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Hans Christian Andersen.
came out in 1835, the second series appeared in 1838-42, the third in 1845; and so they continued to appear, at irregular intervals, until the last Eventyr were published in 1871-2, by which time they had won a worldwide reputation. Andersen's numerous plays and poems are inferior to his Tales. The 100th anniversary (1905) of his birth was celebrated by several American and European literary societies, and his career was made the subject of many magazine articles of that time. His autobiography, Mil Livs Eventyr (1855-77), is of great interest, and perhaps the most naive and subjective biography ever written. Other works are Billedbog uden Billeder (1840); Ahasuerus (1847) ; De to Baronesser (1847); At vaere eller ikke vaere (1857). Several English editions of the Fairy Talcs have been published. See R. N. Bain's H. C. Andersen: a Biography (1895).
Anderson. (1.) City and co. seat of Madison co., Ind., on west fork of White R.. about 40 m. N.e. of Indiananolis, and on the Chicago and Southeastern, the Cleveland, Cincinnati. Chicago, and St. Louis and other R. Rs. Its chief industries are manufactures of iron, steel, brass, paper, machinery, glass, lumber, and wire nails. Besides the important railway connections above mentioned, it has a system of interurban electric railways. The city owns and operates its electric light, gas and water-works plants. There are also a free library and parks. The historic mounds of the 'mound builders' are near the city. Pop. (1910) 22,476. (2.) Tn. and co. seat ot Anderson co., S. C., 120 miles N.w. of Columbia, the state capital, on the Southern, the Blue Ridge, and the Charleston and W. Carolina
R. Rs. The town was first settled in 1827, and it has many industries, including cotton mills, flour mills, machine shops! and factories for the manufacture of spring beds, mattresses, and articles of wearing apparel. It contains some fine civic buildings,
father, he graduated from the Medical School of Columbia University; but soon gave up this profession for engraving. He was self-taught and the earliest American wood engraver. He acquired technique in copying Holbein's Dance of Death and
the Patrick Military Institute and Anderson Female College. The surrounding district is fertile in cotton and numerous other agricultural products. Pop. (1910) 9,fi54.
Anderson, Alexander (177.51870), American wood engraver. Following the wishes pf hjs
Bewick's British Quadrupeds. Adopting the manner of the latter artist, he did the l>est work of his day outside of his master's immediate circle. At first he also practised line engraving, but later confined himself to wood-cuts. His best-known works are the illustrations tp Bell's Anatomy (70 Anderson
plates); Shakespeare's works (80 plates), and Webster's Spelling Book. See Life by Burr (1893).
Anderson, Galusha (1S32-), American theologian and educator, was born at Clarendon, N. Y., and educated at Rochester Univ. He studied for the Baptist ministry at the Rochester Theolog. Seminary, and subsequently held pastorates at Janesville, Wis., St. Louis, Brooklyn, N. Y., and Chicago. From 1866 to 1873 he was professor at Newton Theol. Sem.; from 1878 to 1885 ores, of old Univ. of Chicago; from 1887 to 1890 pres. of Denison Univ., Ohio; from 1890 to 1892 professor in the Baptist Union Theological Seminary. In 1892 he took the chair of practical theology at the Divinity School, Univ. of Chicago, and became emeritus professor in 1904.
Anderson, James (1739-1MI8), farmer and political economist; born near Edinburgh; was the inventor of the ' Scottish plough." In his Recreations in Agriculture (a paper in monthly parts from 1797-1802) and his Inquiry into the Nature of the Corn Lou's (1777) he anticipated Ricardo's theory of rent.
Anderson, John (1726-96), founder of Anderson's College. Glasgow (1797),was professor of Oriental languages (1756) and of natural philosophy (1760) at Glasgow University, where he taught a class of physics for working men. His invention of a gun with pneumatic recoil, refused by the British government, was presented to the National Convention, Paris. His Institutes of Physics (1786) was for some time a standard text-book.
