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identified with the Eleusinium men- of Ceres and Proserpine mentioned tioned by Pausanias—distinct from by Pausanias.
that connected with the great cave Pausanias describes an Odeum near in the eastern part of the Acropolis the EnncacrunuB. A little farther rock already described — and close I up the Ilissus wo reach above it, on the L bank of the river,
Stuart observed some traces of what | 11. The Panathenaie Stadium.— he supposes to have been the temple Excavations on the site of the Pan
athenaic Stadium, on the 1. bank of the Ilissus, commenced by some private individuals in 1869, were, owing to their great cost, discontinued until the King of the Hellenes supplied funds for recommencing them, and for the purchase of the site. They were completed in 1870.
The Stadium was laid out by the orator Lycurgus (B.C. 340), who obtained the ground, wliich was well calculated by nature for the purpose, and from which he excavated a quantity of earth equivalent to 80,000 cubic metres, or 2,720,000 cubic feet.
The wealthy Athenian citizen, Herodes Atticus, whose name is preserved by the Odeum underneath the S.W. end of the Acropolis, was crowned in the games in the Stadium 500 years after its completion; and he promised on this occasion to the assembled spectators that when they next should witness the celebration of the Panathenaic games they should view them in a stadium of white marble—a promise fulfilled in four years. Pausanias can scarcely find words of praise to express his sense of the beauty of the dimensions and execution of the Stadium. "The Stadium," he says, "of white marble, is wonderful to behold; its magnitude is not very easily credited by those who only hear of it, but niay.be imagined from this: it is a hill rising from the Ilissus, of a semicircular form in the upper part, and extending thence in two parallel right lines to the bank of the river."
The bridge of three arches wiiich led to the Stadium over the Ilissus was seen by Stuart and Bevett. In 1774 it was destroyed by the Turks, who made use of the stones from it in constructing the Turkish wall of Athens. Only the abutments now remain. At 205 ft. from the Ilissus were found fragments of a wall, supposed to have been that of a hall which closed this end of the Stadium, and through an opening in which it was entered. To the E., at a considerably lower level, are tho remains of a mosaic pavement, now no longer visible, and Lore and on the opposite side, it is supposed, were rooms for athletes.
The entire length of the course was 663 ft.; its width nearly 100 ft As the present level of the base of the wall before referred to is much lower than that of the course, all trace of the site of tho first goal is lost, and one can only calculate its position by a reference to that of the third, which was found in the centre of the semicircular inner end, the radii of which aro 54 ft. 3 in. It may be supposed that the first goal was at a like distance from the entrance. In this case the first and third goals must have been either 554 ft. 6 in., or 60S ft. it in., apart. "Tho racer started from the lower extremity, and, having completed one course in a straight line (Sp6pos, or (rTaSioy), turned round tho point of curvature (Kaftwriifi) at tho higher extremity, and thus descended in a line parallel to that of his lirst ascent, till ho arrived at the goal (/3aA/3ii), which was a point a little; to the E. of that from which he had started; thus he accomplished a double course (SiouXor)."—Wordsworth.
Tho enclosed space, of the same breadth throughout, was bounded by a partition wall, which has only remained in fragments nt tho semicircular end. This wall was composed of two rows of marble slabs, set ono above the other, without mortar, tho edges of the slabs of the upper range being rounded at the top. At the ]x>int where the semicircle meets tho straight line of the wall on the E. side was found an unfiuted column, supposed to have been placed there to correspond with the goal (as in modern race-courses a pole is placed opposite the goal for the convenience of the judge). Drains were, throughout the edifice, constructed to carry off the water. Many portions of these are preserved. One leads from the shaft of the column to the third goal. It is composed of Piraic stone. The drain is almost 1 ft. broad, and 10 in. deep. At the goal its direction changed, and ran, parallel to the longer axis of tho course, to the Ilissus. probably receiving other drains, which were covered with slabs and earth, the utility of which would be evident in caso of rain. The level i if the course was nearly a foot higher than that of the corridor, as shown by the " dressed" portion of the partition wall on tlio inside, and on the outer. Tho surface had a fall of 58} in. towards the river. A corridor, nearly 9 ft. 9 in. in width of passage, surrounded the course. It was paved with marble, of which some slabs were found. Beneath was a drain made of bricks and mortar, to conduct water from tho steps by openings in the pavement. Of these 8 were found in the semicircular part. The drain is almost wholly destroyed.
