1903) 11,050.

Alias (Late Lat. 'otherwise'), in common usage that part of an indictment describing a prisoner who goes under one or more feigned names, from the Latin words formerly used in the indictment, alias tlirtus.

Allbaud, Lot-is (1810-36), a French soldier and fanatical Republican, who made an attempt upon the life of Louis Philippe, king of the French, at the gate of the Tuileries on June 25, 1836. He was executed on July 11 if the same year.

Allbcrt, Jean Loois (17661.837), a French medical author. He became chief physician-inordinary to Louis XVIII. in 1818 and also chief physician of the hospital of St. L.ouis. He was a noted specialist in skin diseases and wrote several authoritative works, the best known of which was Traile complet des maladies dc la peau (1S06-27).

All ney (1728-73), a freed Caucasian slave in F.gypt who gained a large following among the Mamelukes, and, having destroyed his rivals, assumed the title of Sultan and renounced the suzerainty of the Porte. He reduced Syria and the west of Arabia to liis rule, but was defeated and wounded in battle near Cairo, and died a few days afterward.

Alibi. The plea of alibi in a criminal prosecution means that the person accused was elsewhere (alibi) at the time of the commission of the crime. If proved, it is conclusive; but it is a plea which is easily fabricated.

Alicante. (1.) Province, S.E. Spain, part of ancient kingdom of Valencia. Arid climate, but

one of the most fertile districts of Spain; almonds, oranges, olives, and pines are grown. Lead mines are abundant. Pop. (1900) 470,149. (3.) Capital of above prov., busy port on Mediterranean, with a fine harbor. It is situated partly on a hillside and partly on level land. The lower part of the city is modern and well built, and has fine squares, public gardens, and promenades. Among the notable buildings are the bishop's palace, nunneries, a collegiate church, and the city library and picture gallery. The city is strongly fortified. It has extensive tobacco manufacturing interests. It is a popular winter resort for invalids. An American consul is stationed here. Exports fruit, wine, esparto, lead, copper, etc. It is the port of Valencia. Pop. (1900) 50,142.

Alice, tn., Cape Colony, 14 m. w. of Fort Beaufort and 42 m. N.e. of Grahamstown. Near it is the mission station of Lovcdale.

Allcedale, tn., Cape Colony, 61 m. N.N.E. of Port Elizabeth. It is a railway junction of considerable importance, on the line connecting Grahamstown with Port Elizabeth.

Alice Maude Mary, Princess (1843-78), Grand - Duchess of Hesse-Darmstadt (m. 1862), third child of Queen Victoria. She took great interest in art, literature, painting and sculpture. She was much loved for her thoughtful

g'lilanthropy (e.g. in the Francoerman War), and for the grace of her home life, shown in her devoted nursing of her father (1861), of her brother the Prince of Wales (1871), and of her own children in tending whom she contracted her fatal illness (diphtheria). She left four daughters and one son, Ernest Louis, who succeeded his father in 1892. See Memoir by Sell (Eng. trans. 1884; new ed. 1897).

Allcudl (anc. Ericusa), the most westerly of the Lipari Is. It is shaped like a cone, and has a circumference of 6 m. It has exports of fruits, sulphur, palms, etc. Pop. about 450.

Allculuf, a South American tribe inhabiting the central part of Tierra del Fuego. They are of rude and primitive habits, wearing very little clothing even in severe weather and living in poorly constructed huts; but they have considerable ingenuity in making various weapons and utensils used in hunting and fishing. It is not yet known to what linguistic stock their dialect belongs.

Allcurl. See LlPARllsLANDS.

Allen. A person resident in a country to which he does not owe allegiance as a subject or citizen. Aliens were formerly subject to many legal disabilities, but the tendency of civilization has been to place them more and more on

the footing of citizens in the state in which they are domiciled, except in the matter of the exercise of political rights such as the franchise, the holding of office, etc. They are in every civilized state subject to taxation and to local police and criminal jurisdiction and may generally sue and be sued in the civil courts. In England and the United States the old restrictions upon the acquisition and holding of real property have generally disappeared, though they survive in a modified form in some of the American states. The right of contracting, trading, and of taking and holding personal property has never been denied them in the United States. When a state of war exists between the country of an alien's domicile and that to which he owes allegiance he becomes an alien enemy and his rights become somewhat more restricted. In no case, however, is a country bound to extend its hospitality to an alien and he may at any time be deported or refused admission. Naturalization changes an alien into a citizen or subject. The status of aliens is generally regulated by statutes of the 'several states in this country, modified in some particulars by treaties of the United States with foreign countries, and in England by act of Parliament, 33 and 34 Vic. c. 14 (1870). See Citizen; NatUralization.

