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reasons, that the author of the present work was sent to the Crimea. No great battle occurs to the scene of which the principal Powers of Europe do not send engineers to examine every feature of its topography ; taking corresponding paios to ascertain every available fact, as to the plan of the battle, the manner in which it was carried out-nay, the positions of the generals when they gave any particular orders.
Had General MeClellan fought no battle in Western Virginia or elsewhere—had he not attained his present position at the head of an army of more than half a million of inen, able and willing to defend the flag of their country against all foes, foreign or domestic, by his skill, valor, and success in the field, this work would have shown, by itself, that he possesses, at least, the scientific skill necessary for a great leader. His account of his mission to the Crimea is replete with interest; though it is written without any assumption of superior knowledge. On the contrary, it is distinguished throughout by that modesty which is so characteristic of the man. Rarely, if ever, does he make any observation having the least tinge of egotism. Indeed, in this respect, he is not unworthy of comparison with Julius Cæsar, who, in the whole course of his Commentaries on the Gallic War, never speaks in the first person. At the same time, Gen. McClellan does not shrink from criticising the generals on both sides, especially the allied generals. The following passage will serve as a specimen, and is not without interest, as showing that Russia had a right to feel complimented, as we all remember she did at the time; and we may remark, in passing, that this very fact is likely to have had some influence on the Czar when he sent his recent letter of sympathy with the Union cause to the Russian minister at Washington.
“To appreciate the position of the English army, on the night it reached the Tchernaya, it must be borne in mind that it had in its rear the precipitous heights of Mackenzie, several hundred feet in elevation, with but a single road leading to the summit, and that they were thus cut off from the immediate assistance of the French. If the English had been attacked this night, the result must have been disastrous to them in the extreme. Had the harbor of Balaklava been destroyed, and the attack been made during the next day's march, it is probable that their annihilation would have been the result.
“In considering this march, it is somewhat difficult to determine which party committed the greatest faults--the Allies in so exposing themselves, or the Russian in failing to avail himself of the opportunities offered.
“ Thus far the Allied Generals displayed none of the qualities of great commanders : their measures were half-way measures, slow and blundering; they failed to keep constantly in view the object of the expedition, and to press rapidly and unceasingly towards it.
"From the moment the Allies occupied Balaklava and Kamiesch, the conduct of the Russian general deserves high commendation, and was in striking contrast with that of his antagonists."'--p. 13.
This is followed by a short and interesting, but not captious, criticism on the battle of Inkermann, and on each of the other engagements in turn, until the taking of Sebastopol. The narrative is exceedingly lucid throughout. The plans of attack and of defence, the manner in which each was
carried out, the nature of the ground on both sides, and the advantages and disadvantages of the contending armies, respectively, are so graphically described, that all the incidents which created so much interest at the time are recalled with a vividness seldom surpassed. We would gladly quote the author's description of the final assaults on the Malakoff and the Redan, but our limited space precludes us from doing so, without omitting another extract, which is, perhaps, more practically useful at the present moment. General McClellan evinces good sense and a liberal spirit in his comparison of the French and English attacks, and their results. While awarding their full meed of praise to the Freuch, for the skill, intrepidity and dauntless bravery they displayed in the taking of the Malakoff, he makes no attempt to cast any slur on the British for having failed in the attack on the Redan; but, on the contrary, shows that, upon the whole, they behaved in a manner worthy of their ancient and well-earned fame. The remarks with which the author closes his report are of more value now than the most picturesque descriptions.
“It is believed," says Gen. McClellan, “ that a calm consideration of the events so hastily and imperfectly narrated in the preceding pages, must lead all unprejudiced persons among our countrymen to a firm conviction on two vital points :
“1st. That our system of permanent coast defences is a wise and proper one, which ought to be completed and armed with the least possible delay.
“ 2d. That mere individual courage cannot suffice to overcome the forces that would be brought against us, were we involved in a European war; but it must be rendered manageable by discipline, and directed by that consummate and mechanical military skill which can only be acquired by a course of education instituted for the special purpose, and by long habit.
“In the day of sailing-vessels, the successful siege of Sebastopol would have been impossible. It is evident that the Russians did not appreciate the advantages afforded by steamers, and were unprepared to sustain a siege.
