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النشر الإلكتروني

proper arc the tomb mosques. Of these, the most important and most imposing is that of Kazemain, in the northern suburb of the western city. Here arc buried the seventh and ninth of the successors of Ali, recognized by Shi'as, namely Musa Ibn Ja'far el-Kazim, and his grandson, Mahommcd Ibn Ali cl-Jawad. In its present form this mosque dates from the iqth century. The two great domes above the tombs, the four lofty minarets and part of the facade of this shrine, arc overlaid with gold, and from whatever direction the traveler approaches Bagdad, its glittering domes and minarets are the. first objects .which meet his eye. It is one of the four great shrines of the Shi'ile Moslems in the vilayet of Bagdad. Christians are not allowed to enter its precincts, and the population of the Kazcmain quarter is so fanatical that it is difficult and even dangerous to approach it.

In the suburb of Muazzam, on the western side of the river, is the tomb of Abu I^anifa (?.p.), the canon lawyer. There is a large mosque with a painted dome connected with this tomb, which is an object of veneration to the Sunni Moslems, but it seems cheap and unworthy in comparison with the magnificent shrine of Kazemain. On the same side of the river, lower down, is the shrine of Abd al-Qadir al-JUani (of Jilan), founder of the Qadirite (Kadaria) sect of dervishes, also a noted place of pilgrimage. The original tomb was erected about A.d. 1253, but the present fine dome above the grave is later by at least two or three centuries. The possessor or controller of this wealthy mosque is the nakib, locally pronounced najceb, or marshal of the nobles, whose office is to determine who arc Sc'ids, i.e. entitled to wear the green turban. He is second only to the governor or vali pasha in power, and indeed his influence is often greater than that of the official ruler of the vilayet. Just outside of the wall of the western city lies the tomb and shrine of M.i'ruf Karkhi, dating from A.d. 1215, which also is a place of pilgrimage. Close to this stands the so-called tomb of Sitte Zobeidc (Zobaida), with its octagonal base and pineapple dome, one of the most conspicuous and curious objects in the neighbourhood of Bagdad. Unfortunately it is rapidly falling into decay. K. Niebuhr reports that in his day (a .D. 1750) this tomb bore an inscription setting forth that Aycsha Khanum, the wife of the governor of Bagdad, was buried here in 1488, her grave having been made in the ancient sepulchre of the lady Zobeide (Zobaida), granddaughter of Caliph Mansur and wife of Harun al-Rashid, who died in A.d. 831. The tomb was restored at the time of her burial, at which date it was already ancient, and it was evidently believed to be the tomb of Zobeide. Contemporary historians, however, state that Zobeide was actually buried in Kazcmain, and moreover, early writers, who describe the neighbouring tomb and shrine of Ma'ruf Karkhi, make no reference to this monument.

About 3 m. west of Bagdad, on the Euphrates road, in or by a grove of trees, stands the shrine and tomb of Nabi Yusha or Kohen Yusha, a place of monthly pilgrimage to the Jews, who believe it to be the place of sepulture of Joshua, son of Josedech, the high priest at the close of the exilian period. This is one of four similar Jewish shrines in Irak; the others being the tomb of Ezra on the Shatt el-Arab near Korna, the tomb of Ezekiel in the vUlage of Kefil near Kufa, and the well of Daniel near Hillah. This shrine is also venerated by Moslems, who call it the tomb of Yusuf (Joseph). The Jews bury here their chief priests, a right the Moslems at times contest, and in 1889 a serious conflict between Jews and Moslems resulted from an attempt of the former to exercise this right

There arc said to be about thirty kkant or caravanserais in Bagdad for the reception ol pilgrims and merchants and their goods, none of which is of any importance as a building, with the single exception of the khan el-Aurtmeh adjoining the Marjanieh mosque, to which it formerly belonged. This dates from A.d. 1356, and is said to occupy the site of an ancient Christian church. I ts vaul ted roof is a fine spcci men of Saracenic brickwork. In recent years the demands of modern travel have led to the establishment of a hotel, which affords comfortable accommodation according to European method*.. There is

also an English club-house. Then are laid to be about fifty baths in Bagdad, but in general they are inferior {h construction and accommodation. The bazaars of Bagdad are extensive and well stocked, and while not so fine in construction as those of some other Eastern cities, they arc more interesting in their contents and industries, because Bagdad has on the whole been less affected by foreign innovations. Several of the basaan are vaulted over with brickwork, but the greater number an merely covered with flat beams which support roofs of dried leaves or branches of trees and grass. The streets of the entire business section of the city arc roofed over in this manner, and in the summer months the shelter from the sun is very grateful, but in the winter these streets are extremely trying to the foreign visitor, owing to their darkness and their damp and chilly atmosphere.

