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of difficulties and dangers at nearly every step

scented like vanilla. Another crinum has since been of the way, she always persevered, almost al

called Northiana, after myself. It has a magnificent

flower, growing almost in the water, each plant becomways finding the difficulties vanish as she ap

ing an island at high tide, with beautiful reflections proached the spot. It was after she had already

under it, and its perfect white petals enriched by the travelled extensively, and had made arrange bright pink stamens which hang over them.” ments for transferring her collection to Kew, The Australian tour was an inexhaustible that she met Charles Darwin for the first time. series of delights. At one point, she found In her eyes, as in the eyes of many, he was the twenty-five different species of wild-flowers in greatest man living, and she was much flattered ten minutes, close to the house where she was at his wish to see her. When he told her that stopping, and painted them. In Western Aushe thought she ought not to attempt any rep tralia were flowers such as she had never seen resentation of the vegetation of the world until nor dreamed of before, the whole country being she had seen and painted that of Australia, a natural flower-garden, where she could wanbecause of its unlikeness to any other, she de der for miles and miles among the bushes and termined to take it as a royal command and never meet a soul. Most of the flowers were to go at once. .

very small and delicate ; it was impossible to On the way thither, she took occasion to paint half of them, and the only difficulty was make another visit at Borneo. On her first to choose. visit, she had found pitcher-plants growing The Australian journey ended, a year was wild and winding themselves amongst the trop spent in fitting and framing and patching and ical bracken of the untouched forest. The pic sorting the pictures, the building at Kew havtures of it which she had carried home had leding been completed during her absence. It to sending out a traveller for the seeds from was opened to the public June 7, 1882. which plants had been raised in England, Sir It might naturally be expected that a woman Joseph Hooker naming the species Nepenthes who was fifty years old, somewhat deaf, and Northiana. At a state dinner with which she not a little broken in health, would now be was honored on her present return to Borneo, content to stay at home, enjoying the fruit of the whole centre of the table was covered with her own labors and intercourse with persons of pitcher-plants enough to make the fortune of similar tastes. But there was still one contian English nurseryman, but which were little nent — Africa -- without representation in her appreciated in their native country. But more gallery, and she resolved to begin painting memorable than this dinner festivity was an there without loss of time. Two months after other day in Borneo, which is so favorable an the opening of the gallery she was on her way illustration of the manner in which the unex- to South Africa, and soon hard at work again pected constantly happened to our traveller that in the ways she loved best. Here, as in Ausan account of it shall be given in her own tralia, she was overwhelmed by the extraordiwords:

nary novelty and variety of the different spe“One morning I picked a huge branch of the petræa cies ; it seemed impossible to paint fast enough meaning to spend the day in painting it, though it was in a land where the hills were covered with low so common there, when I came on a lovely spray of

bushes, heaths, sundews, geraniums, lobelias, white orchid and picked it grudgingly to paint, then suddenly found that every tree was loaded with the

salvias, babanias and other bulbs, daisies growsame, and the boathouse roof looked as if there had ing into trees, purple broom, polygalas, tritobeen a sudden snowstorm. The air was scented with mas, and crimson velvet hyobanche. it, so I got more, and when I reached the house found

With only brief periods of rest at home, two the drawing-room full of it. They called it the Turong Bird, and said it came out spontaneously into bloom

more long voyages followed, -one to Seychelles three times in the year, and only lasted a day, and that

Islands, and another to Western South AmerI must be quick and draw it, for I should find none the ica. Just before starting on the last one, a next day. It was true; the next day the lovely flowers great pleasure came to her in a letter from were hanging like rags.

the Queen expressing her appreciation of Miss “When I went to finish another sketch, I was astounded at the sight of a huge lily, with white face and

North's benefaction to the English nation, and pink stalks and backs, resting its heavy head on the regretting her inability to make a public recground. It grew from a single-stemmed plant, with ognition of it (by knighthood or otherwise). grand curved leaves above the flower, and was called Such an interesting personality as this enerthere the Brookiana lily, but Kew magnates call it

getic and scholarly woman could not fail to Crinum augustum ; its head was two feet across, and I had to take a smaller specimen to paint, in order to

attract to herself other interesting personaliget it into my half-sheet of paper life-size. It was ties. There are pleasant pictures of her ac

quaintance with Sir Joseph Hooker, Charles als and Christian evidences; he was the author Darwin, Professor Owen, Asa Gray and his of several text-books, composed chiefly of lecwife, Miss Gordon Cumming, besides many tures prepared for his classes in these subjects; distinguished foreigners and English officials he was an earnest and uplifting preacher of abroad, who were ever ready to serve her in chapel discourses and of solemn baccalaureate all her plans.

