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Ienius wcro placed. The architecture has not much beauty to recommend it, and the traveller will probably soon allow himself to be driven away from its examination by the dirt and other annoyances of its situation. A museum, containing a few altars and other objects of considerable interest, has been formed in the small inclosure in front of the western colonnade; and in a building near it were placed, in 1846, a collection of casts of the Klgin marbles sent to Athens in that year by the trustees of the British Museum, which the traveller will probably be
flad to see after he has visited the arthenon.
4. Gymncuium of Ptolemy, or Stoa of Attalus.—About 100 yards W. of the S.W. corner of the Stoa of Hadrian are remains of a marble building of excellent masonry of the style of work called by Vitruvius pseudisodomum, tiiat is, having alternately equal courses. This was a later stylo than that in which the walls of the Pericleian buildings were constructed, and gives a corresponding date, 300 B.C., or later, to the building in question. It consists of a wall built in the form of a square "fret," continually returning at right angles to itself, but having a general direction N. and 8.
This construction makes it probable that these walls formed exedrm or seats of the kind called LeschsB, so built as to be sheltered and opposed to the sun at all times of the day, so that those who frequented them could at all hours in the winter find a sunny and in the summer a shady side. The poor often passed the night in the Leschtc.
These Leschao may very probably have formed part of the Gymnasium of Ptolemy, both on account of the date, as determined to a certain extent, of the masonry, and from their position near the temple of Theseus, for the proximity of the gymnasium to that tomplo is mentioned by Pausanias, who also tells us, that "in tho Gymnasium which is not far from the Agora, and called Ptolemseum from him who built it, are Hennas of
stone worthy of inspection." Between the walls we have just described and the Theseum still remain one or more gigantic Herman with snakes coiled about them, not indeed of a very refined art, yet they may possibly bo tho remains of those mentioned by Pausanias.
The gymnasium in a Greek city was an institution of tho greatest importance. In the first instance, it was a building provided for the performance of gymnastic exercises, which formed one of the three parts, and indeed tho principal part, of education: grammar and music being the two others: for tho Greeks were thoroughly convinced that the mind could not be in a healthy state unless tho body wns likewise in perfect health. From these exercises, performed either naked or with the body covered with a slight X'Tcoy, or tunic, the artists of Greece had not only frequent opportunities of studying the human body in its varied forms of action, but also they had before them far more beautifully developed forms than they otherwiso could have had; and this circumstance, combined with the natural fine taste of that people, enabled them to attain that pre-eminence in sculpture which has never been questioned, and which in the same line it is impossible for modern art to rival.
In the time of Solon the Greeks began to build regular gymnasia as places of exercise for the young, with baths and other conveniences for philosophers who sought intellectual amusements. The larger gymnasia contained courts for gymnastic exercises, exedroj, baths, stoa>, long covered walks for exercise in bad weather, gardens, and a stadium. The larger gymnasia at Athens were the Academy, the Lyceum, and Cynnaarges. Doubtless the gymnasium of Ptolemy was far more simple than that of Hadrian, into which all the luxuries of tho Roman Thermaa would be introduced, an ample supply of water being obtained from the Aquoduct built by that Emperor. Tho following extract is taken from tho work of Mr. Joseph Woods—' The Letters of an Architect,' &c, London, 1828 :—
"In our first walk wo passed by the Tower of the Winds, now a place for the performance of dancing dervishes, but incumbered with other buildings [this was in 1818], and the mouldings and sculptures of which are rather clumsy in design, as well as in the execution. Behind this building there are remains of the aqueduct which supplied the clepsydra. Stuart has published it without being aware of its purpose, and he has omitted to notice some remarkable peculiarities. Each pier is of one stone, and tho pilasters are cut upon it so as to lean inwards, as if to oppose the lateral thrust of tho arch, a precaution quite unnecessary, as each arch is likowise formed out of a single stone. Soon afterwards we came to the Portico of the market, which, though not to be compared to the best examples here, is yet a very handsome building. We then passed by the building called by Stuart the Stoa or Portico, but which now seems more generally considered as the Pantheon of Hadrian. The columns have more colour than those of the temple of Jupiter Olympius, but they appear to be of the same material: the capitals are poor in design, and the entablature badly composed, but it is an antique, and we are sensible that it must have been a splendid building. All theso occur within the distance of a few paces; not much farther is a fragment, supposed to bo the gymnasium built by Ptolemy, but this is merely a portion of marble wall."
