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possess the unrivalled brilliancy of its predecessor, is superior to it in real elegance. Some of the letters are new, and har monise well with the former, with the exception of the , which we wish to see altered. The size is a medium between the large one, in which Blomfield's Æschylus is printed, andthat used in the English Matthiæ.


PLATÓ, published by FREDERICUS Astius, Professor Landishutanus, Lipsia. ' 8vo.

Part III.-[Continued from No. LVI.) IN

p. 136, 1. 8. Hermeas explaining what Plato says about the horses and chariot of the gods observes, Αρμα δε και ιππους των θεων τας δευτερας αυτων και τριτας δυναμεις ακουστεον, ας αι πρωται κατευθυνουσι, δι' ων ο Ζευς και εαυτον αναγει και πασαν την υποβεβλημενην αυτο στρατιαν των θεων και δαιμονων, και παντα απλως τα εξηρημενα αυτου. In this passage for emprusva, in' the last line, it is necessary to read egnetnjeva, suspended from. For Hermeas says, "that Jupiter elevates not only himself [to the survey of the supercelestial place], but likewise all the arny of gods and dæmons, that are in subjection to him, and in short, all the natures that are suspended from him." No error is more common in Platonic manuscripts, through the carelessness of transcribers, than the substitution of εξηρημενα for εξηρτημενα. In the same page 1. 17. Hermeas explaining the words employed by Plato respecting Jupiter, viz. Πρωτος δε πορεύεται, observes, οτι ιεμενος επι το νοητον αυτος και ενιδρυων εαυτων ταις οικείαις αρχαις συναγει τα αλλα παντα. .

But here for Eartwy it is necessary to read EAUTOY. And then what Hermeas says, will be in English, “Jupiter himself proceeding to the intelligible, and establishing himself in his proper principles, leads on high together with himself all the rest [i. e. all the other powers that follow him].” It is requisite also to observe, that the oixeiab

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'The same may be said of the new q lately introduced into the Clarendon press, and which, though handsome in itself, mars the uniformity of that type, perhaps the most beautiful existing.

apges, or proper principles, in which Jupiter is here said to establish himself, are according to the Orphic, which is the same with the Platonic, theology, Heaven, Night, and Phanes. And in the same page, 1. 20. Hermeas says, και η προνοια μεν γαρ αυτου δημιουργει και η δημιουργια προνοει, αλλα ταις επιβολαις διενηνοχεν: η μεν γαρ εστι υποστατικη των πραγματων, και δε σωστικη.

Here for i mey and sloe, it is necessary to read Ý HLEY and in 8€. For the meaning of Hermeas is, that the providential energy of Jupiter produces things into existence, and that his creative power is also providential, but that these two, providence and productive power, differ in the conceptions of them, For productive power gives subsistence to things, but providence is the cause of their preservation.

Ρ. 157, 1. 12. και δια της Εστιας το γονιμον και αιτιον της ενιδρυσεως αυτων λαμβανει. In this

passage for το γονιμον, it is necessary to read το μονιμον: for Vesta, according to the Platonic and also the Orpbic theology, is the cause of stability, and not of fecundity. In the same page, I. 24. Hermeas having observed, that the centre of the earth and the poles &c. are said to be Vesta by participation, adds, επει καν το κεντρον της γης και τους πολους λεγομεν μενειν, ει και κατα τοπον εισιν ακινητα, αλλ' ου ξωτικως κινούται. But here for αλλ' ου, it is requisite to read αλλ' ουν. For according to the Platonic philosophy, the centre of the earth and the poles are vitally though not locally moved. P. 139, 1. 14. ειθ' εξης περι των ημετερων. καλουμεναι δε είπεν, ουχ ως θνητων ουσων (πασαι γαρ και αι θειαι και αι ημετεραι ψυχαι αθανατοι) ως προλαμποντος δε επι των θειων του αθανατου και εμφανους οντος, ωστε και τον τυχοντα επιγνωναι, οτι αι θειαι ψυχαι αθανατοι εισιν ουτως ειπε το καλουμεναι η γας μερικη ημετερα, ατε κακύνομενη, και αμφισβητησιν εσχεν, ει αθανατος εστι. Here, for ως προλαμποντος it is obviously necessary to read αλλ' ως προλαμποντος, and then what Hermeas 8ays will be, in English: Afterwards, Plato speaks of our souls; but he says they are called immortal, not as being mortal, (for all souls, both such as are divine and ours, are immortal,) but because in divine souls immortality shines forth and is apparent, so that any one may know that divine souls are immortal. After this manner, he says, that our souls are called immortal. For our partial soul, as being defiled with vice, causes its immortality to be dubious.” In the same page, 1. 24. νυν δε το εξω και το νωτον [του ουρανου] την κυρτην ειπεν αυτην πασαν την Ουρανου βασιλειαν. Here, a word is evidently wanting between ειπεν and αυτην ; and it appears to me, that this word is nepiexov. And in the same page, 1. 6. from the bottom, Hermeas says, Τι δε το εστησαν επι