Anderson, John Jacob (18211906), Amer. author and educator; born in N. Y. city and educated at the Normal School there. For thirty years he was engaged in teaching, and has since published many works of an historical character, including manuals of Ancient and Medieval History, Historiesof England, France, and the United States, Historical Readers, etc., historical textbooks for schools, including Pictorial School History of the V. S. (1863); A School History of England (1870), and manuals of general, medieval and modern history.
Anderson, Martin Brewer (1815-90), American educator, and for many years president of the Univ. of Rochester. N.Y., was born at Brunswick. Me., and educated at Colby Univ.. where he tausht Latin and Rhetoric. From 1850 to 1853 he was editor of The New York (Baptist) Recorder, and in 1853-88 was president of the University of Rochester. See Papers and Addresses, in 2 vols., issued in 1895.
Anderson, Maky (1R59-), American actress, born at Sacramento, Cal. In 1875 she made her first appearance as Juliet at Louisville. Julia in The Hunchback (a favorite role) and Pauline in The Lady of Lyons were among her parts. In 1883 she entered upon an English career. Her most notable impersonations were Perdita Hermione, Galatea, Rosalind, Bianca, Pauline, and Juliet. In 1889 she retired from the stage, and in the same year married Antonio F. de Navarro, subsequently making her residence in England. In 1896 she published A Few Memories.
Anderson, Melville Best (1851), American educator; born in Kalamazoo, Mich.; was educated at Cornell, Gbttingen, and Paris; professor of literature at Butler Univ.. Knox Coll., Purdue Univ., and Iowa State Univ. in 1877-91; then took the similar chair in Stanford Univ., Cal. He was translator and editor of numerous classical works, and author of Representative Poets ot the Nineteenth Century (1896).
Anderson, Rasmus Bjorm (1846-), American author and educator of Scandinavian descent, was born at Albion, Wis., and educated at Luther Coll., la., and the Univ. of Wisconsin, where for eight years he was professor of Scandinavian language and literature. During Pres. Cleveland's first administration, Prof. Anderson was U. S. minister to Denmark, and later on he edited at Madison, Wis., a Norwegian neswspaper, Amerika. His published works are Norse Mythology: Viking Tales from the North (1877); The Younger Edda, and America not Discovered by Columbus (1874).
Anderson, Richard Henry (1821-79), an American soldier in the Confederate service, was born near Statesburg, S. C., and educated at West Point. He served in the Mexican War, and at the outbreak of the Civil War entered the Confederate army. He took part in the bombardment of Fort Sumter, and distinguished himself in many battles, commanding a division at Gettysburg, and the fourth corps of Lee's army at the close of the struggle, with the rank of lieut.-general.
Anderson, Robert (1805-71), American soldier and military writer, was born near Louisville, Ky., and in 1825 graduated at West Point, where he was instructor in artillery (1835-37). He served in the Seminole and Mexican Wars. At the close of 1860 he was in command of Fort Moultrie. Charleston Harbor, but soon transferred his garrison to Fort Sumter. Here he withstood a bombardment by the Confederates on April 12-13, 1861, but
was finally forced to evacuate the fort, his garrison (which had remained intact) being allowed to retire with the honors of war. For his defence of the place he received the nation's thanks, with appointment to the rank of majorgeneral. In 1863 ill-health compelled him to retire from active service, when he employed himself in translating military textbooks.
Anderson, Rufits (1796-1880), American Congregational minister, and for more than forty years secretary of the Am. Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, was born in Maine, and educated at Bowdoin Coll. and Andover Theol. Seminary. His career was subsequently spent in the interest of foreign missions, travelling, lecturing, and writing on their behalf, as well as inspecting them in various countries. His writings include Observations upon the Peloponnesus and Greek Islands (1830) and A Heathen Nation Civilised (1870) —i.e. Hawaii.
Anderson, William (18421900), surgeon, professor of anatomy and surgery at Tokyo (18731880), formed a large collection of Chinese and Japanese paintings and engravings, afterwards bequeathed to the British Museum. He was the author of The Pictorial Arts of Japan (1886); Japanese Wood Engraving (1895); Catalogue of Collection of Japanese and Chinese Pictures in the British Museum (1886).