sermons; he was president for many years of The book is edited by Mrs. John Addington the American Board of Commissioners for Symonds, the sister of Miss North ; but, ex Foreign Missions ; he was a cheerful Christian cept the last half-dozen pages, scarcely any | theologian, defining faith to be “ confidence in thing has been added by the editor's hand. a personal being,” dwelling but lightly upon

The “ Recollections” end with the year 1886, man's original sin and total depravity, regardwhen from the rural home she had made for ing the incarnation as an expression of God's herself at Alderley she writes :

thought of the value of man, the atonement as “I have found the exact place I wished for, and al the wonderful divine way of purifying those ready my garden is becoming famous among those who whom God could not let go, and election, not love plants; and I hope it may serve to keep my en-.

as the arbitrary choosing of “worms to be emies, the so-called 'nerves,' quiet for the few years which are left me to live. The recollections of my happy

sons,” but the acceptance by God of a being life will also be a help to my old age. No life is so made in his image, on the ground of trust in charming as a country one in England, and no flowers the divine Son, and the foreknowledge that are sweeter or more lovely than the primroses, cows

certain persons would exercise that trust. lips, bluebells, and violets, which grow in abundance all

“A peculiar beauty and sweetness is in the farewell round me here."

words to the class of 1872, the last of thirty-six classes Four years later, at the age of sixty, she graduated under Dr. Hopkins's presidency :-- And died, these last years having been shadowed now, my beloved friends, the time has come when, in by painful illness. But into her life had al some respects, that which has been is to be no longer. ready been compressed work sufficient for the

Not only is the peculiar and most pleasant relation

which has existed between us the past year to cease, lives of four ordinary women. A natural stately

but also the relation which I have so long held to this presence, a simple yet dignified manner, helped college. During the thirty-six years of that relation I her in facing all sorts and conditions of men ; have failed but twice, once from sickness and once she inspired respect everywhere, and found

from absence, to address each successive class as I now

address you. Hereafter other classes will come, aneverywhere persons eager and glad to help her.

other voice will address them, the circular movement She travelled, not to pass the time, but because will go on, but you and I pass into the onward moveshe had a self-appointed task, and she would ment, you to your work, and I to what remains to me not allow herself to rest until she had accom

of mine. Behind us is that past, fixed forever, which

God will require. Before us — what? Definitely I plished it. Her memory is perpetuated through

know not; but I do know that there is One above us the names of five different plants, four of which

whom we may safely trust. I do know that “God is were first figured and introduced by her to Eu love.” Whatever else I hold on to, or give up, I will ropean notice. The Nepenthes Northiana, the hold on to that. That I will not give up. To the God large pitcher-plant of Borneo, appears as a

of love, therefore, who has hitherto been so much bet

ter to me than my fears, do I commit myself; to the cover design on these handsome and thoroughly

God of love do I commend you, every one of you, praying attractive volumes.

that in all your pilgrimage He will bless you and keep Anna B. McMAHAN. yon; that “ He will make his face shine upon you, and

be gracious unto you ; that He will lift up his counte

nance upon you, and give you peace." !" A TYPICAL AMERICAN TEACHER.*

Though most of Dr. Hopkins's published

writings (a list of ninety of which is given at Mark Hopkins, whilom President of Will the end of the book under review) are either iams College,— so well known as President sermons or lectures upon moral or religious Garfield's ideal instructor,— has appropriately

I instructor, — has appropriately questions, yet it is not as a religious leader, found a biographer in Franklin Carter, now but as an educator, as president of Williams ColPresident of Williams College, and a classifi lege, that he is destined to be best known and cation among our “ American Religious Lead longest remembered. His moral, religious, and ers.” President Hopkins was a reverent and philosophical views were not in any sense devout soul, and an inspirer of reverence and epoch-making or in advance of his times, devoutness in others; he was a teacher of mor- perhaps in some respects hardly up with his * MARK HOPKINS. By Franklin Carter. "American Reli

times. Just as he aimed to make of Williams gious Leaders." Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co.