τω του ουρανου νωτώ ; ου γαρ δη ανελθουσαι εκει αρχαι γεγόνασιν. But here for agxas it is manifest that it is vecessary to read αργαι. For Hermeas in this place inquires why Plato says that souls, when they arrive at the summit of heaven, stand on its back? For when they are there they do not become indolent. And this is evident from what he immediately after adds, οσο γαρ ανιασι, τοσουτο ρωμαλεώτεραι και δραστηριοι γινονται. Ρ. 140, 1. 28. Τα δε αλλως τε και περι αληθειας λεγοντα, πάνυ απόpρήτως και θεολογικως ειρηται· την γαρ αληθειαν την των νυκτων πασαν ταξιν φησι, και το πεδιον αληθειας εξης εαν λέγη, ταυτας αινίττεται» και ιδιως δε αληθειαν οι θεολογοι εκει ιδρυουσιν. Ο γαρ τοι Ορφεύς περι της Νυκτος λεγων, θεων γαρ έχει, φησι και

Μαντοσύνην δε οι δωκεν εχειν αψευδεα παντη. The plain of Truth, says Hermeas, which is here celebrated by Plato, obscurely signifies that divine order which Orpheus and other theologists denominate Night. In this passage therefore, immediately after Oscy yag sner, it is necessary to add αληθειαν. For Night, according to Orpheus, contains the truth of the gods.

Again, p. 141, 1. 4. Hermeas on the words of Plato, η γαρ άχρωματος τε και ασχηματιστος, observes, αχρωματος πως λεγει και άρα ως λεγομεν και την φυσιν αχρωματος και την ψυχην ; και τι θαυμαστον εστι τουτο; και του και εξαιρετoν επι του υπερουράνιου τόπου, όπου γε και η φυσις και η ψυχη εχει αυτο. Here in the last part of this passage, και τοι τι εξαιρετoν κ. τ. λ., for και τοι, it is neces. sary to read xai Ti, and to make the whole of this part interrom gative, viz., και τι και εξαιρετoν επί του υπερουράνιου τοπου, όπου γε και η φυσις και η ψυχη εχει αυτο; And then what Hermeas says, will be, in English, «What is the meaning of Plato when he šays, that the supercelestial place is without color! Is it in the same way, as we assert of nature and soul, that they are color less? But if this be the case, what will there be peculiarly excellent in the supercelestial place, since the uncolored is possessed both by nature and soul?” That this is the true' read ing, will be at once evident, from considering that according to Plato, the supercelestial place indicates one of the highest orders of the gods. In the same page, I. 17. Hermeas having observed that heaven is the first that is illuminated by the divine light of Phanes, adds that according to Orpheus Night is united to him; in confirmation of which he quotes the following Ora phic lines:

Πρωτογονον γε μεν ουτίς εσεδρακεν οφθαλμοισιν,
Ει μη Νυξ ιερη μουνη" οι δ' αλλοι απαντες
θαυμαζον καθορωντες εν αιθερι φεγγος αελπτον:
Τοιον απεστραπτε χρoος αθανατοιo Φανητος.

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On these lines the Professor observes, “Inter fragmenta
Orphica leguntur hi versus, sed pluribus in locis corrupti.
Posteriorem versum Bentleius Epist. ad Jo. Millium p. 455,
Opusc. philol. e Proclo sic exhibet:

Τοιον απεστιλβε χρους αθανατοιo Φανητος.
This last line is in Proclus in Tim. lib. 11. p. 132. as follows ;

