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With the present interest in this discussion, or the essential meaning of Conjugation and and activity in these studies, we may reason- Sexual Reproduction.” This essay is a highly ably hope before many years to know the truth. interesting resumé of discoveries in the process Just now, naturalists are nearly equally divided of fertilization, and the bearing of these discov. between the Neo-Darwinians, as the associateseries on Weismann's theory of heredity. of Weismann have been called, and the Neo- In general, this work cannot be too highly Lamarckians, who believe that the “ soma” praised. It contains, however, some evidence and its experiences play some part in Hered- of striving to make a point, by reasoning in ity. The majority of English writers are now what seems to be a circle. It is evident that ranged upon the former side; while in Amer many phenomena here discussed do not yet ica and France the Lamarckians are in the admit of a satisfactory explanation. Profesascendency, and the same side has probably a sor H. F. Osborne, one of our highest Amernumerical majority in Germany. Herbert ican authorities on Heredity, has predicted that Spencer observes :
the publication of this essay will mark the de“ Considering the width and depth of the effects
cline of Weismann's influence on naturalists, which the acceptance of one or the other of these hypo and the consequent re-advance of the principle theses must have on our views of Life, Mind, Morals, of Lamarck. Be this as it may, we recognize and Politics, the question, Which of them is true ? de
in Weismann's work the utterance of an honest, mands beyond all other questions whatever the atten
clear-headed, thoroughly trained worker, and tion of scientific men.”
his theory of Heredity marks an epoch in the The views of Weismann have been styled history of Evolution. the “Gospel of Despair” by some of those
David STARR JORDAN. who see the key to the elevation of the human race in the direct inheritance of the results of education, training, and ethical living. This does not, however, seem to ine a just criticism.
PICTURES FROM THE PACIFIC. * Whatever is true is true, and our philosophy
Every now and then, some world-weary soul, must adjust itself to it. The gradual advance
tired of civilization and its restraining convenof higher types is a fact accomplished, whether
tionalities, conscious of the resurgence of primit be through Natural Selection alone, or
itive instincts and no longer seeking to hold whether it be by the joint action of Natural
them in abeyance, chooses to take flight, Selection with the supposed more rapid pro
“Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife,” cess of inherited experience. The single agency
and finds in the sea rightly called Pacific somewould seem to demand longer time, but there
thing of the peace that comes from communion is time enough in a universe in which “ Time
with nature and association with the unspoiled is as long as Space is wide.” Civilization is
types of humanity. Now it is Herman Melnot so much a change in human nature as a
| ville or Charles Warren Stoddard; now it is storing up of human achievements. It has
" Pierre Loti” or Robert Louis Stevenson. been defined as “ the sum of those contriv.
And of the isles in which such wanderers find ances which enable human beings to advance
a haven we may say, as the poet says of the independent of Heredity.”
fancied isles of his imagination, The first essay in Weismann's second volume,
"Faithful reports of them have reached me oft," “ Retrogressive Development in Nature,” is a popular account of the process of degeneration
for these men have taken the world into the in Evolution from the Darwinian standpoint,
secret of their contest, and have told us, not the kiwi or wingless bird of New Zealand being
“in charactery dim," how well they succeeded taken as an illustration. The second essay, on
in that return to nature of which Rousseau and the - Musical Sense in Animals and Men,” is
Wordsworth yearningly and eloquently wrote, an attempt to explain the development of mu
but effected only imperfectly and in part. sical ability, without supposing the results of
High among the classics of the literature its cultivation to be inherited. The third essay,
that records such experiences must be placed on “ Certain Problems of the Day," is chiefly * South SEA IDYLLS. By Charles Warren Stoddard. New a defense of Weismann's own position against York : Charles Scribner's Sons.
TYPEE. A Real Romance of the South Seas. By Herman Lamarckian critics. The fourth essay, the
Melville. New York: United States Book Co. longest and most important of the series, is
OMOO. By Herman Melville. New York: United States devoted to the explanation of “ Amphimixis, Book Co.
the romantic tales of the late Herman Melville who are wonderfully imaginative and emotional; and the idyllic sketches of Mr. Charles War- they nourish the first symptoms of an affinity, ren Stoddard. These works, by a curious co- and revel in the freshness of an affection as incidence, have just found a simultaneous re.' brief and blissful as a honeymoon." Perhaps production in tasteful editions, and make their the best illustration of this text is offered by appeal to a new generation of readers. While the sketch called “ ('humming with a Savage," it can hardly be said that they have been for- and its pathetic sequel illustrates the author's gotten, they have become dusty memories to further observation that to these islanders -our many who once delighted in them, and to , civilization is a cross, the blessed promises of most younger readers they must come with all which are scarcely sufficient to compensate for the charm of novelty.