College an eminently safe and sound and wholesome place for the traditional liberal “It was in December when the president started education” of young men, so he aimed to make

out with his manikin carefully packed in the box to go

to his native town, Stockbridge, and there to lecture to of himself an eminently safe and sound and

secure money wherewith to pay for his apparatus. It wholesome instructor, whose views should be was good sleighing, but the box so filled up the sleigh only liberal enough to prevent them from be that the lecturer had to ride with his feet hanging outcoming unattractive or repellant to young

side of the vehicle. It was not a dignified or comfortminds. It might be interesting to trace in

able position for a college president, who was to drive

thirty miles on a cold day, but at this distance of time the development of his own character and

there is something impressive in the picture. That views an evidence of that evolutionary adapta lonely ride, with its stern purpose, is the expression of tion to environment and to the task to be per the solitude and earnestness that marked his career as formed, and of that survival of the fittest,

a college president. It is an epitome of many years

of patient self-denying devotion to the institution to which he rejected and repudiated as Darwinian

which he had given his life, and to depart from which doctrines.

flattering calls to positions of comparative ease did not The amount of strictly biographical matter seem to tempt him. . . It appears that the lectures in Mr. Carter's book is but small. Indeed, were successful so far as the satisfaction of the audi

ence was concerned, but how much threatened still to the work should hardly be called a biography,

come out of the President's salary, at that time about for it is rather a series of detached lectures

$1,100, to pay for the manikin, does not appear." upon different phases and aspects of the char

Abundant testimony is given to prove that acter and activity of Dr. Hopkins. The meager

his tact, his kindliness, his reverence for religstock of information and anecdote touching

ion, produced a lasting effect upon the young his earlier years is to be explained, partly, as

minds entrusted to his care. He bestowed on suggested, by the fact that, since he lived to

his pupils a friendly personal interest that was old age (eighty-five years), most of the friends

unflagging, and is now rewarded by a grateful of his youth died before him, and partly by

personal loyalty that is undying. Perhaps no the fact that there was nothing so extraordin

one deserves better than Mark Hopkins to be ary about his early doings and sayings as to

held up to the world as the typical American make them memorable. Later on in life he is

teacher of the nineteenth century, and in clostreated, not continuously as the man, but

ing a review of his life no citation could be successively as the professor, administrator,

more fitting than one given by Mr. Carter beteacher, author, preacher, friend, theologian.

fore the chapter headed - The Teacher," and Two events in his life are deemed of sufficient

taken from Cardinal Newman's “ St. Philip in importance to call for treatment each in sepa

his School ”: rate chapters. These events are the rebellion of the students at Williams College in 1868

“Love is his bond, he knows no other fetter,

Asks not our all, but takes whate'er we spare him, against the grading system, and the action of Willing to draw us on from good to better, the American Board touching candidates who

As we can bear him. believed in a probation after death. In the “When he comes near to touch us and to bless us,

Prayer is so sweet that hours are but a minute ; first of these crises Dr. Hopkins was found

Mirth is so pure, though freely it possess us, upon the conservative side, and yet appeared

Sin is not in it. more liberal than his colleagues ; in the sec “Thus he conducts by holy paths and pleasant ond, he was found upon the liberal side, and

Innocent souls, and sinful souls forgiven,

Toward the bright palace where our God is present, yet appeared as conservative as any.

Throned in high heaven.”
It is as the teacher and as the friend that
Dr. Hopkins appears in the most charming

EDWARD PLAYFAIR ANDERSOX. and enviable light. He gave himself generously to his work, perhaps sacrificing even more than he should of his own personal de OUR UNWRITTEN ("ONSTITUTION.* velopment in his devotion to the task of devel.

It is a much-mooted question, among jurists oping more immature minds. We are told

and constitutional students, whether we have, how, in the early days of a presidency which

in this land of written constitutions, any addihe held for thirty-six years, he assumed, in

tions thereto in the character of unwritten conorder the better to teach anatomy in a college

better to teach anatomy in a college stitution. Professor C. G. Tiedeman has taken which had no money to buy apparatus, the responsibility of buying a six-hundred-dollar * THE UNWRITTEN CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES:

A Philosophical Inquiry into the Fundamentals of American manikin and of paying for it by itinerant lec

Constitutional Law. By Christopher G. Tiedeman, A.M. turing and by showing his man.

| New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons.