Andersonvllle, vil., Sumter co., Ga., 62 miles s. of Macon. Here, from February, 1864, to the close of the Civil War, the Confederate Government maintained a military prison, overcrowded, chiefly because of the Federal Government's refusal to exchange prisoners, and lacking in many cf the requisites both of food and sanitation. There was great less of life, and at the close of the war the prison superintendent, Henry Wire, was triea by a military commission for * murder in violation of the laws of war,' found guilty, and hanged. The prison site and adjoining graveyard has since become a national cemetery, in which sleep about 14,000 Union soldiers. Of the graves, 12,789 were identified and marked with tablets.
Anderssen, Adolf (1818-79), famous chess-player, born in Breslau, where he became (1847) master at the Lyceum. In 1851 he won the first prize at the international chess tournament held in London during the first International Exhibition. He won other international contests in London (1862) and Baden (1870). He published many valuable books about chess.
Andersson, Karl Joham
of ranges, among which runs the Alto Maranon, or Upper Amazon. The W. Cordillera, between lat. 23° and 7° 45' s., descends in a bold escarpment to the Pacific littoral, but it gradually decreases in height northwards. On entering Ecuador the Andes consist of a single broad chain, which bifurcates in the province of Loja; and thence to the borders of Colombia the system is again composed of two cprdilleras. united by transverse ridges, and including lofty basins, 8,000 to 10,000 ft. above sea-level. These Cordilleras are continued in the Western and Central Cordilleras of Colombia, which include between them the great longitudinal valley of the Cauca R. The last-named range is the loftier, containing many peaks over 16,000 ft. in altitude. The long valley of the Atrato separates the W. Cordillera from a coast range, the Sierra de Baudo, with an average elevation of 3,000 ft., which is continued across the Isthmus of Panama. The E. Cordillera of Colombia, or Cordillera of Bogota, a third division, branches off near the frontier of Ecuador. At first only a low watershed between the basin of the Magdalena and those of the Amazon and Orinoco, it rises to over 15,000 ft. in the peak Suma Paz, and runs N.w. to Pamplona, whence it is continued by the Cordillera de Merida in Venezuela.
Near Santa Cruz de la Sierra, in Bolivia, the Eastern Cordillera makes a great bend to the s.s.w.; crossing the Upper Pilcomayo, and appearing as the Sierra de la Huerta in the Argentine province of San Juan, it terminates in the hills of Pencoso in San Luis. In the Famatina peak (Argentine province of Rioja) it rises to a height of 20,680 ft. Another (central) range of isolated peaks and volcanic cones rises in lat. 17° 30', E. of Oruro in Bolivia, and divides the great plateau of Titacaca and Poopo into two sections. The Andes preserve their plateau character down to Aconcagua (about 32" 30' s.), enclosing the great dreary Puna (high plain) of Atacama; thence to 41° 30' s. lat. they consist of a single chain. South of Lake Nahuelhuapi they no longer constitute the watershed, but are crossed by numerous rivers rising from an elevation to the E., from which in some cases the water runs to both oceans; and finally they pass through the islands cf the Tierra del Fuego archipelago to Cape Horn.
The Andes are built up of Arch.tan, Paleozoic, and Cretaceous rocks, with some Jurassic strata and porphyritic rocks in the w. range. They appear to have been Andes
folded in Tertiary times, the Cretaceous rocks being involved in the folds. Probably the West Cordillera is more recent than the East Cordillera. Many volcanoes are still active. Andesite lavas fill the basins of Ecuador, where the grandest group of volcanoes in the whole chain is found, among which are Cotopaxi (19,013 ft.), Sangay (17,400 ft.), and others. These lavas also compose the large mass of Aconcagua, which rises to 23,080 ft., the highest point of the South American continent. Many of the highest peaks are covered with perpetual snow, and glaciers are still found in the south.
