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ing, but this Spon supplied by means of a MS. at Zara in Dalmatia, in which he had the good fortune to discover it entire as follows:


It appears, therefore, that one of the last favours conferred upon Athens by Hadrian, was the commencement of this aqueduct. Although it was nominally intended for Hadrianopolis only, there can be little doubt that the whole city enjoyed the benefit of it.

1 Spon, Voyage, &c. II. p. 99. His testimony is confirmed by a MS. in the Barberini Library, by Sangallo, an architect, deriving his information from Ciriaco d'Ancona, who travelled in Greece in the year 1436.


Of some other important but more disputable Questions of Athenian TopographyThe Mountain Anchesmus, or LycabettusThe AgoraThe CerameicusDipylum, and the Peiraic Gate.

Mount An- One of the most striking features of Athens, one which

chesmus, . . . , .

or Lyca- enters into almost every view or its scenery, and is among the first objects to seize the stranger's attention, is that conical peaked summit considerably higher than tbecitadel, which,crowned with a small church of St. George, looks down upon the city from the northeastern side. It has generally been called Anchesmus, and not without reason; for although the name occurs but once in ancient history, and Pausanias, the author who mentions it, gives no certain indication of its locality, yet as he shows Anchesmus to have been distinct from Parnes, Pentelicum, and Hymettus, and describes it as a small mountain \

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ayaX/ia 'hyxiofiiov. Pausan. Attic. 32, 2.

which will not agree with any part of the ridge on the north-western side of the plain, known to have borne the names of iEgaleos, Corydallus, and Poecilum, while it is perfectly adapted to the hill of St. George, we can hardly avoid the conclusion that this hill was Anchesmus. On its acute summit is a small platform, partly artificial, to which there was an access by steps cut in the rock; the church which stands upon it is itself, in some degree, an argument that the summit was a hierum, as throughout Greece churches are generally the successors of Pagan temples.

But if the presumption is strong that this height was the Anchesmus of Pausanias, there is still better reason to believe that it was the ancient Lycabettus. According to one of the fables of Attic mythology, Minerva, who had gone from Athens to Pallene to procure a mountain for an outwork in front of the Acropolis, was met, in returning, by a crow, which informed her of the birth of Erichthonius, when she dropped Mount Lycabettus where it still stands'.

'This fable is related by Antigonus of Carystus, an author of the third century B. C, on the authority of an Athenian antiquary, not much earlier in date, named Amelesagoras. The infant Erichthonius was said to have been inclosed by Minerva in a box, which she delivered to the three daughters of Cecrops, with strict injunctions that it should not be opened until her return from Pallene. Agraulus and Pandrosus (Agraulus and Herse, according to Apollodorus, 3, 14, § 6, and Pausanias Attic. 18,2), disobeying her commands, opened the box, and found two serpents (one, according to Apollodorus) coiled around Erichthonius. The crow, for being the herald of bad news, was forbidden ever to enter the Acropolis.

.... 'KpiyOoviov' ov Tplipttv rt)v 'ASijvar Kai tie Kiarifv

Pallene was a demus to the north-eastward of Athens '. We may infer, therefore, that Lycabettus was on that side of the city.

Again, in the life of Proclus, a philosopher of the fifth century, who taught and died at Athens, we are informed that he was buried in the same tomb with his master Syrianus, to the eastward of the city near Lycabettus2. It seems clear, therefore, that Lyca

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According to another legend, Erichthonius was said to have made his first appearance in the form of a serpent. See above, p. 120, n. 3. p. 149, n. 3. As to the crow, the explanation seems to be, that these birds, which are seen in great numbers around the rocks of the Acropolis, seldom rise to the summit. Though Pellene is the name in the text of Antigonus, Pallene is the real orthography, as Attic inscriptions prove, as well as the derivation of the name from Pallas, son of Pandion.

1 Peisistratus had begun his march from Marathon towards Athens, when the Alcmaeonidae, obtaining intelligence of the movement, proceeded from Athens against him: the adverse parties arrived, in face of each other, near the temple of Minerva Pallenis, in the demus of the Pallenenses. Peisistratus surprised his enemies as they were reposing after dinner, and defeated them. Herodot. 1, 62.

* tTaifir) iv To'iq aVaroXitrurtpoic Ttjc woXtwc irpoc ry AvKa(3t)TTu, tvda cat To row KaOqyifioyog Svpmrov Kcitui aHfia' iniiroQ yap avTiji The following was the epitaph composed by Proclus himself:

bettus was to the north-eastward of Athens, and that Plato, when describing Lycabettus as over-against the Pnyx (/coraim/cpu Iivukoc), intended its diametrical opposition to the Pnyx in reference to the circumference of the asty '.

We may further remark, in confirmation of the

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Marin, v. Prod. 36.

Although the work of Marinus was written as late as A. D. 485, his authority is not to be despised in an incidental allusion to topography. Even at that late period Athens cherished the memory of her history: the Platonic school was the centre of all that remained of ancient literature: and Marinus, both as a resident of Athens, and as a learned man, deriving his knowledge in an interrupted series from former times, may be supposed to have been correctly informed on the ancient topography.

1 Plato was describing the ancient or fabulous state of the hill of the Acropolis prior to a certain deluge and earthquake, which were supposed to have removed a great quantity of soil, and to have effected an immense change in the site of Athens. The hill of the Acropolis (he says) was then so large as to extend to the Eridanus and Ilissus, comprehending within it the Pnyx, as well as the mountain of Lycabettus, which is opposite to Pnyx:

To TJjq 'AKpoir6\eio{ tl\t T6ti Ov\ <ic ra vvv t\tC To Be irplv iv irtfio) yjiiiru) fiiyeQoQ J\v 7rpoc Tov 'HpiBavov Ka't Tov 'Wiaaov dirofitfiriKvla Kal ircpuiKritpvla ivrog Tov Tivvku Kai Tov Avra(itfTTOv opov (al. opoc) Ik Tov KaravTiKpv Tivvkoc l\ovaa. Plato Crit. 6.

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