Allen and Sedition Acts, four acts passed by the U. S. Congress and signed by Pres. Adams in June and July, 1798, particularly the Alien Act of June 25, 1798, and the Sedition Act of July 14, 1798. The first of the series, the Naturalization Act of June 18, 1798, made a residence in the U. S. of fourteen years, instead of five as hitherto, requisite for citizenship in the case of alien immigrants, and required that all white aliens (diplomatic or consular representatives and their families excepted) arriving in the U. S. be reported, together with certain information concerning them, to certain designated U. SI officials, within 48 hours after their arrival. This act was repealed April 14, 1802. The Alien Act empowered the President 'to order all such aliens as he shall judge dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States, or shall have reasonable grounds to suspect are concerned in any treasonable or secret machinations against the government thereof, to depart out of the territory of the United States within such time as shall be expressed in such order,' and to remove forcibly any alien or aliens who might disregard such an order 'in all cases where, in the opinion of the President, the public safety reAllen and Sedition Acts

quires a speedy removal"; and prescribed a punishment of imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years for any alien, ordered to depart, who 'shall be tound at large in the United States after the time limited in such order for his departure,' and who either shall not have obtained a license from the President to live in the United States or shall have failed to adhere to the requirements of such license. This act was to be in force for two years and it was not renewed. The Alien Enemies Act of July 6,1798, empowered the President, in case of war between the United States and another country or the invasion or threatened invasion of the United States, after issuing a public proclamation of the event, to apprehend, remove, or detain, as alien enemies 'all natives, citi?e -s. denizens, or subjects of the hostile nation or government, being males of the age of fourteen years and upwards, who shall be within the United States and not actually naturalized.' This act is still (1906) substantially in force. The Sedition Act provided for the punishment 1 y fine and imprisonment of any p rsons 'who shall unlawfully ccinbine or conspire together, with intent to oppose any measure or measures of the government of the United States which an- directed by proper authority, or to impede the operation of any law of the United States,' or to prevent any United States official from perfermine his duty; and of any person wno 'shall write, print, utter, or publish,' or aid in so doing, 'any false, scandalous, and malicious writing or writings against the government of the I nitcd States, or cither house of the Congress. . . or the President of the United States," with intent to defame them, or bring them into contempt or disrepute, or excite against them the hatred of the people of the United States, or stir up sedition, or to excite any unlawful combinations for opposing or resisting any law of the United States or any act of the President done in pursuance of any such law. This act was to be in force until March, 1801, and was not renewed. These four acts were passed at a time when war with France seemed imminent, and when the Federalist Administration was being ferociously denounced on every side and particularly in the Republican press, to which certain immigrant journalists and pamphleteers were conspicuous contributors. The acts, moreover, were in accord with the spfrit and character of Federalism, which stood for a distrust of the masses and a belief in strong governmental measures. Though President Adams did little to enforce them, they were at


tacked with great energy, bitterness, and virulence by the Republicans; led to the passage of the famous Virginia and Kentucky resolutions of 1798-9, and probably did more than anything else to cause the downfall of the Federalists and the triumph of the Republicans under Jefferson in 181)0. The texts of the acts may be found in Vol. I. of the U. S. Statutes at Large, and in Macdonald's Select Documents Illustrative of the History o/ the Untied Slates 1776-1861 (1898); and accounts cf the famous trials of Cobbett, Lyon, and Cooper under the Sedition Act in Wharton's Slate Trials of the United States during the Administrations of Washington and Adams (1849).