In Peru the West Cordillera forms a formidable barrier to traffic, while farther south, between lit. 23" and 32° s., there is no pass lower than 12,000 ft. In lat. 32° 33' is the Uspallata Pass, between Argentina and Chile, or La Cumbre
toward La Paz, Bolivia; another climbs up (alt. 14,060 ft.) from Mollendo to Lake Titicaca; yet another in Peru, from Lima up to Cerro de Pasco. Consult \Vhympcr's Travels Amongst the Great Andes (1892); Conway's The Bolivian Andes (1901); Fitzgerald's The Higliest Andes (1899): Fountain's Great Mountains ana Forests oj South America (1902); Enoch's The Andes and the Amazon (1907). Andesite. A volcanic rock of porphyritic or compact texture, composed of plagioclase feldspar and a dark silicate, either hornblende, mica, or augite. By addition of quartz, andesite grades into dacite, while the presence of olivine marks a transition to basalt. Andesites are very common rocks in the Western States, and are named from the Andes of South America, where they are the prevailing type of lavas. See Trachyte.
Andes Tunnel and Railway
animal transport, leaving Las Cuevas in Argentina and arriving at Caracoles in Chile, and vice versa. From Valparaiso to Los Andes, the line belongs to the Chilean government, and is broad gauge; from Los Andes to Caracoles, the Chilean Transdinc, it is narrow gauge; from Las Cuevas to Mendoza, the Argentine Transandine, again narrow gauge, and from Mendoza through Villa Mercedes to Buenos Ayres, now operated by the Buenos Ayres and Pacific Railway, again broad gauge. This difference in gauges was, however, a slight obstacle to travel in comparison to the great and permanent one of climate. From some time in May to some time in November—the winter of South America—travel across the Andes by this route, except for the hardy mail carriers, was abandoned; and during this interval both passengers and freight had to
(12,00,5 ft.), now crossed by the railway tunnel (alt. 10,408 ft.) between Buenos Avres and Valparaiso; and at 30° the Planchon (10,000 ft.). In Kcuador and South Colombia the passes are of about the same height. The Guayaquil and Quito Railway crosses the Andes at an altitude of 10,800 ft. at 2° s. lat. This railroad connects the Port of Guayaquil with Quito, the capital of Ecuador, and after climbing the Andes extends on the plateau for about 200 m., prepared to tap the agricultural and mineral wealth of Ecuador and South Colombia when extended still farther north.
Besides the peaks already mentioned, Illimani (22,200 ft.), Huasrnran (22,1S2 ft.), and Illampu, or Sorata, cast of Lake Titicaca, are among the most prominent—the last, according to Sir Martin Conwav's estimate, exceeding 23,000 ft., anil therefore rivalling Aconcagua. Chimborazo, in Kcuador, rises to 20,47.") ft., and Tupungato, south of Aconcagua, to 21,.">0 ft.
Other railways across the Andes are the line (highest alt. 1">,000 ft.), which connects Oruro in Bolivia with Antofagasta in Chile; and the line now in construction from Arica
Argentina, consisting of part of the Puna de Atacama assigned to Argentina by arbitration in 1899. Area, 21,990 sq. m.; pop. (1908), 2,2f>0.
Andes, Los, town, Chile, province of Aconcagua, 18 m. southeast of San Felipe. Pop. 4,500.
Andes Tunnel and Railway. The distance from Buenos Ayres in Argentina to Valparaiso in Chile is given, for the sake of easy remembrance, as 888 miles; the railway estimate is 1,439 kilometers. This portion of South America between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, belonging to the above-mentioned Republics, with the dividing line on the crest of the Andes, embraces some of the most productive land on that continent, and increase of traffic across it has been constant.
In 1874 a concession was granted to build westward up the Andes, and in 1888 a train climbed from Mendoza toward the Chilean frontier. Work from Valparaiso eastward was begun in 1889, but the section from Los Andes to Juncal. al)out where the present tunnel is, was not inaugurated until 1900. Travel across the gap between these two rail ends has been for some years carried on by
go by boat through Magellan Strait —a matter of about ten days, compared with the 40 to 48 hours of rail and mule.