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the affirmative of this question, and his latest the courts. The constitution in the American treatise, - The l'nwritten ('onstitution of the sense is fundamental in this respect ; its every l'nited States," is a thesis in support of his rule and principle is so enforceable, because position.

our system makes it a legal rule. Can any There is a fundamental difference between practice or usage, not so enforceable, be rethe British and the American type of consti. garded as any part of an American constitu. tution, outside of the feature that one is un tion, written or unwritten? written and the other written. The unwritten The illustrative instances of supposed unconstitution of Great Britain is a flexible ag. written constitution collected by Professor gregation of rules and principles, changeable Tiedeman are presented without reference to by Parliament from time to time, according to this distinction. Among them are the change the popular will as contemporaneously ascer | in the practical working of the electoral col. tained. These rules and principles are said to lege, and the general public sentiment against be fundamental, but they are not fundamental a third presidential term. These, however, are in the American sense. As Professor Tiedemani usages, not laws. They correspond to what states,-

Professor Dicey calls, under the English sys- There is no binding force in the prohibitions of tem, the conventionalities of the constitution," Magna Charta, except so far as they are now voiced by

as distinguished from the law of the constitupublic sentiment; if an act of Parliament should be

tion. The test-question is: Does either of these passed in accordance with some great public demand, the fact that it violated these principles would not pre

usages establish or confer a right which the vent its enforcement by the courts."

judicial department of the government will These remarks will apply to all the princi. undertake to protect? The essayist argues ples of the English Constitution. Many of that the practice of selecting presidential electhem are administered by the courts while they i tors by a strict party vote is the real, living, remain in force. They have not, however, , constitutional rule," and that "the popular the characteristics of fundamental law in the limitation upon the re-eligibility of the presiAmerican sense. The principles of the Amer. I dent can be taken as a constitutional limitaican ('onstitution may be built upon to a larger i tion," found in the unwritten constitution." extent. The term fundamental" must be So to argue is to lose sight of the basic rule differently understood in examining the two that every constitutional right in America is systems; and hence the idea of a constitu- under the protection of the judiciary. In the tion" is not the same in both. It is for this chapter on Natural Rights, there is a hint at reason that Great Britain has no such body the disposition of the courts to condemn legis. of constitutional law as that which forms so lation which interferes with the natural rights important a part of American jurisprudence. of individuals, even when such rights are not

Professor Tiedeman's thesis seems to have within the specific protection of the written been written to illustrate an American " un constitution : but no instances of such condemwritten constitution" in the British sense of nation are noted. In respect to citizenship, the term, -that- unwritten constitution whose sovereignty, and secession, certain variations flexible rules reflect all the changes in public in the judicial decisions are pointed out, which opinion." It is true, he expects to find that seem to be attributable to a diversity of views * unwritten constitution" in the decisions ofon unsettled questions of interpretation and the courts and acts of the legislature which are construction, rather than to any changes in the published and enacted in the enforcement of national will. What the essayist supposes to the written constitution,"— a development, as be a decided shifting of the position" of the it were, out of the latter. But what he there i Supreme Court in reference to the constitufinds, he characterizes as constantly changing ! tional inhibition of legislation impairing the with the demands of the popular will," and thus i obligation of contracts, is presented by him as he imputas to it the same characteristics as I a change in the constitutional rule"; but those of the unwritten constitution of Great' this supposed change of judicial view many Britain. It is a question worthy of serious constitutional lawyers declare to be wholly imconsideration, whether any rules or princi- aginary. ples, however well established to present ap.! Two rules of American fundamental law pearance, can be considered a part of our con- are cited in this essay, which are enforced by stitution, unless they have been so adopted the courts upon the basis of constitutional and made fundamental as to be enforceable in rules, and are thus entitled to be considered

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-- - -- -- -- -- - - as constitutional in the strict American sense, ' points Professor Boyesen is at odds with Mr. Arbut which are not established in terms in the nold and M. Scherer. Mr. Arnold, we remember, written constitution. These are the rule that was of opinion that Part I. of "Faust" is "the the courts have jurisdiction to declare a law ! only one that counts"; and the candid Frenchman constitutional which is in conflict with the

styled its continuation (if Part II. is fairly to be

considered as such) a “mere mass of symbols, hiewritten constitution, and the rule that in time

e roglyphics, and even mystifications." Professor of war the military power of the government Bovesen, on the other hand, holds that Part II. becomes supreme of necessity. Beyond these, contains the quintessence of its author's philosthe *-unwritten constitution" elucidated in this' ophy of life, the summary of his worldly wisdom ''; work is of the British rather than the Amer. that it is organically coherent with the First Part ican type.