the pain of bearing it, and they are inclined to The sketches included in Mr. Stoddard's look upon our backslidings with a spirit of pro* South Sea Idylls" were published in book found forbearance." In the amusing new story form (some of them having previously appeared of - Kahele's Foreordination," Mr. Stoddard in the - Atlantic Monthly" ) in 1873. An describes his own book as the chronicle of my English edition published at the same time was emotional adolescence," and refers the reader to entitled Summer Cruising in the South Seas." "the valedictory, which was written in the days The American edition had no great success (a of my enthusiasm, while the almond tree flourfact which Mr. Howells, in a letter now pre..ished, ere the stars were darkened, and before facing the sketches, attributes to the immi. | the grasshopper had become a burden and all nence of the panic of 1873), and the English the daughters of music were brought low." edition was disfigured by hideous illustrations, Since the ** valedictory" referred to in provokgrotesquely in contrast with the delicate taste of , ingly absent from the new edition, we have a the text. The edition now published omits the double pretext for quoting its closing words : preface and epilogue of the earlier one, substi. “The night falls suddenly; the air grows cool and tutes a new sketch - A Tropical Sequence "- | moist; a great golden star mails through the sky, leaving for . The Last of the Great Waricators" (why & wake of fire. ( Island Home! made sacred with a
birth and with a death! haunted with sweet and solemn could we not have both?), and adds a new
a new memories! What if thy rocking palm boughs are as sketch - Kahèle's Foreordination"— to the muffled music and thy reef a dirge? The joy bells original group of three that conferred literary that have rung in the happy past shall ring again in the immortality upon the young Hawaiian of the hopeful future, and life grows rosy in the radiance of title.
the Afterglow." Mr. Howells, in the letter already mentioned. When Herman Melville died at his home in characterizes these idylls as the lightest, sweet. New York, a little more than a year ago, the est, wildest, freshest thing that ever were writ- : feeling most widely aroused by the news was ten about the life of that summer ocean," and one of surprise that he had been so recently adds that " no one need ever write of the South · among the living. To most men of this genSeas again." This is high praise, but is hardly eration his name is a memory of boyhood, of more than just. In their happy combination of the time when the Islands of the Pacific first humor and poetic feeliny, in their vraceful touched the youthful imagination in the pages of style, and in their simple human sympathy, the Typee" and *()moo," when the mystery of the sketches are so satisfactory that we cannot im- "taboo" first sent a delightful shudder through agine the thing being better done. In the au- the frame. The four novels that made Melville thor's orixinal preface There unpublished) be famous were published between 1846 and 1851, thus states what he has attempted to do: . The and, although his pen was at intervals active experiences recorded in this volume are the res for a long time afterwards, he did nothing to sult of four summer cruises among the islands attract any considerable share of attention durof the Pacitic. The simple and natural life of ing the last forty years of his life, becoming, the islander beguiles me: I am at home with during the latter period, more and more of a him; all the rites of savagedom find a respon- recluse. Mr. Arthur Stedman, who has edited sive echo in my heart ; it is as though I recol the new edition of the four great novels, thus lected something long forgotten ; it is like a writes of his later years : dream dimly remembered, and at last realized "His senings were spent at home with his books, his - it must be that the untamed spirit of some pictures, and his family, and usually with them alone..
..More and more, as he grew older, he avoided every acaboriginal ancestor quickens my blood. I have
· T have tion on his part, and on the part of his family, that might
tiön sought to reproduce the atmosphere of a people tend to keep his name and writings before the public. His favorite companions were his grandchildren, with whom tion of the plot and structure of the Iliad, and ilhe delighted to pass his time, and his devoted wife, who lustrations of the life and manners depicted in the was a constant assistant and adviser in his literary work,
Homeric poems. The archæological notes are adchiefly done at this period for his own amusement. ..
mirably succinct and simple, and are brought down Various efforts were made by the New York literary
to date by frequent references to Schuchhardt's colony to draw him from his retirement, but without
Schliemann, Helbig, Miss Agnes Clerke's "Familiar success.”