5. The Theseum.—ThiB temple is the most perfect architectural relic of all antiquity. It was preserved during tho dark ages by having been converted into the church of St. George, which occupied the whole area of the cello. And it is very fortunate that this was the case in a building of which the architecture and sculpture is only inferior to the Parthenon, so that had Athens preserved to us nothing but the Theseum, it would still have claimed pre-eminence in those
arts. The identification of this temple haB never been questioned, except by Ross, who names it tho temple of Mars. Boss, however, has against him the almost universal verdict of scholars and archaeologists, so that it does not seem necessary to go into his arguments. Pausanios says very little about this temple: he only mentions the paintings by Micon on the walls, which represented the acts of Theseus. Cimon, son of Miltiades, was sent by the Athenians to Skyros to obtain the bones of Theseus, who had died there in exile; and having obtained what answered the description, ho returned B.c. 468, when the bones were interred on a height in the middle of the Asty, with a large peribolus, which was occasionally used lor military assemblies. The temple stands quite detached, on a little point of land running out from the hill of the Areopagus, a site admirably selected to display its architecture. Quoting again from Mr. Woods (p. 235) : "The point it stands on is so little elevated that a person might leave Athens without perceiving it to be placed on any hill at all, yet nobody can fail to observe that it is a conspicuous object, and looks well in every point of view.
"The cell of a Greek temple is a simplo oblong building. In the earlier periods it was probably nearly destitute of ornament, and except for tho cornice, and for the smallness of the dimensions, much like a bom. Afterwards a porch was added, supported by columns, and the entablaturehegan to receive some embellishment. Even this disposition, when the front came into view, was highly beautiful, and more so when an additional range of columns was added to the portico [making the temple prostyle]. Afterwards columns were added at the back also, by which means the variety and contrast produced by them would catch the attention from every point of view. Tho next step was to continue the columns all round, and this is the arrangement at the temple of Theseus.
"The simple cell had, I believe, no peculiar appellation, and yet from the great multitude of temples existing in ancient Greece, many of which seem to have been very small, it is probable they were not uncommon. Temples of the second kind were said to be in antis, because in them the flank walls were prolonged beyond the front, so as to form the sides of the porch, and these prolongations were terminated in pilasters having three faces, which pilasters were called ante. The third arrangement was prostyle, the fourth amphiprostyle, tho fifth peri]>teral; besides these were also the dipteral temples, having two rows of columns round the cell (such was the temple of Jupiter Olympius in this place), andpteudodipteral, which differed from the dipteral by the want of the inner range of columns, and from the peripteral by having a much larger space between the cell and the surrounding colonnade. In all these the same general form was preserved, a simple oblong; and you see that in all of them I can account for the admiration bestowed upon them by a recurrence to my favourite maxim of simplicity of form and richness of detail."
The temple of Theseus faces about 8^ southward of E. It is peripteral and hexastyle, and each flank shows It! columns. The length is 104 feet
3 inches, and the breadth 45 feet on the upper step. It is elevated 2 feet
4 inches on two steps, whereas temples usually had three, a circumstance which has been thought to confirm the hypothesis of Ub having been an beroum. The ambulatory on the sides is 6 feet wide, the cella is 40 feet in length, tho pronaos, including tho eastern portico, 33 feet, and tho posticum or opisthodomus, including the western portico, 27 feet. These porches were formed with two columns in anlis. The columns, both of the peristyle and the interior order, are about 3 feet 4 inches in diameter, and 19 feet high. The height from the upper step to the apex of the pediment is 31 feet. The pronaos and posticum were separated from the ambulatory of the peristyle; but where in the Parthenon a grillage
of metal was used, hero the spaces between the internal columns seem to have been filled in with marble slabs.