Alienation. The most comprehensive term for the transfer of real property from one person to another, whi ther it bevoluntary, as by conveyance or devise, or involuntary, as by bankruptcy, execution or other creditor's process. The only forms of acquisition of title to which it is not applicable are original acquisition, as by accretion or occupancy, escheat, forfeiture and descent. The right of free alienation of freehold lands was first secured to the English landowner by the statute Quia Emptores (1290). It has always formed a part of the American law of real property, restrained only in case of persons under a legal disability, such as minors, insane persons, Indians under tutelage, and, formerly, married women.

Allearh, or Alighttr. (1.) District, Meerut div., United Provinces, India, between the Ganges and the Jumna. Pop. (1901) 1,200,822 (2.) Town. cap. of above, adjoins Koil, which nas a fort taken by Lord Lake in 1803. Pop., including KoiHlQOl), 70,127.

Allnia, riv., French Congo, Africa; rises near source of the Ogow£, and flows N.E., then E., and finally E.S.E. for 400 m. to join the Congo, 220 m. N.E. of Brazzaville.

Alimentary Canal, the passage from the mouth to the anus.

All Mlrza, Mohammed (1872), Shah of Persia; son of Muzaffared-din; educated in Europe; governor-general of Azerbijan; succeeded to the throne on his father's death in 1907. He confirmed the

frant of a constitution made by is father shortly before death; subsequently undertook to set it aside, but he was eventually forced by threatened uprisings to grant the popular demands. In July. IHOil. AH fled to Russia, and thereby abdicated the throne. He was succeeded hy his twelveycar-old son, Ahmed. (See PerSia.)

Alimony. An allowance which a husband or wife is entitled to


receive out of the estate of the other during divorce proceedings or upon a judicial decree of separation or divorce. The obligation is created by order of the court, usually as an incident of the proceedings for divorce. Alimony of the former sort, pendente lite, for the sake of conducting the litigation, is usually awarded in a lump sum, but only in cases where the party applying therefor is unable to conduct the litigation without such aid. Permanent alimony, on the other hand, being intended as a provision for the maintenance of the innocent party during his or her natural life, is usually granted as an annuity or series of payments to be made at regular intervals indefinitely and may be allowed even tnough the party applying therefor has a separate estate. There is no definite rule as to the amount of alimony which may be awarded, the wealth of the defendant, the amount of his income and the need of the plaintiff being taken into consideration. As much as one-third or one-half of the defendant's annual income may thus be appropriated to the plaintiff's estate. The payment of alimony may be enforced by contempt proceedings and imprisonment.

All Pasha, surnamed The Lion (1741-1822), paiha of Janina in Albania, born in Tepeleni, of an old and noble family. For his services in the war against Russia and Austria he was made by the Sultan pasha of Trikala in 1787, and in 1788 he became pasha of Janina. From 1803 he governed Aibania, Epirus, Thessaly, and the southern part of Macedonia despotically. In 1820 the Sultan decided to get rid of him, and sent an expedition against him. Ali, besieged in Janina, defended himself like a lion; but, running short of provisions, was forced to capitulate in 1822. In February the same year he was treacherously killed. Byron visited him in 1809, and alludes to him in Childe ffarold. See Davenport's Life of AH Pasha (1837).

Aliquot Part. One number which divides another exactly without remainder is said to be an aliquot part of it. Thus, 1J, 2,

3, 4, 6 arc aliquot parts of 12, being contained respectively 8, 6,

4, 3, 2 times in it.

Allsrans, or Alfsciians, a 12th century chanson do fftte of the Carlovingian cycle, which deals with the battles of Guillaume au Court Nez against the Saracens and their emir Abderamc (AbdurRahman). The poem, written in ten-syllable lines partly assonanred, partly rhymed, seems derived in title from Elysii campi, a burial-ground near Aries. See Paris's Lilt, du Moyen Age (1888).

Alison, Rev. ARcaiBALD(1757Alison

1830), Scottish writer on aesthetics, born in Edinburgh. He took orders in the Church of England and after holding several livings became in 1800 senior incumbent of St. Paul's Chapel in the Cowgate, Edinburgh. He published Essays on the Nature and Principles oj Taste (1790), favorably noticed by Jeffrey in the Edinburgh Review, 1811. and long regarded as a standard work on that subject; also Sermons (1814-15).