Studies in Homer,” and other recent aids. But we Of the new edition of Melville's novels,
think that too much space has been given to the “ Typee” and “Omoo” have been issued ;
critical discussion of the plot. Matthew Arnold wisely “ Moby Dick” and “ White Jacket” are yet advises the translator of Homer to have nothing to do to come. These are the only ones of the au with the “ Homeric question” which has been disthor's books that are likely to live, and their cussed with learning, with acumen, with genius even, vitality is due to the fact that they were writ but labors under the insuperable difficulty that there ten in the flush of youth, and largely relate the | really exist no data for deciding it. This advice writer's own stirring experience. Dr. Titus
may well be extended to the readers of translations
of Homer. Mr. Leaf is confident that he can disM. Coan, of New York, states that his father,
tinguish three - Strata " in the Iliad and demonthe Rev. Titus Coan, “ personally visited the
strate the conditions under which each was—deposMarquesas group, found the Typee Valley, and
ited. But he has not convinced Andrew Lang or verified in all respects the statements made in
the Provost of Oriel, who are quite as good Hom• Typee'”. The fact is, we are for the most erids as himself. He urges that a working theory part reading real autobiography when we turn of the plot will in any case stimulate interest in the the pages of these fascinating South Sea ro study of the poem. This is unfortunately only too mances, and knowledge of this may give them true. But it is the wrong kind of interest-an ina charm that they did not have even for the
terest like that awakened by reconstructions of Macboy. It is worth noting that the present edi
beth as a Greek play, for example. It will not tion of " Typee” restores certain passages, sup
help the English reader to a joyous appreciation of
the supreme poetic beauty of the Iliad, to the emopressed in earlier editions, relating to South
tional uplifting which Keats, himself a student of Sea missionaries and their peculiar methods.
translations, felt and compared to the thrill that stirs While Melville's novels have always had a the watcher of the skies when a new planet swims steady if moderate sale, both in this country into his ken. Mr. Leaf, like many other scholars, and in England, it is fortunate that renewed believes that this cannot be taught, and somewhat attention should have been called to them by inconsistently argues that it is an insult to the the present attractive issues. They are classics reader's intelligence to point out to him beauties of their kind, and the world cannot afford to
which he can discern for himself. But this is a
serious error. The majority of us in our unregenforget them. William MORTON PAYNE. erate state, with the natural man's taste for bathos
still strong within us, are almost wholly wanting in
the sense for distinctive literary beauty. But the BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS.
development of this sense can be fostered by the
right kind of teaching and interpretation of a great The question of the study of the
classic, as it can be checked and suppressed by the Classics by means classics through translations is one
wrong. A companion to the Iliad should omit the utions, which scholars can no longer ignore.
Homeric question and fill up the space so gained It is forced upon them by the educational condi
with poetry. tions of an age which imperatively demands the culture of Greek literature but has no room for
NEOHELLENICA (Macmillan), an in
A novel introphilological niceties on the programmes of its sec
troduction to modern Greek in the ondary schools. If Greek scholars will not show
: form of dialogues arranged in parthe public how to use the translations, the University allel columns, Greek and English, by Professor Extension lecturer and the Hegelian allegorist will, Michael Constantinides and Major-General H. T. and the last state of the “ college fetich" will be Rogers, is very interesting reading. Incidentally worse than the first. In recognition of this demand, it will convince any Greek student who undertakes Mr. Walter Leaf, favorably known to Homer stu- its perusal of the truth of the assertion made in the dents as the author of the best edition of the Iliad, preface that one who has a competent knowledge has prepared under the title of “A Companion to of ancient Greek can learn the modern language in the Iliad" ( Macmillan) a selection of exegetic notes a month. But let no rash disciple of Professor which will enable the English reader to study his Blackie imagine that the reverse relation holds good. "Lang, Leaf, and Myer" with something of the crit- The dialogues are cast in the form of a continued ical attention which the scholar bestows on the orig- conversation, on a journey from London to Athens, inal. The notes are mainly devoted to the elucida- between a hypothetical Professor of Greek whose
progress in the modern idiom is astounding, and a
CHARLES ACGUSTUS STODDARD'S cultivated modern Greek who is the fortunate pose in the only · Spanish Cities" (Scribner) is a sessor of a phenomenal memory and a well-filled