That the principal front was towards the E. is attested not only by the greater depth of the pronaos, but by the sculptured metopes, those namely at that end, and the four adjoining metopes of each flank. The following account of the sculptures is abbreviated from Leake, p. 500 sq. :— "All the metopes in tho front of the temple that can be deciphered relate to the labours of Hercules, and those on the flanks to the labours of Theseus. Ten of the former were selected for the E. front. These were, beginning from the S.: 1, Hercules and the Nemajau Lion; 2, Hercules and Iolaus destroying tho Hydra; 3, Hercules taming the stag of Ceryneia; 4, Hercules and tho Erymanthian boar; 5, Hercules with one of the horses of Diomedes king of Thrace; 6, Hercules and Cerberus; 7, much injured, but probably Hercules taking from Hippolyta the girdle of Mars; 8, Hercules having slain Cycnus; 9, Hercules and Antasus, whose mother Earth stands by and stretches out both arms; 10, Hercules receiving an apple from one of the nymphs Hesperides.
"Of the four sculptured metopes on the southern side, the first from the angle represents Theseus and the Minotaur; the second, Theseus and the Marathonian bull; the third, Theseus and Pityocamptes; the fourth, perhaps Theseus and Procrustes. The first on the N. side is perhaps Theseus and Corynetes; the second, Theseus and Cercyon; the third, Theseus and Scyron; the fourth, Theseus and the sow of Crommyon.
"The pediments were filled with sculpture, but all has been lost; only some cramp marks and other traces remain. At each end of the cella a sculptured frieze, 38 feet long, stretches across the whole breadth of the cella and ambulatory. The sculptures are in much higher relief than the frieze of the Parthenon, and although now for the most part in a state of extreme decay, they were evidently works of the greatest merit. As Micon, who painted the walla of the temple, was a sculptor as well as a painter, there is reason to suppose that they were finished by his hands. The subject of the sculpturo over the pronaos is the giganto-maehia. The composition may bo regarded as a great glyptic picture, and the more correctly so, as its effect in many of the minor details was produced by metallic adjuncts and painting. It consisted of 29 figures. Jupiter is represented seated, as on the summit of Olympus, with Juno and Minerva, near the southern extremity of the composition. The giants are towards the centre, and occupy the lower heights of the mountain, and the battle appears raging on each side of them.
"Northward of the seated deities is Mercury wearing the helmet of Pluto, which rendered him invisible, and fighting with a giant, who appears to be hurling a stone; next comes Apollo, who has slain Polytion; then Bacchus, of whom only a fragment remains, fighting with a giant to the 8. of him. After him comes Vulcan, hurling red-hot iron at Clytius; and farther on Neptune, with a rock representing the island Nisyrus in his left hand, with which he is about to overwhelm the giant Polybotes. He has ulruady slain ono giant and is fighting with another; then come two warriors marching northwards to take part in the fight, and passing behind three seated figures, which represent the inferior deities of Olympus, whose position the giants had invaded, although unable to reach the height on which Jupiter is seated. The action at the 8. extremity commences with two draped figures moving northwards. Next comes Hercules, with a chlamys and crested helmet, tying the hands of the giant Alcyoneus, over whom he prevailed by the advice of Minerva, who is seated near him, being separated only by a naked warrior without a helmet, but who bears on his arm the thong, which indicates that he had a shield. He is represented as turning round, as if ready to assist Hercules.
"At the northern end of the composition, behind the group of deities and beyond the fourth and fifth pair of combatants, the extremity of the (rieze is occupied by five figures not engaged, which in their graceful attitudes and unemployed or preparatory state of action resemble those of the western frieze of the Parthenon. They may bo some of the inferior gods who are not yet called into action. In the combat of Centaurs and Lapitha>, which forms the subject of the frieze of the Posticum, we distinguish Theseus as the only one who has slain his opponent. Pausanias tells us that Micon had so represented him in painting within the temple. We also recognise Caaneus, who, being by Neptune's gift invulnerable, was overwhelmed by the Centaurs with rocks and trees. Cseneus is represented as half sunk into the earth, while an enormous mass is suspended over his head by a Centaur on each side. In tlie British Museum are casts of the friezes and some of the metopes. All the sculptures of the Thcseum, as well of the metopes as tho friezes, were painted, and still preserve some remains of the colours. Vestiges of brazen and gold-coloured arms, of a blue bky, and of blue, green, and red drapery, are still very apparent. A painted foliage and maeander is seen on the interior of the cornice of the peristyle, and painted stars in the lacunaria similar to those of the Parthenon, Propylaaa, and other temples. There are also remains of blue and red in the soffits of the intitules, and in the channels of the triglyphs of the external entablature. On tho walls of the cella inside have been observed traces of a very thin stucco which received the paintings of Micon. These paintings extended from tho roof to within 2 feet t) inches of tho floor."