Alison, Sir Archibald (17921867), lawyer and historian, was born at Kcnley, Shropshire, and in 1814 was called to the Scottish bar. In 1M2 he became advocate-depute, and in 1834 accepted the sheriffdom of Lanarkshire, which he held until his death. His History of Europe from the Commencement 0/ the French Revolution to the Restoration of the Bourbons (14 vols. 1833-42), though popular, cannot rank as a classic, because of the strong conservative views of its author, and his superficial methods. His other works, including ligal treatises, biographies, essays in politics and history, and a reply to Malthus, were popular at the time.

Alison, General Sir AkchiBai.d (1826-1907), son ot preceding, was born in Edinburgh. He served in the Crimean War; the Indian mutiny (as military secretary to Sir Colin Campbell), losing his left arm at the relief of Lucknow; commanded the European Brigade in the Ashanti expedition (1873-4); was in command at Alexandria (1882) during the bombardment, before Wolscley's arrival; led the Highland Brigade at Tell-cl-Kebir (1882); com man der-in-chief in Egypt (1882); commanded Aldershot LHvis.on (18X3-9); was adjutant-general (1888).

Allwal, yil., 9 m. w. of Ludhiana, Punjab, on the left bank of the Sutlej; famous as the scene of the great battle of the first Sikh war, in which Ranjit Singh was defeated by Sir Harry Smith, Jan, 28, 1846.

Alizarin is dio.xy-anthraquinonc, CUH6O2(OI1):, and is the principal coloring matter of the madder root, but is now almost entirely prepared synthetically by the following series of reactions: — Anthracene from coal-tar is first oxidized to an th raquinone, which, after purification, is converted by fuming sulphuric acid into sulphonic acids. The latter are neutralized by sodium carbonate, and then heated under pressure with caustic soda and sodium chlorate, alizarin being precipitated from the product by hydrochloric acid. Alizarin is a red crystalline solid, and owes its dyeing value to its power of forming 'lakes' with metallic hydroxides gf various and permanent


colors, according to the metal employed. The hydroxides in question, or * mordants,' are prepared in the fibres of the material to be dyed from appropriate salts, which are of aluminium for red (Turkey red), iron for purple, violet, or black, etc. Sec Dyeing.

Alkahest, or Alcaiiest, a name used by the alchemists (especially Paracelsus) to denote an imaginary substance which should dissolve every other substance.

Alkali, a term originally ap

Elied to the soluble salt obtained y the lixiviation of the ashes of sea plants, but afterwards extended to the salts obtained from the ashes of other substances. which, dissolved in water, had a soapy feel, and 'neutralized' acids. The name alkali was also employed to designate the allied carbonates of ammonium,of potassium, and of sodium. Ammonium carbonate was known as a 'volatile alkali,' as distinguished from sodium and potassium carbonates, the 'fixea alkalies.' When sodium carbonate (soda) was made by Duhamel, in 1736, from common salt, it was named 'mineral alkali," and the potassium carbonate (potash) 'vegetable alkali.' Up to the year 1807 the alkalies were considered to be elementary substances, but Sir Humphry Davy then proved their compound structure. The term alkali is now chiefly applied to the hydroxides of the 'alkali metals'—i.e. sodium, potassium, and the rarer elements lithium, rubidium and caesium, and the radical ammonium; but the carbonates of these elements, such as ammonia and the compound ammonias, or amines, are also included. The hydroxides are deliquescent, and very soluble in water; the solutions neutralize acids, forming salts in which the special properties of both acid and alkali are generally destroyed, act corrosively on animal and vegetable substances (i.e. are caustic and poisonous), and change the tint of vegetable coloring matters, or are said to have an alkaline reaction. Exposed to the air they absorb carbon dioxide, forming carbonates. Barium, calcium, magnesium and strontium, which are known as the metals of the alkaline earths, form a group of substances closely allied to the alkalies. These elements form hydroxides which are sparingly soluble in water, and carbonates which are insoluble in water; hence the solutions are but faintly alkaline, and murh less caustic. Sodium carbonate is the principal alkali, and the quantities of this salt annually made are enormous. The history of the manufacture of sodium carbonate from common salt is in itself an account


of the rise and progress of chemical manufacture, due largely to the fact that the soda industry is closely involved with that of sulphuric and hydrochloric acid, of chlorine and bleaching-powder— all being essentially connected. The increased production and the reduction in price of sulphuric acid led to its general use, and to the rapid growth of other industries, notably the manufacture of alum, and of superphosphate of lime for fertilizers. Cheap alkali made soap and glass cheap; and the economical production of bleaching-powder, a by-prodi'ct ot the soda industry, encouraged the cotton and linen industries and the production of paper, in which it is largely used as a decolorizer and purifier.