and is an essential part of the grand design." If JAMES 0. PIERCE.

this be true, it is certainly one of the greatest mysteries, as well as misfortunes, of literature, that

Goethe, a man eminently capable of the most direct BRIEFs Ox NEW BOOKS.

lucid expression, a truth-lover who died with the

words - Light! more light!” upon his lips, should The volume of - Essays on German Literature"

I have deliberately left us in darkness, in a region (Scribner), by Professor H. H. Boyesen, comprises where effort. lacking a criterion, is ever, to adapt six papers on Goethe, one on Schiller, two on the Ger- , Kant's words. “ein Blosses Herumtappen,” as to man novel, three on the German Romantic School,' the real 'n

School, the real purport of this - essential part of his grand and one on "Carmen Sylva. Several of these are design." We have indicated very imperfectly the in almost the best style of the literary essay. In

scope of Professor Boyesen's critical, scholarly, and addition to his ripe and accurate German scholar

| matterful volume ; and can only add that the essays ship,-- a point in which he yields to no other for

on the Life and Works of Schiller," on the evolueign critic of German literature,-- Professor Boye- |lution of the German novel, and on the social and sen brings to his task an ability to express himself i literary aspects of the Romantic School, will prove clearly in terse idiomatic English, with a sense for of the greatest interest and value to American stuthe finer shadings and values of words, and an ab

| dents of German literature.
dent

The book is clearly stention from the stock jargon and verbal pseudo

and in general correctly printed, though there are profundities of critical exposition, that may well

position, that may well | a few instances of hasty proof-reading. By a comput to the blush many who are, in respect of the i ical misprint on page 179 an oft-quoted Scotch

est chap, matron is credited with aspiring to see her son one ters, perhaps, are those devoted to Goethe, the Zeus

us , day “wag his paw in a pu'pit,"— an emendation

da of the author's literary Pantheon; and here the En

- probably of the thoughtful compositor. glish Goethe-studenta - white blackbird," the Professor thinks — may profitably amend his aver. I'xder the title “Social Staties, Abridged and age estimate of the poet derived from the jealous' Revised ; and The Man versus the State," Messrs. appraisals of Matthew Arnold and Edmond Scherer, Appleton & Co. issue a definitive edition of Herbert the sounding periods of the hero-worshipping Car- Spencer's much cited - Social Statics" originally lyle, and the gushing futilities of Mr. G. H. Lewes, published in 1850. A relinquishment of some of by reckoning in the warmly sympathetic though the views presented in the original, and the fact generally discriminating summary of Professor that certain conclusions therein set forth are inconBoyesen. Mr. Arnold's famous essay our authorsistent with and have led to misinterpretations of regards as "the most notable English estimate of his later writings, induced Mr. Spencer in 1890 to Goethe," though he is plainly a little impatient at go through the work carefully, erasing some porthe comparatively niggard dole of praise weighed tions, abridging others, and subjecting the whole to out upon the apothecary's scales of that cautious a thorough verbal revision. Portions of the earlier critic. With the frigid M. Scherer (whom he work are, therefore, now to be regarded as canstyles * a malignant, disgruntled Frenebman") Pro- celled.-- a fact to be especially noted by those who fessor Boyesen is plainly exasperated ; and we con find occasion to cite this book in support of their feas he seems to us to treat the Gallic contemner of own thesex. "To the new volume four essays, Werther's blue coat and vellow breeches, the un- - The New Torvisin," - The Coming Slavery." sparing wielder of the critical cold-water douche. The Sins of Legislators," and The Great Polit. unfairly in attributing his strictures on the German ical Superstition,”- originally published (1884) in poet to his hatred of the German race. M. Scherer The Contemporary Resiew," have been added har, after all, accorder Goethe a measure of generons under the collective title + The Man rerous the --and for him warm- praise ; and his general tone State." The general trend and purpose of these toward this * one of the exceeding great among the paper will be readily inferred by those familiar sons of men," as he terms the poet, does not strike us with the author's opinions as to the nature and as on the whole more carping than that in his es. sphere of governments. In 1860, during the agi. says on Milton and on Wordsworth. lpon several tation for parliamentary reform, Mr. Spencer pre

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