The project of tunnelling the Andes had been seriously discussed ever since the railway was constructed, because it had from the first seemed impossible to earn- the line in the open across the higher pass used by foot passengers, or animals, on account of lioth engineering and climatic di.l'iculties. This Uspallata Pass has an elevation of 12,005 feet (3,811 meters), and is practically at the boundary between Argentina and Chile, at which point is situnt"d the famous statue of 'The Christ of the Andes,' dedicated by the two nations as an emblem of peace in March, 1904.
TheTransandinc Tunnel was first pierced bv the workmen on November 27, 1909. It had been understood that construction would be concluded in 1911; but the fact that both Argentina and Chile were to celebrate the centennial anniversary of their declarations of independence in 1910 caused the contractors to accelerate the work, so as to have the tunnel open for traffic early in the latter year. The effort was sueAndljan
cessful. On April 5, 1910, the formal opening of the tunnel took place, and on April 12 a tri-weekly rail service between the two capitals was begun. The trip takes about 30 hours.
The actual tunnel begins at Caracoles in Chile, passes under the frontier, and ends at Las Cuevas. The length of the Chilean section is 4,538 feet (l,o!S3 meters); the Argentine section is 5,847 feet (1,7S2 meters); that is, 10,385 feet (3,105 meters) altogether. It is cut at 10,400 feet (3,1SS meters) alx)vc sea level. The distance by rail from the Pacific Ocean to the tunnel is about 120 miles, and from the Atlantic Ocean (the delta of the Rio de la Plata) about 700 miles. The tunnel itself is 5J meters (IS feet) high, and 5 meters (10 feet) wide—the same dimensions as the Simplon tunnel— thus allowing for an increase to standard or broad gauge, if desired. The cost was about $2,500,000.
Andljan, town, province Fergana, Russian Central Asia, on the Svr Daria, 100 m. E. of Tashkend; altitude, 1,500 ft.; terminus of branch of the Transcaspian Ry. It is famous for its gardens; grows and manufactures cotton. Pop. 50,000.
Andlru, agenusof papilionaceous plants, mostly tropical American trees. The bark of A. incrmis and A. rctusa contains purgative and emetic substances; llie pith of A. araroba provides the 'Goa powder,' or chrysarobin (q. v.), used as a remedy for certain skin diseases.
Andlrons.or Fire-dogs, thesupports on which are laid the logs of wood burned in open hearths.
Andkhul, or Andkiioi, town, Afghanistan, about 80 m. w. of lialkh, on trade route between Afghanistan and Bokhara. Pop. about 15,000.
Andocldes (439-389 B.C.), one of the ten Attic orators; a man of influential position at Athens, and of oligarchical sympathies. In 415 B.C. he was accuse:! of being concerned in the mutilation of the Herman; he turned informer, but had to leave Athens. He was banished three times afterward, and died in exile. Three genuine speeches of historical importance are extant; see editions by I)kiss (1881) and Lipsius (1890).
Andorra (Arabian, Al Darra, 'a wooded place'), a small independent republic on the Spanish side of the Pyrenees, between the French department of Arieqe and the Spanish province of I.rrida, with an area of 175 sq. m. When Louis le D£bonnaire besieged Urgel, the inhabitants of Andorra assisted him against the Saracens (805 A.n.); Louis, therefore, gave them selfgovernment, reserving certain rights, which were subsequently transferred to the Counts of Foix, and passed bv inheritance to the Bourbons. 1 he tithes and other
dues- were granted to the bishop of Urgel. On the N. side bridle-paths lead into France, by which the valley of the Ariege and the town of Ax-lcs-Thermes arc reached. The country lies high, from 3,000 ft. to peaks'of 10,000 ft. There is a considerable quantity of timber, which is a large source of revenue to the inhabitants. The arable land is rich, but limited in extent. Cultivation is pushed up the mountain sides; rye and barley, tobacco, vines, and vegetables are grown. The country is rich in iron and lead, but the mines are very little worked, the cost of transport being a hindrance to their development. There are hot mineral springs at Las Escaldas and elsewhere. The chief wealth consists of cattle, mules, sheep, goats, and pigs. Horsebreeding is an important industry. The Andorrans, about 6,000 m number, are of Spanish race, Catholics in religion, and speak a dialect of Catalan. They are poor, orderly, and industrious.