Bagdad is about 500 m. from the Persian Gulf, following the course of the river. It maintains steam communication with Basra, its port, which is situated on the Shatt el-Arab, somewhat more than 50 m. from the Persian Gulf, by means of two lines of steamers, one English and one Turkish. British steamers were first placed upon the Tigris as a result of the expedition of Colonel F. R. Chcsncy, in 1836. Since that time, a British gunboat has been stationed before the residency, and British steamers have been allowed to navigate the river. Only two of these, however, maintain a weekly connexion with Basra, and they are quite inadequate to the freight frame between the two cities. The more numerous vessels of the Turkish service arc so small, so inadequately equipped and so poorly handled, that they arc used for either passenger or freight transport only by those who cannot secure the services of the British steamers. The navigation of the Tigris during the greater party of its course from Bagdad to Korna is slow and uncertain. The river, running through an absolutely flat country, composed entirely of alluvial soil, is apt to change its channel. In flood lime the country at places becomes a huge lake, through which it is extremely difficult to find the channel. In the dry season, the autumn and winter, on the other hand, there is danger of grounding on the constantly shifting flats and shoals. To add to the uncertainties of navigation, the inhabitants along the eastern bank of the.strcam frequently dig new canals for irrigation purposes, which both reduces the water of the river and tends to make it shift its channel. Above Bagdad there are no steamers on the Tigris, but sailing vessels of 50 tons and more navigate the river to Samarra and beyond. The characteristic craft for local service in the immediate environment of Bagdad is the ku/a, a circular boat of basket-work covered with bitumen, often of a size sufficient to carry five or six hones and a dozen men. These boats have been employed from the remotest antiquity through all this region, and arc often depicted on the old Assyrian monuments. Equally ancient arc the rafts called kcllek, constructed of inflated goat-skins, covered with a framework of wood, often supporting a small house for passengers, which descend the Tigris from above Diarbekr. The wood of these rafts is sold in Bagdad, and constitutes, in fact, the chief supply of wood in that city.

Bagdad also lies on a natural line of communication between Persia and the west, the ancient caravan route from Kborasan debouching from the mountains at this point, while another natural caravan route led up the Euphrates to Syria and the Mediterranean and still another up the Tigris to Armenia and the Black Sea. It was its situation at the centre ol the lines of communication between India and Persia and the west, both by bnd and water, which gave the city its great importance in early times.- With the change of the methods of transportation its importance has naturally declined. The trade of Persia with the west now passes either through the ports of the Persian Gulf or northward over Trcbizond, while India communicates with the west directly through the Suez Canal. Bagdad is, therefore, a decayed city. Money is scarce among all classes, and the wages of common labourers arc scarcely half what is paid in Syria. It is still, however, the centre of distribution for a very large, if scantily populated, country, and it alsu derives much profit from pilgrims, lying as it does on the route which Sfai'Ue pilgrims (com Persia must take on their way to the sacred cities. It also possesses important shrines of its own which cause many pilgrims to linger there, and wealthy Indians not infrequently choose Bagdad as a suitable spot in which to end their days in the odour of sanctity. There has also sprung up of late years considerable direct trade between the European and American markets and Bagdad, and several foreign houses, especially English, have established themselves there. Germany also has invaded this market.

The staple articles of export arc hides, wool and dates. The export trade of Bagdad amounts to about £750,000 annually, and the import trade to about £2,000,000. The imports consist of ofl, cheap cottons, shoes and other similar goods, which art taking the place of the picturesque native manufactures. Even the Bedouin Arabs wear headdresses of cheap European cotton stuff purchased in Bagdad or thereabouts, while the common water vessels throughout the country are five-gallon petroleum tins, which also furnish metal for the manufacture of various utensils in the native bazaars.

Bagdad b in communication with Europe by means of two lines of telegraph, one British and one Turkish, and two postal services. There is a British consul-general, who is also political agent to the Indian government, His state is second only to that of the British ambassador at Constantinople. Besides the gunboat in the river, he has a guard of sepoys, and there is an Indian post-office in the residency. Formerly the British government maintained a camel-post across the desert to Damascus. This was abandoned about 1880 when the Turks established a similar service. By means of the Turkish camel-post letters reached Damascus in nine days. There is also a Russian consulgeneral at Bagdad, and French, Austrian and American consuls.

