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of the Church; and consequently he had no more right to claim the enjoyment of Church privileges than a presbyterian or other independent. To admit any one, under such circumstances, to the holy Communion, and with a full knowledge of the facts of the case, would be to set God's law at defiance, to commit a grievous sin, and to subject the offending Clergyman to the penalties of ecclesiastical discipline. It is a sore trial to a Clergyman to be obliged to withhold the highest privileges which man can here enjoy from any individual-but a conscientious minister of God has no alternative. He feels that he must obey God rather than man, whatever may be the consequences.
Major Sharp claimed this privilege on the ground that he was a member of the Church of England, and that the Scottish Church is in full communion with her; and enforced this claim by a reference to certain proceedings which he had attempted in order to bring back the Independent Chapel at Perth to the communion of the Bishop.
As to the first,-by his becoming a member of a schismatical congregation in Scotland, he, ipso facto, forfeited his right of communion with the Anglican Church; and in days of a more perfect discipline he would have been treated as an excommunicated person. The Church of England unhappily, in practice, admits any person to her Altars, be he evil liver, heretic, or schismatic; and a Scotch presbyterian finds the same welcome reception as any of her own children, who, having gone into Scotland, have there followed in the 'Gainsaying of Core.' This, therefore, is no ground of boasting. Nor is it any reason why the Scottish Church should follow a like corrupt and sinful practice. The theory and the injunctions of the English Church are plain, orthodox, and imperative; so that no Clergyman can disregard them but at the peril of his soul and we rejoice to think, that, amid a very general laxity in receiving all and sundry who present themselves, as partakers of that Divine Sacrament which is the right and privilege only of the faithful, there are, in England, many Clergymen who give all diligence to act in strict conformity with the requirements of the Church. Schism is a sin
classed by the Apostle among those of the grosser crimes, as excluding from the kingdom of heaven, and so from communion with the Church on earth. And he who is guilty of it is regarded by the Church as an 'open and notorious evil liver,' and 'the Curate, having notice thereof,' is bound to advertise him, that in any wise he pre
sume not to come to the Lord's table, until he hath openly declared himself to have truly repented and amended his former naughty life.' All that was required of Major Sharp was to give up his connection with the Schism, and he would then be gladly received. Thus the Bishop of the diocese, in a letter to the Warden, judiciously and mildly decides the question,- My opinion is, that if he (Major Sharp) will express his regret of the step he has taken in giving countenance to the schismatical congregation in Perth, and declare his resolution to break off his connection with it and all others of the same description, he should be gladly received to communion by you.' Again, in another letter he puts the whole question in a clear and distinct point of view. No alteration appears from his letter to have taken place in the mind of Major Jelf Sharp, as to the irregularity of his wishes, and of his conduct in an ecclesiastical view,-and in no other view was his rejection from the Altar at Trinity College either meant or expressed.
'A disregard of primitive practice and discipline seems to be that gentleman's great stumbling-block; and since he himself will not stoop to remove it out of his way, we may and do lament such disregard of what is so connected with truth and order. It were easy for him to remove every hinderance to the accomplishment of his desires, without any diminution of his worth or importance, but with a happy increase of both. But since he will not, we, on the other hand, must not think of purchasing his, or any other individual's favour, by a departure from our integrity and stedfastness.'
With regard to the second point-his desire to restore the schismatical body to the unity of the Church-a few words will put this in a clear point of view. He obtained the opinion of the late Archbishop of Canterbury, and the Bishop of London, that the said congregation was in an unjustifiable state of schism, and that they ought to seek restoration to the communion of their Bishop. He corresponded with the Primus on the subject, overlooking the fact, that the Bishop of the diocese was the proper party to be addressed, and the only one who could settle the question, the Primus having no jurisdiction beyond the limits of his own diocese, except in the event of a vacancy. Some meetings were held, with a view to settle the matter, but nothing was done; and after waiting for some years, the Bishop at last resolved to look out for a clergyman, and to license him to regain the congregation in the town of Perth' for some time lost to the Church. Major Sharp entered into friendly communica
tion with this gentleman, attended the first service performed under the Diocesan's license, and showed every disposition to leave the schism and join the Church. But during his temporary absence in England, the minister of the Independent Chapel died, and Major Sharp was appointed, at a meeting of the subscribers, to look out for an English Clergyman, willing to act, not only without the Bishop's license, but in direct and open hostility to him and his representative in Perth. On the duties of this appointment Major Sharp entered with alacrity, giving up all farther thought of uniting himself to the Church, unless he could bring the schismatical minister, chapel, and congregation along with him, or get a large part of the higher classes to accompany him. He had not courage to leave the 'multitude' and join the faithful few. But yet he regarded these thoughts of pleasing God by his own plans and devices sufficiently meritorious to deserve the thanks of the Church! He could not understand, that God requires obedience rather than sacrifice;' and consequently he is confounded, when he is made to feel that he is still nothing better than a schismatic, and unqualified to partake of the privileges which belong only to the faithful. The plain path of duty was open to him. The voice of God called him one way, the voice of the world another. He hesitated, and that hesitation was fatal to him, for he finally chose the latter.
