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-No report received; membership taken from report of two years ago.
Bricklayers, $5.40; stonemasons, $4.50; plasterers, $4,95.
Piece work, earnings reported.

12--Stonemasons, $4.50; bricklayers, $5.85. 13-Piece work, minimum earnings.

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[graphic]

TABLE No. 14MEMBERSHIP AND UNION SCHEDULE OF HOURS AND WAGES-LABOR ORGANIZATIONS OF MINNESOTA-Continued

Stillwater-
Bricklayers, Masons & Plasterers' Union No. 9.
Carpenters' Union No. 957
Musicians' Union No. 363
Typographical Union No. 432.

Totals
Thief River Falls-
Conductors, Railway No. 539.
Engineers, Locomotive, No. 768
Firemen & Enginemen, Locomotive, No. 103.
Trainmen, Railway, No. 436.

Totals
Two Harbors-
Blacksmiths' & Helpers' Union No. 459
Boiler Makers' Union No. 437
Clerks' Union, Retail, No. 930
Conductors, Railway, No. 360
Engineers, Locomotive, No. 420.
Firemen & Enginermen, Locomotive, No. 401
Machinists' Association, No. 647
Trainmen, Railway, No. 339

Totals
Virginia
Bartenders' Union No. 617
Bricklayers' Union No. 16
Conductors, Railway, No. 607.
Engineers, Locomotive, No. 677.
Firemen & Enginemen, Locomotive, No. 654
Industrial Workers of the World (Miners)
Machinists' Association, No. 220
Musicians' Union No. 428
Tailors' Union, No. 306
Trainmen, Railway, No. 746.

Totals

1,353

[graphic]

Wabasha
Carmen, Railway, No. 15.

Warroad-
Maintenance of Way Employes' Union No. 322

Waseca
Conductors, Railway, No. 90
Engineers, Locomotive, No. 9.
Firemen & Enginemen, Locomotive, No. 65.
Trainmen, Railway, No. 139

Totals
Willmar
Conductors, Railway, No. 563.
Engineers, Locomotive, No. 549.
Firemen & Enginemen, Locomotive, No. 95.
Trainmen, Railway, No. 640.

Totals
Winona
Bartenders', Cooks' & Waiters' Union No. 606
Blacksmiths' Union No. 108
Boiler Makers' Union No. 201
Brewers' & Malsters' Union No. 331
Bricklayers' Union No. 7
Carmen, Railway, No. 325.
Carpenters' Union No. 307
Cigar Makers' Union No. 70.
Clerks' Union, Railway, No. 129
Clerks' Union, Retail, No. 52
Electrical Workers' Union No. 597.
Engineers, National Association of, No. 4.
Machinists' Association, No. 133
Molders' Union No. 264
Painters’, Decorators' & Paperhangers' Union No. 540..
Plasterers' Union No. 81
Plumbers' & Steamfitters' Union No. 6
Pressmens' & Assistants' Union No. 237
Sheet metal Workers' Union No. 232
Stage Employes' Union, No. 602.
Stone Masons' Union No. 6.
Trainmen, Railway, No. 510.
Typographical Union, No. 246

Totals

*—No report received; membership taken from report of two years ago. TABLE NO. 2

SUMMARY OF MEMBERSHIP OF LABOR ORGANIZATIONS-BY CITIES AND TOWNS

[blocks in formation]

13 91 85 50

232 244

8

[blocks in formation]

21

1

1

4 1 1 1 9 6

7

Twin City joint unions.
Minneapolis.
St. Paul
Duluth.
Albert Lea.
Anoka..
Aurora
Austin
Bemidji..
Biwabik
Brainerd.
Breckenridge.
Chisholm.
Cloquet...
Crookston.

Detroit.
• Dilworth.

East Grand Forks..p
Eveleth..
Faribault.
Farmington.
Gilbert
Grand Rapids.
Hibbing :
International Falls.
Kasota.
Lake Park
Little Falls.
Luverne.
Mankato.
Melrose.
Montevideo.
New Ulm.
Owatonna..
Proctor.
Red Wing
Rochester.
Rockville
· St. Cloud
St. James.
Sandstone.
Sauk Rapids
Shakopee.
Staples
Stillwater.
Thief River Falls
Two Harbors..
Virginia.
Wabasha.
Warroad.
Waseca.
Willmar
Winona..