The Euphrates Valley (or Bagdad) railway scheme, which had previously been discussed, was brought forward prominently in 1800, and Russian proposals to undertake it were rejected. British proposals followed, but were opposed by the Germans, who, as controlling the line to Konia in Asia Minor, claimed preference in the matter. A provisional convention was granted to a German company by the Porte, and an irade was obtained in iooj. In 1003 there was considerable discussion as to the placing of the line under international control, and the question arcosed special interest in England in view of the short route which the line would provide to India, in connexion with fast steamship services in the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf. It was decided by the British government that the proposals made to this effect did not oOcr sufficient security. The financial arrangement as finally agreed upon was that German financiers should control 40 % of the capital of the line; French (through the Imperial Ottoman Bank), 30%; Austrian, Swiss, Italian and Turkish, 20%; and the Anatolian Railway Company, 10%. In 1004 the line was completed from Konia through Eregli to Bulgurli. In 1908 an irade sanctioned the extension •eras the Taurus to Adana, and so to Hcltf near Manlin (522 m.).

The population of Bagdad is estimated variously from 70,000 to 900,000; perhaps halfway between may represent approximately the reality. More than two-thirds of the population arc Moslems, mostly Shi'as, with the exception of the official classes. There are about 34,000 Jews occupying a quarter of their own In the north-western part of the dty; while in a neighbouring quarter dwell upwards of 6000 Christians, chiefly so-called Chaldacans or Nestorians. The Carmelites maintain a mission in Bagdad, as docs also the (English) Church Missionary Society. The Jews are the only part of the population who are provided with schools. A school for boys was established by the Alliance laatiitt in iS6$, and one for girls in 1809. Besides these, there is also an apprentice school for industrial training.

The Jews constitute the wealthiest and most intelligent portion ot the population. A large part of the foreign trade is in their hands, and at the season of the sheep-shearing their agents and rep cscntatives are found everywhere among the Bedouins and HWdu Arabs of the interior, purchasing the wool and selling various commodities in return. They are the bankers of the wun i;y, and it is through their communications that the traveller

a able to obtain credit. They are also the dealers in antiquities, both genuine and fraudulent. Next to them in enterprise and prosperity are the Persians. The porters of the town arc all Kurds, the river-men Chaldacan Christians. Every nation retains its peculiar dress. The characteristic, but by no means attractive, street dress of the Moslem women of the belter class comprises a black horse-hair visor completely covering the face and projecting like an enormous beak, the nether extremities being encased in yellow boots reaching to the knee and fully displayed by the method of draping the garments in front.

Bagdad is governed by a pasha, assisted by a council. The pasha and the higher officials in general come from Constantinople, but a very large portion of the other Turkish officials seem to come from the town of Kcrkuk. They constitute a class quite distinct from the native Arab population, and they and the Turkish government in general arc intensely unpopular among the Arabs, an unpopularity increased by their religious differences, the Arabs being as a rule Shi'itcs, the Turks Sunnitcs. Besides the court of superior officers, which assists the pasha in the general administration of the province, there is also a mejlts or mixed tribunal for the settlement of municipal and commercial affairs, to which both Christian and Jewish merchants arc admitted. Besides these, there arc the religious heads of the community, especially the nakib and Jewish high priest, who possess an undefined and extensive authority in their own communities. The Jewish chief priest may be said to be the successor of the cxilarck or resit galuttm of the earlier period.

History.—There are in or near Bagdad a few remains of a period antedating Islam, the most conspicuous of which arc the ruins of the palace of Chosrocs at Ctesiphon or Madain, about IS m. below Bagdad on the cast side of the river. Almost equally conspicuous, and a landmark through the whole region, is the ruin called Akcrkuf, in the desert, about 9 m. westward of Bagdad. This consists of a huge tower of unburncd brick resting on a small hill of debris, the whole rising to a height of 100 ft. or more above the plain, in the centre of a network of ancient canals. Inscribed bricks found in the neighbourhood seem to connect this ruin with Kurigalzu, king of Babylon about 1300 B.c. Under substantially its present name, Akukafa, it is mentioned as a place of importance in connexion with the canals as late as the Abbasid caliphate. Within the limits of the city itself, on the west bank of the Tigris, are the remains of a quay, first observed by Sir Henry Rawlinson, at a period of low water, in 1849, built of bricks laid in bitumen, and bearing an inscription of Nebuchadrezzar, king of Babylon. Baghdadu was an ancient Babylonian city, dating back perhaps as far as 2000 B.c., the name occurring in lists in the library of Assur-bani-pal. It is also mentioned on the Michaux stone, found on the Tigris near the site of the present city, and dating from the time of TiglathPileser I. (noo B.c.) The quay of Nebuchadrezzar, mentioned above, establishes the fact that this ancient city of Baghdadu was located on the site of western or old Bagdad (see further under Caliphate: AbbaMs, sections a foil.). References in the Jewish Talmud show that this city still continued to exist at and after the commencement of our era; but according to Arabian writers, at the time when the Arab city of Bagdad was founded by the caliph Mansur, there was nothing on that site except an old convent. One may venture to doubt the literal accuracy of this statement. It is clear that the ancient name, at least, still held firm possession of the site and was hence inherited by the new city.