A wall 5 ft. 3 in. in height, with base and entablature, formed the substructure of the iirst row of seats, this height being necessary to enable the spectators to see into the interior. The first row of seats was removed far more inwardly, to allow a free passage. Steps, 2 ft. 7 in. in height, led from the corridor to the seats, of which there were seven rows at the semicircular end, and eleven on either of the straight sides of the Stadium. Tho rows were of similar construction to those of tho Dionysiac theatre, with the difference that each one of these is supposed to have been decorated at the ends near tho steps with an owl. Not a single row was found complete, but their position was defined by the cuttings on the hill, and three have been restored. It is supposed that 50,000 persons could be accommodated in the Stadium, and for the convenience of so many it is farther believed that admission to tho space allotted to the spectators was attained from above, from the fact of thero being traces of a wide gangway at the top. It is probable that wide steps led up the front walls to this gangway, but there are no indications of a corridor running lengthwise round the spectators' space. At the further end of this portion of the Stadium are remains of a Doric stoa, 104 ft. in length and 32 ft. in breadth. It is of rough execution, and from this stoa having occupied the best position for seeing from, it is supposed that the judges sat here. Un tho E. side of the semicircle a
passage, 15} ft. wide and 23 ft. long, led from the corridor and terminated in two steps, whero is a threshold, on which traces of door-posts were found, and which led into a subterranean vaulted passage, 12 ft. 6 in. wide. Its state of ruin gives it the appearance of a natural cavern, but close observation shows it to have been artificial. Opposite the rounded end of the Stadium are traces of a semicircular wall, which converted this portion into an amphitheatre; this wall was not composed of marblo, but of rough stone and bad mortar, and was apparently only 1 ft. 7 in. in height. It is possible that this construction was merely provisional, and erected in the time of Hadrian. Spartian relates of this emperor that when he presided at tho l'anathenaic games he presented 1000 wild beasts to be hunted in the Stadium. Further indications of tho Stadium having been so used latterly are also found in the holes which are apparent on the rounded top of the inclosing wall, tho purpose of which is considered to have been the insertion of iron latticework, for the security of the spectators. In the centre of the semicircular end a double-headed Hermes was found, dating apparently from the 2nd or 3rd centy. B.C. The execution is rough. The older end, according to C. Curtius, represents Dionysus, and the younger Apollo; the latter is in good preservation, owing to its having been laid undermost, whereas the other is damaged about the nose. This statue is now at the eastern private entrance of King George's palace.
Destruction of the Stadium.—Blocks of marble from the Stadium may have been employed in the construction of many buildings, hut that some at least of the marble was burnt for mortar on the spot was proved by three kilns being found in the Stadium, one at the entrance of the course, and two on the rt. of the course. Near one of tliem a fragment of a female head and part of the breast was found. Accounts dating from the 15th centy. lead to the conclusion that the Stadium was then much the same as it was described to be by Wordsworth, and as it remained until the date of the recent excavation. On the top of the hill to W. of the Stadium the foundations of a temple of Tyche (Fortune) are visible, but no other remains are found, excepting small fragments of fluted Ionic columns. Exactly opposite to S.E. of Stadium was the so-called monument of Herodes Atticus. Nothing of it remains but traces of the foundations. These two monuments, the front wall of the Stadium, and the bridge, all indicating similar construction, and having been executed of similar materials, lead to the supposition that all of them were of the same date. For tho exploration of this remnant of old Athens the world is indebted to tho public spirit of King George, whoso liberality enabled Heir Ernst Ziller to carry out the work, his description of which is abbreviated above.
On the side of the Ilissus opposite to that where was tho Stadium were the Gardens and the Aphrodisium, or sanctuary of Venus. We have now completed our survey in the eastern direction, and return to
12. The Olympieum.—Athough tho Corinthian order cannot in itself be compared in grandeur with the Doric, there is perhaps, nevertheless, among the remains of antiquity, no ruin more impressive than that before us, alluded to in the well-known lines—
"Here let me Bit upon this many stone.
It stands quite alone, and although only 15 columns are now erect (there were 16 until the storm of Oct. 26, 1852), ont of the 124 which formed the porticoes and peristyles of the temple, yet their happy disposition conveys to the spectator no inadequate idea of the original size of the building. The fallen column was the middle one of the row of three at the western extremity. Although its
loss detracts much from tho grouping, especially in distant views, its vast fragments serve to give a scale to tho rest.