680 16,480 10,751 4,221

52

16 342 398 136 385 748

275 1,367

33 258

25 249

76 446 73 10 312

52 1,703 205 26 29 23 25 163 241 266 23 16 618 134 129

21 553 82 50 27 12 282

96 197

672 1,361

21 56 372

96 803

680 16.248 10 510 4,213

48

16 342 368 136 385 727

275 1,366

33 257

25 248

76 446 73 10 312

52 1,700 198 26 28 23 25 162 241 256 23

16 618 134 129

21 543 82 50 27 12 282

89 197 666 1,353

21 56 372 296 802

1

10

11

1 2 1 1 7

7

8

10 1 1 4 4 23

1

Totals.

437

45,889

45,334

555

PART X.

DIVISION FOR THE DEAF. The Division for the Deaf in the Department of Labor began its work on August 1, 1915, but the present superintendent did not assume office until May 1, 1916. The present report covers the work done by the present superintendent between May 1, 1916, and October 1, 1916. In opening up our work we have sent a questionaire to about 262 deaf persons, from which 144 complete returns have been received. These returns are discussed in this report. We have also visited 74 employers, a large number of deaf persons in St. Paul, Minneapolis, Winona, Lake City and Wabasha and have attended a considerable number of meetings of societies and organizations of the deaf.

The 144 returns on the questionaire yielded some interesting information. It was fourd from these reports that spinal meningitis and scarlet fever each caused deafness in 26 of the cases; that 17 were born deaf; in 14 brain fever caused the deafness; and that 6 were made deaf by catarrh; 6 by typhoid, and 6 by diphtheria. Sixteen had no idea why they became deaf, while the remainder attributed their deafness to a variety of causes, such as whooping cough, measles and sunstroke.

Ten of these 144 were graduates of institutions of higher learning, 7 having graduated from Gallaudet College, one from St. John's University, one from the Crookston Agricultural School and one from St. Joseph's Academy. Thirty-two were able to converse by lip reading, 82 on their fingers, and 31 by both methods.

Sixty of the 144 learned printing in school, but only 9 followed it as a vocation; 35 learned sewing, but only 9 worked at it; 30 learned shoemaking, but only 5 of them are shoemakers; 17 learned cabinet making, of whom 7 are now cabinet makers; 1 learned and followed mining engineering and 1 bookkeeping, typewriting and the operation of a comptometer. The remainder of the group are now distributed among the following occupations, with the exception of 21 who live at home without any industrial occupation: Farming, 28; poultry raising, 5; teachers, 6; machine operators in factories, 23; factory laborers, 20; cigar makers, 2; and 1 each in painting, tailoring, abstracting, real estate loan office, grocery man, inventor, millinery, shoe shop, and billing clerk.

Five have homesteaded farms, 2 bought farms and 7 inherited them. At least 21 own their own homes. Our records on this point are not as complete as on some of the other matters.

We do not find any marked antagonism on the part of employers or foremen to the employment of deaf workmen, but we do find that they do not pay them as high a wage for a given type of work as they do those who can hear. The deaf workman is at some disadvantage in the securing of employment and the employers seem to take advantage of that fact to pay them less.

Neither do we find the trade unions adverse to deaf members. The reason the deaf follow trades different from those they learned in school seems to be the superficiality and unpractical character of the training they received in the school rather than any opposition on the part of the employers or the unions.

In the course of our work we have visited 74 employers to find out whether they could use deaf workmen, and if so the work in which they could use them. Only one employer was discourteous. The remainder were all glad to discuss the matter with us. Dressmakers said they could use deaf girls as modistes, in plain sewing, in embroidery work and in children's shops. Newspapers and printing offices could use them as press feeders, linotype operators, job work, in cut making and in the mailing room. Paper box and envelope manufacturers and lithographers said they could use them in their machine work. Cabinet makers and wood makers find them useful as piano and wood finishers, in inlay and carving work,

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