Major Sharp himself openly declares, that he does not consider the sacraments at the English Chapel valid whilst it is not under the jurisdiction of the Bishop;' yet he continues in communion with it, and justifies his doing so thus: That although it might be said he was doing evil that good might come, he had resolved to remain with the schismatics for the purpose of bringing them round to the Church.' In short, he makes his own case as bad as possible. He cannot plead ignorance; but with his eyes open he has made the mistake (it may be under strong temptations) of halting between two opinions, of not following the light when he saw it; and so he has brought difficulties both upon himself and others, which, had he acted truly by his own sense of duty, would never have occurred.'
THE DIVINE POLITY OF THE CHURCH AND ITS USES.
"I wear the name of Christ, my God,
So name me not from man!
Through all the world they went,
THERE is a perfect harmony throughout all the works of creation, Every atom in the universe seems to obey laws which regulate all its motions, and render it subservient to some useful purpose. Order is Heaven's first law, and usefulness is the perfection of that law. Wherever we turn our observation, whether to the contemplation of a greater or a smaller part of the universe which we inhabit, there will be found the greatest regularity and the highest wisdom displayed in its structure and its purposes. The frame of man, for instance, affords such a view. Every part of that frame is wonderfully and fearfully made, and is so constructed as to answer and fulfil all the ends of man's destiny.
And this harmony of order, and unity of design, are not merely restricted to the material world, but also extend to the spiritual; for when tradition had become so corrupted as to require a revelation from God, and the establishment of a Church militant upon earth, God clearly manifested this unity of order and design in the establishment of Judaism. In that economy we perceive a wondrous oneness in every part,-a oneness as perfect as any discoverable in nature. This unity, which is essential to keep order and prevent confusion, God secured by the establishment of the priesthood, according to the Levitical succession. For this was the purpose for which the Levitical Priesthood was established: To preserve unity, and by so doing, to maintain the truths delivered to them. And so for a similar purpose, and with the same design, are we told in Eph. iv. 11, 12, that God gave to the Christian Church its three orders of ministers,-Apostles, Pastors, and Teachers: Evangelists and Prophets not being distinct orders, but offices common to all the three.
It will therefore be our endeavour, in the following remarks, to prove and illustrate that such orders have been appointed by God, and have always been in the Catholic Church; and secondly, to
point out the use of such orders, or the purposes for which God appointed Apostles, Pastors, and Teachers, or as they are now called, Bishops, Priests, and Deacons.
It will be impossible to comprise under the first head all the arguments which could and have been frequently adduced in favour of these three orders. To any one acquainted with his Bible, or with the controversies on this subject, such an enumeration would be both tedious and unnecessary; for there is no one who is an attentive and unprejudiced reader of the Holy Scriptures, but must be struck with the multiplicity of facts and statements therein contained, all bearing on this point. And were there no other arguments, or were all other arguments completely refuted, which they never have been, nor ever can be, these Scripture passages alone would be sufficient proof. Nor indeed can it be for a moment supposed, that God, who has instituted order in every thing else, should leave the church which was purchased with the blood of his dear Son, to be for ever subject to disorder and confusion that it alone should be subjected to the ever changing opinions of man regarding necessity or expediency. Besides, is it possible to believe, that Christ should leave every ordinance and doctrine fixed and settled before He left the earth, and yet leave incomplete that order and form of government which was necessary to preserve these, and to retain the enjoyment of His parting legacy of peace? It is not for a moment to be supposed, that Christ should leave his church so destitute and so unfinished in this necessary part of its spiritual structure and stability. Nor did He; for in the records of His holy word, and in the history of the church, from the moment His feet last touched the mount of Galilee up to this our day, we find undoubted and incontrovertible evidence, that a polity was by divine injunction instituted and universally maintained.
That the threefold ministry of apostles, pastors, and teachers, or as they are now called, of bishops, priests, and deacons-that that triple cord, that celestial chain, which is linked to the throne of the Majesty on high, originated with God, and being divine, has endured to our days, and shall endure until the end of the world, there are proofs in Scripture which we cannot pass over, and shall briefly therefore refer to two.
God, in founding the three orders of the Jewish priesthood declared, that it was to be an 'everlasting priesthood' and this he declares more than once; and we are told by Christ, that not one