pleasantly-written narrative, with an note-book. The obliging Greek beguiles the tedium epistolary flavor, of the author's recent trip to leadof the journey by producing from the storehouse of ing Spanish cities and points of interest. Gibraltar his memory or note-book selections that illustrate and Tangier were included. Mr. Stoddard has inthe gradual evolution of the language from the terlarded the record of his personal experience with third century B. (. to our own day. Gibbon has apposite historical and descriptive citations, so that told us how even - In their low *st depression the sub his book, aside from its general readableness, makes jects of the Byzantine throne were still possessed of a fair guide-book to the route traversed. Spain is a musical and prolific language that gives a soul to justly becoming a point of increased interest to the objects of sense and a body to the abstrac- European tourists desirous of getting away from tions of philosophy." And Mrs. Browning has said the beaten track. Its picturesque civilization, remany beautiful things of the language that lived taining through the conservatism of its people so much so long and died so hard. -- pang by pang, each of the atmosphere and the material shell or exuvia of with a dolphin color, - yielding reluctantly to that the past, its fine natural scenery, and, above all, its doom of death and silence which must come at last art treasures, amply repay tourists willing to brave to the speaker and the speech." But the mere titles the rather primitive arrangements of Spanish hotels of the extracts in this book are more impressive than and railroads; and these, as our anthor testifies, the eloquence of the historian and the poetess. Here are not so black as they have been painted. The is the first chapter of Genesis in the version made gallery at Madrid is perhaps the finest in the world, by the Seventy for King Ptolemy and the students and has the important distinction that its gems are of Alexandria, and also in the version which Ameri- undoubtedly authentie, the most important of them can Protestant missionaries distribute in the bar. having been painted by special order for the pal. racks of the Greek army today. Here is a letter of aces of Spain, whose inventories designate them unthe Emperor Julian describing the Latin Quarter mistakably by number and description. The Maof Paris and the Island of the Seine as they ape drid gallery boasts forty-six paintings by Murillo, peared 1300 years ago, here is a letter from the great sixty-four by Velasquez, fifty-eight by Ribera, ten modern Greek scholar Corais, describing as an eve by Raphael, forty-three by Titian, twenty-five by witness the events of the days of October" in the Veronese, sixty by Rubens, fifty by Teniers, and French Revolution ; and here a letter of Cardinal twenty-two by Van Dyck. The Raphaels are all Bessarion written thirteen years after the capture noteworthy, and Titian is nowhere more characterof ('onstantinople by the Turks, concerning the edu- istically represented. Our author's notion of a bullcation in Italy of the nephews of the last Constan- fight is annusing, and probably not wide of the mark: tine. Specimens are also given of an old transla- * I have no special sympathy for the bull as an antion of Guarini's * Pastor Fido" with the Italian imal ; but if I cared to see him dextrously killed, text for comparison ; of a translation of Dante by I would choose a brawny Chicago butcher, who hits Constantine Musurus, sometime Turkish embassador the ball with his club, and kills him in a minute, in at London ; of Byron's Giaour" and of - Ham- ' preference to the splendidly decorated iron-incased let" in the versions which are still meditated by in- blackguards, called picnlores and espadas, who genious aspirants for literary glory at the l’niver worry the unfortunate animal for twenty minutes, sity of Athens; and passages of the ** Odyssey "are allow him to disembowel a dozen horses, and then presented in the original, in modern Greek and in plunge a rapier into his heart, all for the amusement Butcher and Lang's English. There are Greek of a crowd of cowards, who, if the bull leaps the songs which are still sung among the peasantry of railing, as he sometimes does, run shrieking from Greece, songs collected and transliterated by Italian the onset." The descriptions of street incidents, savants among the surviving Greek population of palaces, cathedrals, and picture galleries, the Es. ('alabria, ballads and satires of the Middle Ages, corial and the Alhambra, are lightly yet graphicballads of the Greek War of Independence, and ally done, and there are several fair illustrations modern lyrics composed on the approved Byronic from photographs. The book makes a good supmodels by the sophisticated young Greeks of today. plement to Mr. Finck's Spain and Morocco." And accompanying all these are copious historic ex. tracts from the chronicles of every age, in which
THE · Life and Letters of Charles
The inte leters the experiences of the Greek people, in ancient
tropis Samuel Keene," whilom illustrator Greece, under the domination of the Romans and
of " Punch." is the title of a work of the Turks, in modern Italy, and in the liber prepared by Mr. George Somes Layard, and pubated Greece of our time, are recounted by them- lished (Macmillan ) in a roval octavo volume of selves. And all this is written in a dead language marked beauty. The illustrations are very numer. which the thoroughly trained American student of ous, and here do the artist inore credit than their Demosthenes and Plato can learn to read in a publication in - Punch," for the natural reason that week.