The Arab city, the old or round city of Bagdad, was founded by the caliph Mansur of the Abbasid dynasty on the west side of the Tigris just north of the Isa canal in A.d. 762. It was a mile in diameter, built in concentric circles, with the mosque and palace of the caliph in the centre, and had four gates toward the four points of the compass. It grew with great rapidity. The suburb of Rusafa, on the eastern bank, sprang up almost immediately, and after the siege and capture of the round city by M.'rum, in 814, this became the most important part of the capital. The period of the greatest prosperity of Bagdad was the period from its foundation until the death of Mamun, the successor of Harun, in 833. During this period the city, including both sides of the river, was 5 m. across within the walls, and it i. saiil to have had a population of 2,000,000 souls. In Literature, art and science, it divided the supremacy of the world with Cordova; in commerce and wealth it far surpassed that city. How its splendour impressed the imagination may be seen from the stories of the Arabian Nights. It was the religious capital of all Islam, and the political capital of the greater part of it, at a time when Islam bore the same relation to civilization which Christendom does to-day. As in Spanish Islam, so in the lands of the eastern caliphate, the Jews were treated relatively with favour. The scat of the cxilarck or mh galulha was transferred from Pumbedita(Pumbcdithaor Pombcditha) in Babylonia to Bagdad, which thus became the capital of oriental Judaism; from then to the present day the Jews have played no mean part in Bagdad.

Situated in a region where there is no stone, and practically no timber, Bagdad was built, like all the cities of the Babylonian plain, of brick and tiles. Its buildings depended for their effect principally on mass and gorgeous colouring. Like old Babylon, also, Bagdad was celebrated throughout the world for its brilliantcoloured textile fabrics. So famous was the silk of Bagdad, manufactured in the Attabieh quarter (named after Attab, a contemporary of the Prophet), that the place-name passed over into Spanish, Italian, French and finally into English in the form of " tabby," as the designation of a rich-coloured watered silk. Depending on coloured tiles and gorgeous fabrics for their rich effects, nothing of the buildings of the times of Harun al-Rashid or Mamun, once counted so magnificent, have come down to us. All have perished in the numerous sieges and inundations which have devastated the city.

With the rise of the Turkish body-guard under Mamun's successor, Mo'tassirn, began the downfall of the Abbasid dynasty, and with it of the Abbasid capital, Bagdad. Mo'tassim founded Samarra, and for fifty-eight years caliph and court deserted Bagdad (see Caliphate, sect. C). Then, in A.d. 865, Mosta'in, attempting to escape from the tyranny of the Turkish guard, fled back again to Bagdad. The attempt was futile, Bagdad was besieged and taken, and from that time until their final downfall the Abbasid caliphs were mere puppets, while the real rulers were successively the Turkish guard, the Buyids and the Scljuks. But during all this period the caliphs continued to be the religious heads of Islam and their residence its capital. Bagdad, accordingly, although fallen from its first eminence, continued to be a city of the first rank, and during most of that period still the richest and most splendid city in the world. Its religious importance is attested by the number of its great shrines dating from those times; as for its wealth and size, while, as stated above, few remains of the actual buildings of that period survive, we still have abundant records describing their character, their size and their position. With the last century of the caliphates began a more rapid decline. From the records of that period it seems that the present city is identical in the position of its walls and the space occupied by the town proper with Bagdad at the close of the 13th century, the period when this rapid decline had already advanced so far that the western city is described by travellers as almost in ruins, and the eastern half as containing large uninhabited spaces. With the capture of the city by the Mongols, under Hulagu (Hulaku), the grandson of Jenghiz Khan, in 1258, and the extinction of the Abbasid caliphate of Bagdad, its importance as the religious centre of Islam passed away, and it ceased to be a city of the first rank, although the glamour of its former grandeur still clung to it, so that even to-day in Turkish official documents it is called the " glorious city."'.

