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peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.

ARTICLE II.

SECTION I.

Executive powers.

Electors of
president
and
vice-presi-
dent.

Meeting of the electors

Their proceedings.

1. The executive power shall be vested in a president of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and together with the vice-president, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows:

2. Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of senators, and representatives, to which the state may be entitled in the congress, but no senator or representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector.

3. The electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each ; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of government of the United States, directed to the president of the senate. The president of the senate shall, in the presence of the senate and house of representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the president, if such number is a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the house of representatives shall immediately choose, by ballot, one of them for president; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on the list, the said house shall, in like manner, choose the president. But in choosing the president, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the president, the person having

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the greatest number of votes of the electors, shall be {*Anpulled, the vice-president. But if there should remain two ments, Arti or more who have equal votes, the senate shall choose from them, by ballot, the vice-president.* 4. The congress may determine the time of choos- Time of

choosing ing the electors, and the day on which they shall give electors. their votes, which day shalĩ be the same throughout the United States.

5. No person except a natural born citizen, or a qualifica- . citizen of the United States at the time of the adop- president. tion of this constitution, shall be eligible to the office of president; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States.

6. In case of the removal of the president from his bis office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to dis- volve on the

vice-presi. charge the powers and duties of the said office, the dent, etc. same shall devolve on the vice-president, and the congress may, by law, provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the president and vice-president, declaring what officer shall then act as president, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a president shall be elected.

7. The president shall, at stated times, receive for compensahis services a compensation, which shall neither be increased or diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive, during that period, any other emolument from the United States, or any of them.

8. Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation: 9. “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will Oath of the

. faithfully execute the office of president of the Uni- president. ted States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the constitution of the United States."

tion

SECTION II. 1. The president shall be commander-in-chief of Powers of

the presi. the army and navy of the United States, and of the dent! . militia of the several states when called into the actual service of the United States. He may require the opinion in writing of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices; and he

His powers with the ad. vice and consent of the senate.

shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.

2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the supreme court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provid

ed for, and which shall be established by law. But ment of in the congress may, by law, vest the appointment of

such inferior officers as they think proper, in the president alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.

3. The president shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the senate, by granting commissions, which shall expire at the end of their next session.

ferior offi. cers.

President may fill vacancies.

SECTION III.

Duties of president.

1. He shall from time to time give to the congress information of the state of the union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient. He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper. He shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed; and shall commission all the officers of the United States.

SECTION IV.

1. The president, vice-president, and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

ARTICLE III.

Judicial power.

SECTION I. 1. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one supreme court, and in such inferior courts as the congress may, from time to time, ordain and establish.

2. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their office during good behavior; and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

SECTION II.

[*Restrice

.

1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases in Its extent. law and equity, arising under this constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, or other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction to controversies to which the United States

.; shall be a party ; to controversies between two or more states, between a state and citizens of another state; between citizens of different states ; between citizens of the same state, claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a state or the tion by Art. citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or sub- mof amend

.] jects.*

2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, or public Lionsdisuministers or consuls, and those in which a state shall preme be a party, the supreme court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the supreme court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations as the congress shall make.

3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of im- Trimes. peachment, shall be by a jury; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crime shall have been committed ; but when not committed in any state, the trial shall be at such place or places as the congress may by law have directed.

court.

SECTION III.

1. Treason against the United States shall consist Treason. only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.

2. The congress shall have power to declare the Its punisha punishment of treason; but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood or forfeit, except during the life of the person attained.

.

ment.

ARTICLE IV.

Taith to be given to the

states.

SECTION I. 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state acts, etc., of to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings

of every other state. And the congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.

SECTION II.

Criminals to be deliv.

ered up.

etc.

Reciprocity 1. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to of citizenship. all privileges and immunities of citizens in the sev

eral states.

2. A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another state, shall, on demand of executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the state having ju

risdiction of the crime. Also, rupa- 3. No person held to service or labor in one state, eyes slaves, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall,

in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor; but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.

SECTION III. 1. New states may be admitted by the congress into this union, but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state, nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures of the states concerned, as well as of the congress.

2. The congress shall have power to dispose of, and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claim of the United States, or of any particular state.

Admission of new states.

Power of congress over terri. tory, etc.

SECTION IV. Suarantee 1. The United States shall guarantee to every and protec. tion of each state in this union, a republican form of governstate.

ment, and shall protect each of them against inva

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