much of their character was lost in the process of
a study in
wood-engraving. In this volume they are photo | book, and it is perhaps needless to say that the ilgraphically reproduced from the original pen-and- | lustrations possess an artistic value rare in publicaink drawings, and in one case the woodcut is printed tions of the kind. Mr. Millet's drawings are spirupon the opposite page for comparison. Mr. Lay ited and graphic, and many of Mr. Parsons's bits of ard's text is made up mostly of Keene's letters, but landscape and waterscape recall his charming illushe draws also upon the reminiscences of friends, and trations to Wordsworth. The trip was made in supplies not a little connective tissue of his own. three canoes as nearly alike in dimensions and finKeene knew a great many interesting people in the ish as the skill of a famous East River builder could course of his life, and the book is filled with inter- make them. They measured fifteen feet in length, esting personalia. The following anecdote about thirty inches in width, and about eighteen inches Edward Fitz Gerald relates to a subject that Keene in extreme depth, and the whole weight in cruising was urged to put into a drawing, but refused to trim is placed by the author at two hundred pounds. handle on the score that it might be thought The party embarked at Donaueschingen, and Mr. painful. The story is told by one of the artist's Millet gives a detailed account of the voyage, which oldest friends. “While yachting one day with my was accomplished, happily, without any more seribrother and myself, Fitz Gerald was jerked over ous mishap than the ignominious “ blowing-up” and board by a sudden “jibe,' a mishap which he had severe humiliation of Mr. Bigelow (the self-constibeen warned might very likely happen. He was tuted cook of the party ) by a coffee-machine of his calmly reading a Greek play at the time, and when own invention. Mr. Bigelow has, we think, modwe fished him inboard the book was held still in estly passed over this incident in his own book. his hand, and he quietly resumed his reading. I fear I may have hinted that reading a Greek play
It is something of a novelty to deal
The Bible as was deemed rather dry work, but was hardly so in
with chapters from the Bible solely
English pros his case; and I remember he declined a proffered
style. as masterpieces of literature and to change of clothes, saying no harm could be done by consider them exclusively as examples of literary a ducking in salt water.” This anecdote must style. Such, however, is the point of view of Prof. stand for the many with which these charming Albert S. Cook in “ The Bible and English Prose pages are filled. Mr. Layard's memoir. is sym Style” (Heath); and the work has been exceedingly pathetic; we extract from it two or three of the
well done. In the Introduction, Prof. Cook claims closing sentences. “To the public his work was so
that one of the chief agencies in the continually • easy' and so coarse' that there seemed to them
growing enrichment and ennoblement of the Ennothing wonderful in it at all. It would have as glish language has been and is the influence, direct tonished them, and does indeed now astonish them, and indirect, of the Bible. This has been accomto be told that there is not, nor indeed has been, plished not only through the employment of its
passages in direct quotation and allusion, but through since the days of the elder Holbein, another who the model it presents of a style of noble naturalness. could give us work equal in delicacy to that of It appeals to human nature in all its divisions,— Charles Keene.” His was a plain, unvarnished life. | to sensibility, to intellect, to the imagination, to the and in these pages it has been the endeavor to tell will. The best English prose style to-day is the one a plain, unvarnished tale in keeping therewith. which presents most of the Biblical qualities in modThe keynotes to his character seem to have been his ern guise. Following the Introduction are illusunaffected love of all that was true, and honest, and trative comments consisting of citations from nupure, as he saw it, combined with what Mr. George
merous authors on such subjects as Rhythm of the Meredith, in writing to me of him, has aptly called
Bible, Rhetorical Features of the Biblical Language, • his transparent frankness.'”
its English Imitators, etc. The Biblical Selections
occupy sixty pages, being just half the number in Danubian scenery
F. D. MILLET'S “ The Danube From the little volume, and consist of the twenty-six chappictured by the Black Forest to the Black Sea ” ters which the mother of John Ruskin required him pen and pencil.
V. (Harper) is the literary and artistic to learn by heart, and by which he feels that she result of a Danubian canoe trip planned by Mr. established his soul in life.” Poultney Bigelow (author of “Paddles and Politics,” reviewed in our last number,) and Messrs.
DR. RICHARD GARNETT's charming Alfred Parsons and F. D. Millet, the well-known
edition of the works of Thomas Love artists. According to the original design, Mr. Bige
Peacock, published by Macmillan & low was to have supplied the text of the volume, Co., is now completed by a supplementary volume and Messrs. Parsons and Millet the drawings — of miscellanies. After an editorial introduction, the former doing the landscape and the latter the the volume opens with a brief paper in which Sir figures ; but Mr. Bigelow leaving the party after pass Edward Strachey, Bart., has jotted down some ing the Iron Gates, the literary task devolved upon personal recollections of Peacock, whom he knew in Mr. Millet, who has acquitted himself thereof with the India House over sixty years ago. The rest of much credit. The narrative is fuller and the treat the volume is Peacock's own, and includes “Some ment more serious than in Mr. Bigelow's sketchy | Recollections of Childhood," the romantic fragment