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disturb, to prison and destroy, a race of innocent, intellectual beings.

« 3. The manner of our entrance into life is another proof of universal sin, (p. 29.) Would the great and good God have appointed intellectual animals, had they been sinless, to be propagated in such a way as should neces. sarily give such exquisite pain and anguish to the mothers who bring them forth ? And if the contagion had not been universal, why should such acute pangs attend almost every female parent? Are not the multiplied sorrows with which the daughters of Eve bring forth, an evident token that they are not in their original state of favour, with that God who created them and pronounced a blessing upon them in their propagation ? *

“ Moses informs us, that God blessed the first pair, and bid them be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it:' and soon after tells us, that these multiplied sorrows in child-birth are a curse from an offended God. Surely the curse is not as old as the blessing; but sin and sorrow came in together, and spread a wide curse over the birth of man, which before stood only under a divine benediction. Not that the blessing is now quite taken away, though the pains of child-bearing are added to it. And daily experience proves, this curse is not taken away by the blessing repeated to Noah.

« 4. Let us consider in the next place, how the generality of mankind are preserved in life. Some few have their food without care or toil: but millions of human creatures, in all the nations of the earth, are constrained to support a wretched life by hard labour. What dreadful risques of life or limbs, do multitudes run, to purchase their necessary

food. What waste of the hours of sweet repose, what

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* “ The Author has been censured here for not dropping a tear over the fair sex under their sorrow! and acute pains. But he imagines, he has been dropping tears in every page, and that over every part of mankind.” Vndoubtedly he bas: and if so, how unjust, how cruel is that censure :


long, and slavish, and painful toils by day, do multitudes sustain in order to procure their daily nourishment? It is by the sweat of their brows they obtain their bread: it is by a continual exbausting their spirits, that many of them are forced to relieve their own hunger, and to feed their helpless offspring.

“ If we survey the lower ranks of mankind, even in England, in a land of freedom and plenty, a climate temperate and fertile, which abounds with corn, and fruits, and rich variety of food: yet what a hard shift do ten thousand families make to support life? Their whole time is devoured by bodily labour, and their souls almost eaten up with gnawing cares, to answer that question, What shall I eat, and what shall I drink? Even in the poorest and coarsest manner? But if we send our thoughts to the sultry regions of Africa, the frost and snows of Norway, the rocks and deserts of Lapland and northern Tartary, what a frightful thing is human life? How is the rational nature lost in slavery, and brutality, and incessant toils, and hardships? They are treated like brutes by their lords, and they live like dogs and asses, among labours and wants, hunger and weariness, blows and burthens without end. Did God appoint this for innocents ? (p.30, 31.)

“ Is the momentary pleasure of eating and drinking a recompence for incessant labour? Does it bear any proportion to the length of toil, pain, and hazard, wherewith the provisions of life are procured? Moses thought not. When he speaks of man's eating bread in the sweat of his brow,' he acknowledges this to be another of the curses of God for the sin of man. (p. 32.)

“ It is strange that any man should say, “In this sentence “ of God, no curse is pronounced upon either Adam's body, « soul, or posterity: that the sorrow of child-bearing is 66 not inflicted as a curse: that the labours of life were in« creased, but not as a curse : that death was not a curse." I would fain ask, what is a curse, if some natural evil pronounced and executed upon a person or thing, be not so? Especially when it is pronounced on account of sin, and

by God himself, as supreme Governor and Judge? And even the curse on the ground falls properly on the person who tills it.

“It is granted, God can turn curses into blessings. Yet these evils were originally pronounced and inflicted as a curse or punishment of sin, as it is written, Cursed is every one who continueth not in all things.' And that death was designed as a curse on man for sin is evident; for Christ suffered that curse for us.

5. Consider the character of mankind in general with regard to religion and virtue, and it will be hard to believe they bear the image of their common father in knowledge and holiness.' Some I grant, are renewed in his image : but the bulk of the world are of another stamp; and sufficiently shew, there is some fatal contagion spread through this province of God's dominion. So St. John tells us, that except the few who are born of God, the winole world lieth in wickedness. (p. 33.)