The Tatars retained possession of Bagdad for a century and a half, until about A.d. 1400. Then it was taken by Timur, from whom the sultan Ahmod Ben Avis 6cd, and, finding refuge with the Greek emperor, contrived later to repossess himself of the city, whence he was finally expelled by Kara Yusuf of the KaraKuyunli (" Black Sheep ") Mongols in ui". About 1468 the descendants of the latter were driven out by U.-un Hasan or Cassim of the Ak-Kuyunlt (" White Sheep ") Mongols. He and

his descendants reigned in Bagdad until Shah Ismail I., the founder of the Safawid royal house of Persia, made himself mistrr of the place (c. 1502 or 1508). From that time it continued (or a long period an object of contention between the Turks and the Persians. It was taken by Suleiman I. the Magnificent and retaken by Shah Abbas the Great, in 1620. Eighteen years later, in 1638, it was besieged by 'Sultan Mm.nl IV., with *n army of 300,000 men and, after an obstinate resistance, forced to surrender, when, in defiance of the terms of capitulation, most of the inhabitants were massacred.

Since that period it has remained nominally a part of the Turkish empire; but with the decline of Turkish power, thd the general disintegration of the empire, in the first half of the i8th century, a then governor-general, Ahmed Pasha, made it in independent pashalic. Nadir Shah, the able and energetic usurper of the Persian throne, attempting to annex the province once more to Persia, besieged the city, but Ahmed defended it with such courage that the invader was compelled to raise the siege, after suffering grc.it loss. Turkish authority over the pashalic was again restored in the first part of the loth century

Authorities.—Allen's Indian Mail (1874); J. S. llurkim;!, ,m Travels in Mesopotamia (1827); Sir R. K. Porter. Travels in Georgia, Persia. Armenia and Ancient Babylonia (1821-1822); I. M. Kinncir. Geographical Memoir of the Persian l-.mpire (1813); F. R. Chcsncy. Expedition (1850); J. B. L. J. Ruy>yrau. Description dii pafhulik de Bagdad (1809): J. R. Wcllslcd. City of the Caliphs; A. N. Groves. Residence in Baghdad (1830-1832); Transaction! of Bombay fjeag. Sac. (1856); G. Ic Strange, Description ot Mesopotamia and Baghdad about fi.p. Qoo; "Greek Embassy to Baghdad in A.D. 917," in Journal Royal Asiatic Society, 1895. 1897': Baghdad under thf Abbasid Caliphate (1901). (H. C. R ; J. P. Ph.)

BAG6, a town and municipality of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, about 176 m. by rail W.N.W. of the city of RioCrande do Sul. Pop. of the municipality (1800) 22,692. It is situated in a hilly region 774 ft. above sea-level, and is the commercial centre of a large district on the Uruguayan border in which pastoral occupations arc largely predominant. This region is tha watershed for southern Rio Grande do Sul, from which streams flow E. and S.E. to the Atlantic coast, and N.W. and S.W. to the Uruguay river. The town dates from colonial times, and has always been considered a place of military imjtortance because of its nearness to the Uruguay frontier, only 25m. distant. It was captured by the Argentine general Lavatlc in 1827, and figured conspicuously in most of the civil wars of Argentina. It is also much frequented by Uruguayan revolutionists.

BAGEHOT. WALTER (1826-1877), English publicist and economist, editor of the Economist newspaper from 1860 to his death, was born at Langport, Somerset, on the 3rd of February 1826, his father being a banker at that place. Bagehot was altogether a remarkable personality, his writings on different subjects exhibiting the samebcnt of mind and characteristics,—philosophic reflectiveness, practical common-sense, a bright and buoyant humour, brilliant wit and always a calm and tolerant judgment of men and things. Though he belonged to the Liberal party in politics he was essentially of conservative disposition, and often spoke with .sarcastic boastfulness to his Liberal friends of the stupidity and tenacity of the English mind in adhering to old ways, as displayed in city and country alike. His life wu comparatively uneventful, as he early gave up to literature the energies which might have gained him a large fortune in business or a great position in the political world. He took his degree at the London University in 1848, and was called to the bar in 1852, but from an early date he joined his father in th« banking business of Stuckey & Co. in the west of England, and during a great part of his life, while he was editor of the Economist, he managed the London agency of the bank, lending its surplus money in " Lombard Street," and otherwise attending to its London affairs. He became also an underwriter at Lloyd's, taking no part, however, in the active detailed business, which was done for him by proxy.