The temple is founded on a substruction chiefly formed of the limestone of Piraus upon which tho stylobate rests, that and all above it being of marble. The columns have all been more or less shaken by earthquakes, and many of the drums or component parts thrown ont of line. The substruction, too, seems to have been almost undermined at the N.W. corner, but is now, it is hoped, rendered secure. In the general view, however, all appears nearly perfect, and a largo portion of the original coffered ceiling remains at the E. end: these coffers were of Parian marble; all the rest of the construction that remains is Pentelic, and a considerable number of the beams which supported the ceilings of tho peristyles are still in their places.
When the temple was converted into tho Church of St. George, the two columns between the antra of the Pronaos were removed to form the apse, and a large western door was made, but it was afterwards walled up to protect tho church from the insults of the Turks, who in former times were in the habit of riding into it. After this a small door was pierced in tho S. wall. The cella was covered with a semicircular vault; but this has been replaced by a trabcated ceiling suitable to the original design; a restoration which was most desirable, because the effect of tho thrust of the vault just mentioned had begun to act injuriously upon the walls and columns of the peristyles.
The chief part of the national Museum of Athens is temporarily placed in the interior of this temple, and contains a few works of interest, among which an ancient figure of a warrior v found at Marathon, in very low relief, ["but coloured, should be mentioned. It bears a striking resemblance to the ■ Assyrian figures from Nineveh. There 'is here also a small figure of Pan, as 'well as several interesting sepulchral monuments and vases.
In the design of the Theseum tho same subtleties of construction in the use of delicately curved horizontal and inclined vertical lines are to be found as in the Parthenon, but on a smaller scale. Part of the national Museum is temporarily placed in the Darbakeion, and should be early visited, on Monday or Wednesday, from 3 to 5 r.M. There is no catalogue of its contents. The remaining r->.
part of tho Museum is, for the present, at the Ministry of Education, in Hermes Street, opposite and below Wilberg's library. Here is a copy of tho statue of Athene in the Parthenon.
"Both the Theseum and Parthenon look larger than they really are, an effect owing partly to the simplicity of the design and justness of the proportion."—Woods, p. 247. The peculiar position of the Parthenon, occupying the top of a rock of small extent, no doubt enhances the effect in the case of that temple, but not entirely so; and it is an erroneous idea that has sometimes been advocated, that justness of proportion makes a building look small.
"The Church of St. Mark at Venire, and tho Temple of Theseus at Athens, have several points of comparison. They owe their origin to tho operation of the same feelings. They are both at the same time temples and tombs. In both cases tho venerated ashes interred within them came from a distant region. The relics of Theseus, real or supposed, were brought by Cimon from the isle of Skyros to the Pirasus; those of St. Mark to the quay of Venice, from Alexandria. The latter were hailed on their arrival witli the pageantry of a Venetian carnival: tho obsequies of Theseus were solemnised with a dramatic contest of .ASschylus and Sophocles. Tho hero and tho saint, placed in their splendid mausoleums, each in his respective city, were revered as the peculiar guardians of those two republics of the sen. Theseus did not enjoy alone the undivided honours of his own temple. He admitted Hercules, the friend and companion of his early toils, to a share in his posthumous glory. He even ceded to him, with the best spirit of Athenian delicacy, the most honourable placo in that fabric. On the eastern facade of this temple, nil the 10 metopes are occupied with tho labours of Hercules, while only four, and those ou tho sides only, refer to tho deeds of Theseus. The same disinterestedness is shown in the selection of tho subjects of the two friezes of the pronaos and posticum of the cella..