Government.—The republic of Andorra is under the joint suzerainty of France and tne Spanish bishop of Urgel. The inhabitants arc governed by a council of 24 members, elected by the heads of families. Each of the suzerains is represented by a viguier (vicar). The bishop's vieuier holds office for three years, and the French viguier for life. The vigmers and the judge of appeals constitute the supreme court. The capital is Andorra la Vella (Old Andorra), a small town of 800 inhabitants, 10 m. from Urgel. See Devercll's Valley of Andorra (1880); Spender's Through the High Pyrenees (1898).
Andover, town, Essex county, Massachusetts, comprising several villages, situate a little south of the Merrimac River. Andovcr proper lies on the cast bank of the Shawsheen River, on the Boston a:id Maine RR., 23 m. N. of Boston and 10 m. E. of Lowell. The town is the seat of Phillips Academy (for boys) and Abbot Academy (for young ladies). Its industries include manufactures of twine and thread, shoes, rubber goods, woollen goods, and printer's ink. The town was settled in 1043, and its early history was checkered by Indian forays anil bv witchcraft delusion. Sec Bailey's Historical Sketches oj A ndover. Pop. (1910) 7,301.
Andover, town in Hampshire, England. 27 m. v.w. of Southampton. It has iron works and manufactures of agricultural implements. Pop. 0,500.
Andover Theological Seminary, a divinity school under Congregational auspices, formerly at Andover, Mass., nq\v established in Cambridge, and affiliated with Harvard University. It was founded in 1S07, and is open to all Protestant students. The institution is progressive in teachings, and has been
a leader in the higher criticism which has influenced, the theology of all the Protestant churches. The productive funds amount to $800,000. Tuition is $150 per annum. In 1910 there were 22 Andover students and 30 Harvard divinity students in the school, and a faculty of 7 instructors. The library contains 01,000 volumes.
Andrada e Sylva, Bonifacio Jose Df. (1705-1838), one of the founders of Brazilian independence, was born in Santos, near Rio Janeiro. In 1819 he took a prominent part in the declaration of independence, and held the portfolios of the interior and of foreign affairs. His democratic tendencies led to his exile to France (1823-9). On the abdication of Pedro I. (1831) he undertook the education of the Prince Imperial (Pedro II.).
Andrassy, Count Gyula (182390), Hungarian statesman, was born in Zcmplin, which he represented in the Presburg Diet (1847-8). During the 'year of revolution" he espoused the cause of Hungarian independence, and was exiled, passing the years 1849-57 in France and England. Under the amnesty of 1857 he returned to his native land, and was elected a member of the Diet in 1800, where he supported the policy of Deak— that of autonomy for Hungary under the Empire—and became (1807) premier and minister of national defence. In 1871 he became foreign minister for AustriaHungary. He took a prominent part in the diplomatic transactions which preceded the Russo-Turkish War, and in the negotiations which led to the Berlin Conference.
Andrassy, Count Gyula (1800), son of the preceding, early entered political life. He was elected to the Reichstag in 1S84, made Secretary of State in 1892, and appointed minister 'near the person of the King' in 1891. He organized and led the coalition which caused the defeat of the Liberal Party under Count Stephen Tisza in 1900; and on the organization of the new ministry under Dr. Wekerele, he became minister of the interior.
Andre", John (1751-80), major in the British army, was born in London of Swiss parents. In 1771 he joined the British army, and in 1774 was ordered to America. From November, 1775, until December, 1770, he was a prisoner of war in the hands of the Americans; in 1777 he became a captain, and in I77S was made adjutant-general of the British army in the United States, and an aide to Gen. Henry Clinton, with the rank of major. He was selected by Gen. Clinton to negotiate with 'Benedict Arnold, then in command of the American fortifications at West Point, when the latter made overtures to surrender that post to the British. While returning on horseback to New