“This same powers of steam would enable European nations to disembark upon our shores even a larger force than that which finally encamped around Sebastopol. To resist such an attack, should it ever be made, our cities and harbors must be fortified, and those fortifications must be provided with guns, ammunition, and instructed artillerists. To repel the advance of such an army into the interior, it is not enough to trust to the number of brave but undisciplined men that we can bring to bear against it.
“An invading army of 15,000 or 20,000 men could easily be crushed by the unremitting attacks of superior numbers ; but when it comes to the case of more than 100,000 disciplined veterans, the very multitude brought to bear against them works its own destruction ; because, if without discipline and instruction, they cannot be handled, and are in their own way. We cannot afford a Moscow campaign.
“Our regular army never can be, and, perhaps, never ought to be, large enough to provide for all the contingencies that may arise ; but it should be as large as its ordinary avocations in the defence of the frontier will justify; the number of officers and non-commissioned officers should be unusually large, to provide for a sudden increase ; and the greatest possible care should be bestowed upon the instruction of the special arms of the artillery and engineer troops.
" The militia and volunteer system should be placed upon some tangible and effective basis, instructors furnished them from the regular army, and all possible means taken to spread sound military information among them.
"In the vicinity of our sea-coast fortifications, it would be well to provide à sufficient number of volunteer companies with the means of instruction in
heavy artillery ; detailing officers of the regular artillery as instructors, who should, at the same time, be in charge of, and responsible for, the guns and material.
“In time of war, or when war is imminent, local companies of regular ar. tillery might easily be enlisted for short terms of service, or for the war, in the sea-coast towns. The same thing might advantageously be carried into effect on a small scale in time of peace."-pp. 34-5.
It were a thankless task to criticise the style of a work which is destined to impart to our brave armies so much of that knowledge which is really power. We have no disposition to do so; and were it otherwise, even the style would bear favorable comparison with that of many writers of the present day who have adopted authorship as a profession. The publishers have done their part with their usual taste and spirit. Finely printed, as the volume is, with large, clear type, on strong, white paper, and profusely illustrated, it is worthy of a place in the most elegant library.
'A Thesis on Hospital Hygiene, for the degree of Doctor of Medicine in
the Uninersity of New York. By VALENTINE Mort Francis, Member of the New York Historical Society.
It is not our habit to notice the efforts of students. Hitherto we have nerer done so; but it is only because none have fallen into our hands that seemed to claim any particular attention. Generally, there is no duller production than a thesis, especially that of a medical student. It is not often that it has even the recomiendation of being written in the correct vernacular. We are all the more pleased, therefore, to find in the present volume a high order of literary merit.
It was, indeed, to have been expected that the son of the late venerable Dr. Francis would produce something of a character above mediocrity. Altogether independently of the theory of hereditary transmission, it was no ordinary advantage to be under the constant tuition of the Nestor of the New York medical profession. Besides, the author had for many years the benefit of the instructions of Dr. Valentine Mott, whom, in language that can hardly be called exaggeration, he designates in his dedication as
the father of American surgery.” In short, young Dr. Francis had every opportunity presented to him, in the study of his profession, that science and experience could afford. How well he has profited by all these facilities is agreeably proved in this volume. That it is not a inere thesis will be sufficiently understood from the following observation in the preface: “The dissertation has been enlarged beyond its original limits, and quotations from works, published subsequent to its presentation to the faculty of the University Medical College as an inaugural address for the degree of Doctor of Medicine, have been cited as bearing upon the nature of the treatise." Old Dr. Francis had the habit of enlarging and enriching his best addresses, so that, from being pamphlets of ordinary
size, they attained the dimensions and proportionate value of duodecimo volumes. Of this character was “ Old New York," a highly interesting work, which consisted originally of an address delivered before the New York Historical Society.
But let us see a specimen of what our author does to justify our remarks. The following passage will remind many of our readers of the genuine philanthropy and benevolence of the good old Doctor, and show at the same time that his son is worthy of him, in loving “the luxury of doing good."
"No charities have accomplished more good, or have been of greater benefit to mankind at large, than hospitals. In them the bold mariner, separated from kindred and friends by thousands of miles of tumultuous sea, finds comfort and repose. There all, from the wounded soldier to the starving pauper, receive shelter and assistance. Every nation, all classes, are equally the recipients of their benefits ; their portals are open to all, irrespective of creed; and upon each child of want are bestowed the purest offerings of that science which glories in its mission—the mitigation of human woe.