The production of soda ash (sodium carbonate), sal soda (crystallized and hydrated sodium carbonate), sodium bicarbonate, and caustic soda (sodium hvdroxide), from 50 works in the United States during the year 1902, exceeded in the aggregate 500,OfO tons, and involved in the manufacture about 1,000,000 tons of salt. The quantities and value of these soda salts produced in the United States during the year 1900, according to the statistics reported by the Twelfth Census, are:


[ocr errors]

Total 1.279,082,000 »10,:£!7,9t4

Sodium carbonate is manufactured in the United States by four processes: the Leblanc process: the Solvay or 'ammonia-soda process: the Cryolite process, and the Acker fusion or electrolytic process.

Formerly the supply of sodium carbonate and other sodium salts was obtained from the natural deposits of the 'sesquicarbonate,' or from the ashes of plants, but the demands of trade exceeding the supply, the French Academy of Science in 1775 offered a prize for a method of making sodium carbonate from salt. Among ihe processes submitted, that of Nirclas Leblanc was of promising merit, and, being granted a patent in 1791, he began the manufacture on a commercial scale. Shortly after, during the Frenrh Revolution, his patent was declared public property and his factory seized. Unfortunately, like many other notable inventors and discoverers, Leblanc became reduced to penury and want, and finally committed suicide. His process, however, did not become of importance until 1823, and a few years later Mr. James Musprat adopted it in its entirety at his celebrated works in Liverpool,

[merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

England. The Leblanc process is regarded as the most important discovery in the entire range of chemical manufactures. It has been practised without any serious alteration for nearly a century, and although threatened by newer processes, it still furnishes about one-half of the world's supply of soda-ash. The fact that it produces both hydrochloric acia and bleaching powder as byproducts has enabled it to survive competition; but the recent introduction of electrolytic processes, which also yield bleaching powder as a by-product, seriously menaces its future, and its ultimate replacement is regarded as certain.

The Leblanc process for the manufacture of soda-ash consists essentially of three stages:

(a) The salt-cake process:—In this process common salt together with the requisite quantity of sulphuric acid is moderately hcatea in an iron pot, the heat being supplied by a small cokefire below the pot. The resultant mass, consisting of sodium acid sulphate (NaHSO4.) and undccomposed salt is then raked out of the pot on to the 'balling' hearth of the attached reverberatory furnace (sec illustration) and submitted to a higher heat in order to complete the chemical reaction. Finally salt-cake is formed, which contains from 95 to 98 per cent, of sodium sulphate contaminated with a little undecomposed salt and a small amount of sulphuric acid. The product is friable and porous and is ready to be converted into black-ash. Hydrochloric acid gas, evolved during the operalion, is collected in 'scrubbers' or condensing towers in which a descending stream of water dissolves the ascending gases. This hydrochloric acid is a valuable by-product of the salt-cake process.

(b) The black-ash process:— The usual charge for the small reverberatory furnace consists of 100 pounds of salt-cake, 100 pounds of limestone, and 50 pounds of coal dust. These materials are charged near the flueend of the furnace and grntly heated until thoroughly dried. The charge is then raked to the second hearth near the fireplace and submitted to a temperature of about 1,000° F. This high heat causes the surface of the mass to become fu~ed and the charge is then thoroughly mixed by rabbling in order to complete the decomposition of the saltcake. When this is finally completed, the mass begins to stiffen and jets of carbon monoxide gas escape, burning with the characteristic blue flame, and called 'candles' by the workmen. The charge is then worked to

[merged small][merged small][graphic][ocr errors][graphic][merged small][merged small][merged small]
[merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][graphic][merged small][merged small][merged small]
« السابقةمتابعة »