Το ον απεστιλβε χρoος αθανατοιo Φανητος.
Io which line To ov is evidently erroneous, and therefore Bent-
ley has substituted for it Tour. But the true reading for To ox
is, I conceive, that of Eschenbach in his Epigenes De Poësi
Orphica p. 78., which he derived from a manuscript of the above
work of Proclus, not having, as he informs us, the printed
copy of it to consult; and this reading is, Tu jev. In p. 141,
1. 29. Hermeas speaking of the order of the Cyclops says, sy
γαρ πρωτοις τουτοις το σχημα εκφαινεσθαι η θεολογια φησι, και
πρωτας αρχας και αιτιας των πανταχου σχηματων τουτους είναι τους
θεους Κυκλωπας» διο και Τεκτονοχειρας αυτους η θεολογια φησιν
αυτη γαρ τριας εστι τελεσιουργικη των σχηματων- και εν Παρ-
μενιδη δε, εαν λεγη ο Πλατων ευθυ και περιφερες, ταυτην την ταξιν
αινιττεται. According to the Grecian theology, the order of
the Cyclops consists of Brontes, Steropes, and Arges, and is
therefore, as Hermeas says, triadic. And this order is occultly
indicated by Plato in his Parmenides by the terms ευθυ, περι-
φερες, και μικτον; i. e. by the straight, the circular, and that
which is mixed from both. Hence in the above passage, imme-
diately after the words ευθυ και περιφερες, it is necessary to add
και μικτον. In the last line of the same page Herrmeas ob-
serves, ο δε Πλατων, οπες μεν ευρε καταφατικως υπο του θεολογου
ρηθεν, τουτο αυτος αποφατικως προηνεγκατο. ο γαρ εκεινος νυκτα
ειπεν, ουτος τουτο αχρωματον· ο δε εκεινος αποφατικως αψευδεα

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Μαντοσυνην δε οι δωκεν εχειν αψευδεα παντων: τουτο ουτος καταφατικως ειπε: περι ην το της αληθους επιστημης γενος, ουσια οντως ουσα τρια αποφατικα προενεγκαμενος τρια καταφα

παλιν επαγει, απο του οντος τρια προενεγκων. Hermeas is here speaking of that divine order which is called by the Chaldean theologists νοητος και νοερος, intelligible and at the same time intellectual, as being mingled from both, and which is unfolded by Plato in the Phædrus. Hermeas, therefore, in the above passage observes, that the part of this order which is celebrated by the theologist Orpheus affirmatively, is unfolded by Plato negatively; and that what the theologist speaks of negatively, is enunciated by Plato affirmatively. Hence, immediately after the words ο δε Πλατων οπερ μεν ευρε

καταφατικως υπο του θεολογου ρηθεν, τουτο αυτος αποφατικως προηνεγκατo, it appears to me requisite to add, οπερ δε ευρε αποφατιπως τουτο αυτος καταφατικως αποφαινει.

Ρ. 143, 1. 4. το γαρ εν τη ψυχή τους ακροις νοητοις εννοεισθαι δυναται. Here for τη ψυχη, it is necessary to read της ψυχης. For the meaning of Hermeas is, that the one of the soul which is a participation of the to év the one itself, is capable of being united to the highest intelligibles. This is evident from what immediately follows: ει γαρ και ο ενεργεια νους ο υπεριδρυμενος αυτης αει θεαται τα οντα, αλλ' ουδεν τουτο προς την ημων ψυχην ημων γαρ εστι, όταν προς αυτον στραφωμεν· η δε υπαρξις της ψυχης, ο εστι το εν αυτης, κυριως τοτε ενθουσια, όταν το της αληθειας ιδη πεδιον. The plain of Truth belongs to the highest order of intelligibles; and this is only to be seen according to Plato by the hyparxis, which is the summit, flower, and the one of the soul, energizing enthusiastically, or with a divinely-inspired energy. P. 143, 1. 15. εκαστος δη τουτων τους υπερ αυτον φως ελλαμπει, τουτέστι, αληθειαν, Here for τοις υπερ αυτον, it is necessary to read τοις υπο αυτον, as will be immediately evident from a perusal of the whole pasSage. And in the same page, 1. 19. in the words η δε παντων αρχη και τους νοητους θεούς και παντα του απ' αυτων θειου πληροι φωτός, for απ' αυτων it is necessary to read απ' αυτου. what Hermeas says is this, " that the principle of all things fils the intelligible gods, and all the natures that proceed from him, with divine light.” Ρ. 144, 1. 17. η μεν γαρ εν ταις ιδεαις δικαιοσυνη παντα νοερως περιέχει, ει δε εν τοις θεοις, θειως. In this passage, for ει δε it is requisite to read η δε. Ρ. 145, 1. 9. Αλλα το λεγομενον τοιουτον εστιν πλειους εχουσι δυναμεις αι θειαι ψυχαι, τας μεν υπερτερας, τας δε καταδεεστερας. Here, immediately after τας μεν υπερτερας, it is necessary to add τας δε μεσαιτερας. This is evident from the remaining part of the sentence, viz. ταις μεν ουν πρωτισταις των δυναμεων αει τους πρωτιστοις των νοητων επιβαλλουσι και το υπερουρανιο τοπω, ταις δε μεσαις τους εντος ουρανου, ταις δε εσχαταις κατα το ψυχικον μαλιστα ιδιωμα. Here Hermeas clearly says, that divine souls have middle, as well as first and


last powers.


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