Bagchot's connexion with the Etenomiil began in 1858, about which time he married a daughter of llie first editor, the Right Hon. James Wilson, at that time secretary of the treasury, and afterwards secretary of finance in India. Partly through thi> connexion he was brought into the inside of the political life of the lime. He was an intimate friend of Sir George Comewall Lewis, and was afterwards in constant communication with many of the political chiefs, especially with Gladstone, Robert Lowe and Grant Duff, and with the permanent heads of the great departments of slate. In the city in the same way he was intimate with the governor and directors of the Bank of England, and with leading magnates in the banking and commercial world; while his connexion with the Political Economy Club brought him into contact in another way with both city and politics. Mil active life in business and politics, however, was not of so absorbing a kind 'as to prevent his real devotion to literature, but the literature largely grew out of his activities, and of no one can it be said more truly than of Bagehot that the atmosphere in which he lived gave tone and colour and direction to his studies, one thing of course acting and reacting on another. The special note of his books, apart from his remarkable gift of conversational epigrammatic style, which gives a peculiar zest to the writing, is the quality of scientific dispassionate description of matters which were hardly thought of previously as subjects of scientific study. This is specially the case with the two books which perhaps brought him the most reputation. The English Clmililvtiim (1867) and Lombard Strut (187.5). They are both books of observation and description. The English constitution is described, not from law books and as a lawyer would describe it, but from the actual working, as Bagehot himself had witnessed ir, in his contact with ministers and the heads of government departments, and with the life of the society in which the politicians moved. The true springs and method of action are consequently described with a vivid freshness which gives the book a wonderful charm, and makes it really a new departure in the study of politics. 11 is the same with/..«'.• V»''•'.'>>•<.' The money market is there pictured as it really was in 1850-1870, and as Bagehot saw it with philosophic eyes. Beginning with the sentence, " The objects which you see in Lombard Street arc the Bank of England, the joint stock banks, the private banks and the discount houses," he describes briefly and clearly the respective functions of these different bodies in the organism of the city, according to his own close observation as a banker himself, knowing the ways and thoughts of (he men he describes, and as a man of business likewise in other ways, knowing at first hand the relation of banking to the trade and commerce of the country. Lombard Street is perhaps a riper work than Tke Engl^h CmlilHtim, as Its foundation was really laid in 1858 in a series of articles which Bagehot then wrote in the Economist, though it was not published till the early 'seventies, after it had been twice rewritten and revised with infinite labour and care. Lombard Street, like The English Constitution in political studies, is thus a new departure in economic and financial studies, applying the same sort of keen observation which Adam Smith used in the analysis of business generally to the special business of banking and finance in the complex modern world. It is, perhaps, not going too far to say that the whole theory of a one-reserve system of bonking and how to work it, and of the practical means of fixing an " apprehension minimum " below which the njserve should not fall, originated in Lombard Strcrt and the articles which were the foundation of it; and the subsequent conduct of banking in England and throughout the world has been infinitely better and safer in consequence. A like note is also struck in Physio and Polilict (1860), which isa description of the evolution of communities of men. The materials here are derived mainly from books, the surface to be observed being so extensive, but the attitude is precisely the same, that of a scientific observer. To a certain extent the Physits and Politics had even a more remarkable influence on opinion, at least on foreign opinion, than Tfit English Constitution or Lombard Street. It " caught on " as a development of the theory of evolution in a nfw direction, and Darwin himself was greatly interested, while one of Ihe pleasures of Bagehot's later yean was to receive a translation of the book into the Russian language. In Literary Xtudiei (1870) and Rivnomir Studies (1880), published after his i, there is more scope than in the books already mentioned


for other characteristics besides those of the scientific observer, but observation always comes to the front, as in the account of Ricardo, whom Bagehot describes as often, when he is most theoretical, really describing what a first-rate man of business would do and think in actual transactions. The observation, of course, is that of a type of business man in the city to which Ricardo as well as Bagehot belonged, though Ricardo could hardly look at it from the outside as Bagehot was able to do.

Bagehot had great city, political and literary influence, to which all his activities contributed, and much of his influence was lasting. In politics and economics especially his habit of scientific observation affected the tone of discussion, and both the English constitution and the money market have been better understood generally because he. wrote and talked and diffused his ideas in every possible way. He was unsuccessful in two or three attempts to enter parliament, but he had the in8uence of far more than an ordinary member, as director of the Economist and as the adviser behind the scenes of the ministers and pcrmanent heads of departments who consulted him. His death, on the 24th of March 1877, occurred at Langport very suddenly, when he was in the fullest mental vigour and might have looked forward to the accomplishment of much additional work and the exercise of even wider influence.