• There is something mysterious in the history of this temple: begun by the Athenians in the first burst of their greatness, and carried on by the Greek princes of Asia, it was left still uncompleted by Augustus; and although, 650 years after its commencement, it was at last perfected and dedicated by Hadrian, tliis was not until tho worship of Jupiter had ceased to bo real, and had in a great measuro fallen into contempt. The destruction of the temple probably commenced at an early period, as it does not seem to have suffered liko the Parthenon from any sudden catastrophe, but to have supplied from time to time building materials to the inhabitants of Athens during the dark ages. Tho other temples were preserved by being converted into churches. This was too vast for such a use. However, when the templo was already partly ruinous, tho small church of St. John, orals (coAoWaij, was built among tho ruins, of which church the recently demolished rubble construction above the architrave of the two westernmost columns of the principal group formed a part. The measurements of the columns were given for the first time in tho 'Principles of Athenian Architecture,' to which the reader is referred for further details. The temple was decastyle, dipteral, and hypffithral. Its length on the upper step was 354 ft., and its breadth 171. Tho diameter of the columns at the base was 6 ft. 4 in., and the height from the pavement to the top of the capitals 55J ft. Tho capitals are exceedingly well carved. The abacus, or upper part of the capital, is 8i ft. square. The stones composing the architrave are of enormous size: one of them weighs about 23 tons. The foundations of this temple were laid by Pisistratus, and it is remarkable that they are planned on the curvilinear principle mentioned in our description of the Parthenon. Tho Pisistratidaa made great progress s
with the work, hut after their expulsion it was neglected for about 400 years, and was resumed about B.c. 174, by Antiochus Epiphanes. Although he did not live to finish it, it seems to havo been completed according to the design of his architect, whom Vitruvius calls Cossutius. Sylla is said to have taken to Komo some of the columns prepared for the temple. These, it is probable, were not the columns of the peristyles, but smaller, and monolith columns of rare marbles intended for the interior. Under Augustus the work was resumed with great zeal by the Greek princes of Asia, and it is most likely that the columns which remain were either of that period or of that of Antiochus; the style of work is too good for Hadrian's time. The temple was surrounded by a large peribolus, of which the southern retaining wall remains, and the other limit can be well made out. It was crowded with statues in honour of Hadrian. A fine view of the temple of Jupiter Olympius, and of the peribolus, may be obtained from the hill over against it, above the Grotto of the Nymphs.
The entrance to the peribolus seems to have been through the gate of Hadrian, at the N.W. corner, and presented to the spectator the same kind of angular view that he obtained of the Parthenon as he entered the Acropolis. A similar approach has been noticed in other Greek temples. See Leake, p. 516.
13. The Arch of Hadrian is a building of no great interest, although not altogether devoid of merit or elegance. The archway is 20 feet wide: the entire height about 56 feet. The inscriptions upon either side of the frieze, above the centre of the arch, describe it as dividing "Athens, the city of Theseus," from the "city of Hadrian." On the side towards the Acropolis, AiS' eiV 'ASrjvai Bn<r4us ri irplv *6Kis. Towards the Olympieum, A'/5' elff* 'ASptavov novxl ®v<reus w6\ts.
14. The Choragic Monument of Lyticratet is between the arch of Hadrian and the Acropolis, a little nearer to
the latter. This monument, though small, is of the greatest interest: it is the earliest authentic instance of Corinthian architecture. It was built, according to an inscription on the architrave, to commemorate that" Lysicrates, son of Lysitheides, led the chorus when the boys of the tribe of Acamantis were victorious .... when Evaenetus was archon, i. e. the same year that Alexander the Great invaded Persia " (b.c. 335-4). The building is circular and about 8 feet in diameter outside the columns. It is raised on a square basement: the whole height is 34 feet. There m no access to the interior. The basreliefs upon the frieze represent the destruction of the Tyrrhenian pirates by Dionysus (Bacchus). The building has been barbarously used, but was very carefully drawn and measured by Stuart while in a more perfect state than at present. Until lately it was imbedded in a monastic, edifice. Woods thus describes it:—" In rambling about to find a lodging, I passed by the monument of Lysicrates. the exquisite beauty of whose proportion! and details are sadly spoilt by its present situation, where the wall of the courtyard of the monastery joins that of the monastery itself, so that one bit of it is seen in the street, one within the court, and another in the inside of the house: you may imagine how this must spoil a monument 7 feet in diameter." Pausanias tells us, "There is a street leading from the Prytaneum called Tripodes: the place is so named because there are certain temples of tho gods, upon which stand great tripods of brass, which, for tho most part, contain works worthy of mention:" a satyr of Praxiteles is mentioned in one of them. The victorious Choragi used to dedicate the tripods they had won, either in the neighbourhood of the theatre, or in shrines built along the street which led from the Lenroum, or Sanctuary of Bacchus, round the eastern slopes of the Acropolis to the Prytaneum, a building of which no traces are known, but which must havo stood nearly N.E. of the N.E. angle of tho Acropolis, and from