• If institutions of this kind are so necessary to the world, then it becomes us to use every means in our power to improve their condition, and render them as healing to the individual body, as they are beneficial to society. Shall we-a Christian people-be backward in a work so noble as this, when the Heathen spend willingly so much time and means in founding similar institutions for the brute creation ? Shall the cat and the dog receive more care from the benighted Pagan, than is given by civilized man to his helpless brother ?”-pp. 11, 12.
A handsome tribute is paid by Dr. Francis to the progress of science and discovery in the present age; although he is not of those who regard all, not of their own age or country, as gropers in darkness :
" At no time, since the foundation of the world, could the faithful student of medicine have used the beautiful quotation from Virgil,' Miseris succurrere disco,' with more propriety than at the present day. As year by year rolls on, so discovery follows upon discovery, invention on invention, and success rewards the arduous studies of the patient and determined, and crowns, with a halo of immortal glory, the ennobling aspirations of the sincere lover of his kind. No profession has ever been dignified with greater intellects, or more devoted followers, than that of medicine. Kings, queens, princes, and those in the highest walks of life, have exerted their best influence in its favor. Bards have tuned afresh their harps to sing its praises. Philosophers, historians, and poets have written in prose and verse of its worth. All pure philanthropists rejoice at each successive triumph, and the sweetest emotions of the soul arise in the bosoms of all, from the inmate of the wretched hovel to the luxurious occupant of the marble palace, to swell the chorus that chants its Heavenly attributes.”-pp. 16, 17.
We should gladly transfer several other extracts to our pages, feeling satisfied that they would be appreciated by our readers; but we have to remember that a large variety of other books await our attention. This precludes us from giving one third the passages we had marked for that purpose. Nor can we say that those we have given are the best speci
The passage, for example, extending from page 136 to page 138, descriptive of malaria and its peculiar characteristics, is more interesting, as well as more instructive, than anything we have quoted; but it is too long for our space, and the same remark, but slightly modified, would apply to several other passages. But, we presume, the book may be had for sale at our principal book stores. It is a well printed, neatly bound octavo, of over two hundred pages, embellished with fine portraits of the late Dr. Francis, Dr. Valentine Mott, and John W. Francis, jr.
A Course of Sit Lectures on the Chemical History of a Candle, to which is
added a Lecture on Platinum. By MICHAEL FARADAY, D. O. L., F. R. S. Edited by Wm. CROOKES, F. U. S. 16mo, pp. 223. New York: Harper & Brothers, " 1861.
Much learning, without any pedantry, is shown in this tiny volume. Most persons would think that even one lecture on a candle would be sufficient to exhaust the subject; but here we have six, and the last is as instructive and interesting as the first. No ordinary lecturer could accomplish such a result; it may be doubted whether any other man in England could have succeeded as Faraday has done, for the very good reason that he is one of the best chemists, if not the very best, now living.
Recent Inquiries in Theology, by Eminent English Churchmen; being
Essays and Reviews." Third American, from the second London edition. With an Appendix. Edited, with an - Introduction, by Rev. FREDERIO H. HEDGE, D. D. 12mo, pp. 498. Boston: Walker, Wise & Co. 1861.
The title of the American edition is much more characteristic of the book than that of the English edition. Of the eight papers which it contains, there is not one which is not an Inquiry, more or less elaborate. and profound--the inquiry of one who has the manliness to proclaim what he has discovered in his researches, let prejudice and bigotry say and do their worst. No other articles, of a similar kind, which have appeared within the last quarter of a century, have attracted more attention. Certainly none have more startled a certain class of theologians. Nor have the authors been allowed to create such an excitement with impunity; they have been assailed with pen and tongue simultaneously, through scores of journals and pulpits; denounced, in turn, as heretics, deists, infidels~Bishops vieing with Deacons in the uncharitable, not to say unchristian, work.
Those who have not read the book, would naturally suppose that it must contain wicked and dangerous doctrines-that, at least, it is opposed to Christianity, as represented by the Protestant Episcopal Church. But buch is not the fact. It is neither our business, nor our wish, to take any part in theological disputes; we have nothing to do with points of doctrine, or rules of faith, on which Doctors of Divinity themselves cannot agree. It is otherwise with the plain worldly facts involved; for it is not necessary to be a theologian, in order to form an opinion as to whether it is the bishop or the deacon who has best elucidated any particular text. But the best course, in the present case, is, to let the authors speak for themselves, if only in a brief passage, here and there. It would be idle VOL. IV.NO. VII.