It is impossible to give a full idea of the brightness and life of Bagehot's conversation, although the conversational style of his writing may help those who did not know him personally to understand it. With winged words he would transfix a fallacy or stamp a true idea so that it could not be forgotten. He was certainly greater than his books and always full of ideas. The present writer recalls two notions he had, not for writing new books himself, but as something that might be done. One was that there might be a history of recent politics with new lights if some one were to do it who knew the family connexions and history of English politicians. This was apropos of the passage of a certain bill through parliament, when the head of the department in the House of Commons failed and the management of the measure was taken by the chancellor of the exchequer himself, a relative of the permanent head of the department concerned, who was thus able to carry his own ideas in legislation notwithstanding the failure of his political chief. Another book he wished to sec written was an account of the differences in the administrative systems of England and Scotland, by which he had been greatly impressed, the differences not being in detail, but in fundamental idea and in form, so that no judicial or other officers in the one were represented in the other by corresponding functionaries. Many other illustrations might be given of his fulness of ideas which helped to make him an ideal editor. Reference must also be made to the assistance which Bagehot gave as a journalist to the study of statistics. From the manipulation of figures he was most averse, and he rather boasted that he was unable to add up. But he was a most excellent mathematician, and no one could be so careful as he was about the logic of the figures got together for bis articles, which he always most carefully scrutinized. He would frequently point out that his figures were illustrative merely, and did not by themselves establish an argument. He was always anxious, again, to impress on those about him that a subject could riot be studied with the help of figures and accounts alone. Whether it was insurance, or banking, or underwriting, or shipowning, he insisted that some one who knew the business should sec the writing before it was published. Knowing so many departments of business from actual experience, he was a host in himself as referee, but when in doubt he would always consult some one who knew the facts; and he used his great influence so well that in subsequent years it inspired indirectly not a few who were hardly aware of his claims to be a statistician at all. (R. Gm.)

BAGELKHAND, or Bachelkhand, a tract of country in central India, occupied by a collection of native states. The Hagelkhand agency is under the political superintendence of the governor-general's agent for centra) India, and under the direct jurisdiction of a political agent who is also superintendent of the Rcwa state, residing ordinarily at Sutna or Rcwa. The agency consists of Rcwa state and eleven minor states and estates, of which the more important are Maihar, Nagodc aud Sohawal. The total area is 14,323 sq. m.. and the population in 1901 was 1,555,024, showing a decrease of II % in the decade, due to the results of famine. The rainfall was very deficient in 1895-1897, causing famine in 1897; and in 1899-1000 there was drought in some sections. The agency was established in March 1871. Until that date Bagclkhand was under the Bundelkhand agency, with which it is geographically and historically connected; a general description of the country will be found under that heading. According to Wilson, in hit Glossary of Indian Terms, the Baghelas, who give their name to this tract of country, are a branch of the Sisodbyia Rajputs who migrated eastward and once ruled in Gujarat.

BAGGARA ("Cowherds"), African "Arabs" of Semitic origin, so called because they are great cattle owners and breeders. They occupy the country west of the White Nile between the Shilluk territory and Dar Nuba, being found principally in Kordofan. They arc true nomad-Arabs, having intermarried little with the Nuba, and have preserved most of their national characteristics. The date of their arrival in the Sudan is uncertain: they appear to have drifted up* the Nile valley and to have dispossessed the original Nuba population, A purely pastoral people, they move from pasture to pasture, as food becomes deficient. The true Baggara tribesmen employ oxen as saddle and pack animals, carry no shield, and though many possess firearms the customary weapons are lance and sword. They have always had the reputation of being resolute fighters. Engaged from the earliest times in the slave trade, they were among the first, as they were certainly the most fervent, supporters of the mahdi when he rose in revolt against the Egyptians (1882). They constituted his real fighting force, and to their fanatical courage his victories were due. Their decision to follow him out of their own country to Khartum brought about the fall of that city. The mahdi's successor, the khalifa Abdullah, was a Baggara, and throughout his rule the tribe held the first place in his favour. They have been described as "men who look the fiends they really arc—of most sinister expression, with murder and every crime speaking from their savage eyes. Courage is their only good quality." They arc famous, too, as hunters of big game, attacking even elephants wilh sword and spear. G. A. Schweinfurth declares them the best-looking of the Nile nomads, and the men are types of physical beauty, with fine heads, erect athletic bodies and sinewy limbs. There is little that is Semitic in their appearance. Their skins vary in colour from a dark red-brown to a deep black; but their features arc regular and free of negro characteristics. In mental power they are much superior to the indigenous races around them. They have a passion for fine clothes and ornaments, tricking themselves out with glass trinkets, rings and articles of ivory and horn. Their mode of hair-dressing (mop-fashion) earned them, in common with the Hadcndoa, the name of " Fuzzy-wuzzies" among the British soldiers in the campaigns of 1884-98.