“ And can we think of that gross and stupid ignorance of God, which reigns through vast tracts of Asia, Africa, and America, and the thick darkness which buries all the Heathen countries, and reduces them almost to brutes: can we think of the abominable idolatries, the lewd and cruel rites of worship which have been spread through whole nations; the impious and ridiculous superstitions which are now practised among the greatest part of the world: and yet believe the blessed God would put such wretched polluted workmanship out of his pure hands? (p. 34.)

“ Can we survey the desperate impiety and profaneness, the swearing, and cursing, and wild blasphemy, that is practised, day and night among vast multitudes of those who profess to know the true God: can we behold that almost universal neglect of God, of his fear, his worship, and the obedience due to him, which is found even among them who are called Christians; and yet imagine, that these bear that image of God, in which they were created ?

66. Nor have men forgot God only, but they seem also to have abandoned their duties to their fellow-creatures also.


Hence the perpetual practices of fraud and villany in the commerce of mankind, the innumerable instances of oppression and cruelty which run through the world; the pride and violence of the great, the wrath, ambition, and tyranny of princes, and the endless iniquities and mischiefs that arise, from malice, envy, and revenge in lower people. If we add to these the impure scenes of lust and intemperance, which defy the day and pollute the darkness : with the monstrous barbarities which are continually committed by the Heathen savages in Africa and America, (some of whom kill and roast their fellow-creatures, and eat up men as they eat bread,) and by the Christian savages in the Inquisition established in Asia, as well as in many parts of Europe: can we still imagine, that mankind abide in that state, wherein they came from the hands of their Maker ? (p. 35.)

“ That far the greatest number of men are evil, was the known sentiment of the wiser Heathens. (p. 37.) They saw and bewailed the undeniable fact, though they knew not how to account for it. Οι πλειονες κακοι. are wicked, was a common observation among them. Even the poets could not but see this obvious truth. So Virgil brings in Anchises, telling his son, Few are happy in the other world

Pauci læta arva tenemus.
And in this life, Horace remarks of men in general,

Nitimur in vetitum semper, cupimusq; negata ;
We are always desiring and pursuing forbidden things.
Nay, he says,

Vitiis nemo sine nascitur; No man is born without vices : and gives this character of young men in general,

Cereus in vitium flecti; monitoribus asper. Seneca says just the same,

Pejora juvenes facile præcepta audiunt : Young men readily hearken to evil counsels; they are soft as wax to be moulded into vice, but rough and rugged to their best monitors.

Most men


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" Juvenal abounds with the same accounts of human nature

Quæ tam festa dies, ut cesset prodere furem?

j Ad mores natura recurrit, ' W)
Damnatos, fuxa & mutari nescia.
Quisnam hominum est, quem tu contentum videris uno
Flagilio?... Dociles imitandis
Turpibus 8: pravis omnes sumus. ' 1 .mi 2.posms

46. And not only they of riper age, but even those of tender years, discover the principles of iniquity and seeds of sin.. What: yoang ferments of spite, and, envy, what native wrath, and rage, are found in the little hearts of infants, and sufficiently discovered by their hands, and eyes, and countenances, before they can speak or know good from evil! - What additional crimes of lying, and deceit, obstinacy and perverseness proceed to blemish their younger years I. (p.41.), uitstapene

“ Howlittle knowledge of thought of God, their Creator and Governor, is found in children when they can distin, guish good and evil ? ;-„What an utter disregard of him that made them, and of the duties, they owe to him? And when they begin to act according to their childish age, how little 'senişe have they of what is morally right and good? How do evil passions, or irregular appetites; continually pre vail in them. Even from their first capaçity of acting as moral creatures, how are they led away to practise false hood and injury to their play fellows, perhaps with cruelty or revenge? How often are they engaged in bold disobe dience to their parents or teachers ? ; And whence does this arise? What is the root that brings forth such early bitter fruit? (p. 42, 43.)

“It cannot be imputed to cụstom,i education, pr ex. ample ji for many of these things appear in children before they can take any notice of ill examples, or are capable of imitating them. And even where there are only good examples about them, and where the best and earliest instructions are given them, and inculcated with the utmost care, yet their hearts run astray from God. The far greatest

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