See G. A. Schwci

Mahdism and Ike .. .... „—-,,,

edited by Count Gleichcn (1905); A. H. Keanc, i.lhnol<igy oj the Egyptian Sudan (1884).

BAGGESEK. JENS IMMANDEL (1764-1826), Danish poet, was born on the isth of February 1764 at Korsar. His parents were very poor, and before he was twelve he was sent to copy documents at the office of the clerk of the district. He was a melancholy, feeble child, and before this he had attempted suicide more than once. By dint of indomitable perseverance, he managed to gain an education, and in 1782 entered the university of Copenhagen. His success as a writer was coeval with his earliest publication; his Comical Tales in verse, poems that recall the Broad Grins that Colman the younger brought out a decade later, took the town by storm, and the struggling young poet found himself a popular favourite at twenty-one. He then tried serious lyrical writing, and hi* tact, elegance of

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manner and versatility, gained him a pUe* in the best society. This sudden success received a blow in 178)9, when a very poor opera, Holge Danske, which he had produced, was received with mockery and a reaction against him set in. He left Denmark in a rage and spent the next years in Germany, France and Switzerland. He married at Berne in 1790, began to write in German and published in that language his next poem, AI poll iat. In the winter of the same year he returned to hi* mother-country, bringing with him as a peace-offering his fine descriptive poem, the Labyrinth, in Danish, and was received with unbounded homage. The next twenty years were spent in incessant restless wanderings over the north of Europe, Paris latterly becoming his nominal home. He continued to publish volumes alternately in Danish and German. Of the latter the most important was the idyllic epos in hexameters colled Partkenais (iSoj). In. 1806 he returned to Copenhagen to find the young Ohlcn&chliigcr installed as the great poet of the day, and he himself beginning to lose his previously unbounded popularity. Until 1820 he resided in Copenhagen, in almost unceasing literary feud with some one or other, abusing and being abused, the most important feature of the whole being Baggcsen'a determination not to allow 'hlcnichligcr to be considered a greater poet than himself. He then left Denmark for the last time and went back to his beloved Paris, where he lost his second wife and youngest child in 1822, and after the miseries of an imprisonment for debt, fell at last into a state of hopeless melancholy madness. Id 1826, having slightly recovered, he wished to sec Denmark once more, but died in the freemasons' hospital at Hamburg on his way, on the 3rd of October, and was buried at Kiel. His manysided talents achieved success in all forms of writing, but his domestic, philosophical and critical works have long ceased to occupy attention. A little more power of restraining hii egotism and passion would have made him one of the wiuictt and keenest of modern satirists, and his comic poems arc deathless. The Danish literature owes Baggcscn a great debt for the firmness, polish and form which he introduced into it—his style being always finished and elegant. With all his faults he stands as the greatest figure between Holberg and Ohlcnschliigcr. Of all his poems, however, the loveliest and best is a little simple song, There Vfas a lime when I was very tittle, which every Dane, high or low, knows by heart, and which is matchless in its simplicity and pathos. It has outlived all his epics. (£. G.)

BAGGING, the name given to the textile stuff used for making bags (see also Sacking and Tarpaulin). The material used was originally Baltic hemp, white in the beginning of the igth century Sunn hemp or India hemp was also employed. Alodcrn requirements call for so many different types of bagging that it is not surprising to find all kinds of fibres used for this purpose. Most bagging is now made from yarns of the jute fibre. The cloth is, in general, woven wilh the plain weave, and the warp threads run in pairs, but large quantities of bags arc made from cloths with single warp threads. In both cases the weave used for the cloth is that shown at A in the figure, but when double threads of warp are used, the arrangement is c< equivalent to the weave shown at B. The interlacings of the two sets of warp and weft for single and double warp are 0 shown respectively at C and D, the black marks indicating the warp threads, and the white or blanks showing the weft. The particular style of bagging depends, naturally, upon the kind of material it is intended to hold. The coarsest type of bagging is perhaps that known as "cotton bagging," which derives its name from the fact that it is used in the manufacture of bags for transporting taw cotton from the United States of America. It is a heavy fabric 42 in. wide, and weighs from 2 to 2\ tb per yard. A similar, but rather finer make, is used for Sea Island and other fine cotton, and for any species of fibrous material; but for grain, spices, sugar, flour, coffee, manure, &c., the threads of warp and weft must lie closer, and the warp is usually single. For transporting such

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