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earliest court of justice, the other the most ancient place of public assembly: for the temple of Apollo, the Metroum, the Buleuterium, and the Tholus, were all public offices and places of registration, and hence were called the Archives (to upycia)'.
It seems to have been with reference to the situation of the Council-house in the valley, below the hill of Mars, that the council of Areiopagus was the avio /3ouXi), in the same manner as the court was named the tiravio Sucaornpiov, as contrasted in situation with another court, the Helisea, which was its rival in importance, and was situated on lower ground2. And for a similar reason, perhaps, the people when assembled in the Pnyx, was said to be sitting aloft3.
Of the successive objects, described by Pausanias, between the Stoa Eleutherius and the statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, the Metroum alone is not stated to have been near that which precedes it in his narrative, namely, the temple of Apollo. On the other hand, as both he and Demosthenes show that the Metroum was near the Council-house, between which and the statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, the successive objects are described by Pausanias as near to one another, it is probable that all these were in the hollow between the Propylsea and the southern side of the Areiopagus, and that there was a considerable distance between the temple of Apollo Patrous and the Metroum'. The exact situation of the Metroum may be in some degree inferred from Arrian, who states its situation relatively to the statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, which he describes as situated at the ascent of the Acropolis opposite to the Metroum. Thus it appears that as the court of Areiopagus and the temple of Eumenides were opposite to the grotto of Pan and the north-western angle of the Propylaea", the Metroum was opposite to the temples of Victory and Venus, and consequently to the southward of the court of Areiopagus, and probably in an elevated situation, so that the statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, facing the westward, looked over several intermediate monuments, situated in the hollow between the Acropolis and hill of Mars, and directly upon the Metroum.
1 See several of the authorities cited, p. 113, n. 5. p. 114, n. 1. 5. p. 115, n. 3.4. Iu the Rhetorical Lexicon, ap. Bekker. Anecd. Gr. I. p. 264, the Tholus is described as Tovoq 7«c iv roic ap\tioiQ.
We may even include among the apyiia, the statues of the Eponymi; for here, before the time of Solon, the archon Eponymus held his court (Suid. in "Apyiav), probably in the open air; and, according to a regulation of that legislator, those intending to propose laws, suspended their bills at the Eponymi. Demosth. c. Timocr. p. 705, Reiske. Suid., Phot. Lex. in 'Eruwuot.
1 'ettovui BiKaoriiptov Ka't uiroKarb)' iiravw fiev ducaariiptov To iv 'Aptii.) Tray<i>, itm yap iv viirfKo) \6<jim' Karu) 8e To iv I.i«',\w Ttvt Tovif. Lex. ap. Bekker. Anecd. Gr. I. p. 253. The lower appears from Didymus (ap. Harpocrat., in 6 Karudev v6/iog) to have been the Heliaea.
s Ilac 6 irjfioc &vu KaQfJTo. Demosth. pro Cor. p. 285, Reiske.
Tov cijfiov Kadrjucvov uvu. Plutarch. Nic. 7.
About the centre of the hollow between the
1 The connexion of these two buildings in the narrative, instead of being local as in the other instances, consists in the similarity of the words Patrous and Metroum. See above, p. 113.
'Attic. 28, 4. See above, p. 159, 165.
heights of Acropolis and Areiopagus, we may place the altar of the Twelve Gods: for although Pausanias does not mention this altar, we know that it was near the statue of Demosthenes', and the latter according to Pausanias was near the temple of Mars. Such a position in the centre of the most ancient Agora, seems well adapted as well to the use and purposes of that renowned altar, as to the fact that it was employed as the point from whence distances were measured2. Near it was the Perischcenisma, a flexible inclosure, noted as being the place where votes of Exostracism were taken 3; and adjacent to the statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton was an orchestra or platform for dancing, such as were used before the invention of the theatre4.
Of the Odeium, which according to Pausanias Ancient
stood near Enneacrunus, not a vestige now remains; but a few remarks concerning it may assist in elucidating the topography of Athens. It is evident that this Odeium is not to be confounded with the Odeium constructed by Pericles, with a pointed roof, resembling the pavilion of Xerxes, that edifice having been adjacent to the Dionysiac theatre'. It seems equally clear that the Odeium, near Enneacrunus was the elder of the two, and that when the improved building of Pericles had superseded it as a place for recitation and music2,it was made subservient to those various uses of a different kind, with which its name is connected in many of the ancient authors. In particular, it appears to have been employed as one of the places for depositing and measuring grain and meal belonging to the state, and for the hearing of causes before the Sitophylaces and Metronomi'.
1 Vit. X. Rhet. in Demosth. See above, p. 116, n. 4.
2 Herodotus (2, 7) mentions the distance from this altar to the temple of Jupiter at Olympia; and a tetrastich inscription, unfortunately imperfect, reported by Chandler (Ins. Ant. p. 53. Boeckh C. Ins. Gr. No. 525), had recorded the number of stades from this point to the Peiraeeus: most probably forty-three.
5 See above, p. 162, n. 6.
* Opx'JTpa: vpiiiTOV iKXi'idr] iv rrj ayopij.' tlra Kill rov Otarpov To K6.tu ti/iiKvuXoy, ov Kai o< \opol ycov Kui top-^ouyro. Phot. Lex. in V. 'Opx^crrpa' To Too Bedrpov fiiaov -j(bipiov Kai Tuitoq inityaviiQ tie iraviiyvpiv, ivda'Apftodiov Kai 'AptaroyitTovoQ I'ikoviq. Tima?i Lex. Platon. in v. The three kinds of dance were called irv^piyr\ the military, aUiviiq the sacred, and KopSaKiaftoc the comic. Etym. M. in dp\r\i7Tai.
The elder Odeium was prior in date to the Dionysiac theatre, which was founded about the year 500 B.C., when the inventive genius of ^Eschylus and Agatharcus was rapidly bringing the drama to perfection', and when a fatal accident, caused perhaps by the excessive numbers who flocked to see the splendid novelties of the scene, destroyed the wooden structure which had before served for a place of spectacle, and suggested to the Athenians the necessity of some construction more solid and more worthy of the improved drama1. The upper part of the Dionysiac inclosure was chosen for this purpose, probably on the same site, which had been occupied by the rfI<cpia or wooden construction3. The Odeium
'See above, p. 138.
"Plutarch speaking of the new Odeium built by Pericles, and the musical contest which he established there in the Panathenaea, adds, iBtUvTO Si /tat Tutc xai Toy aWov -)(p6vov iv Lliiiiw roue fiovaiKoxiQ ay u vac. Peric. 13.
3 Ot fiiv t/uHv ovirip "Ap\u)v' oi St Trap'a roue "EvStxa (i.e. in Parabysto).
Ot S' iv 'iliceiifi SiKa£ovo. Aristoph. Vesp. 1103.
Demosth. c. Phorm. p. 918, Reiske. c. Neaer. p. 1362. c. Leptin. p. 467. Lys. Kara rue SiiToirwXwv p. 717. Aristot. ;ip. Harpoc. in MtTpovo/ioi, Stro^vXaiccc. Suid. in 'ilict'iov. Harpoc, Phot. Lex., in Merp. Sir. Bekker. Anecd. Gr. I. p. 278, 300. There appear to have been ten of each of these officers in the city, and five in Peiraeeus. See Boeckh's Public (Economy of Athens, I. p. 67, 113.
1 primura Agatharchus Athenis, .flSschylo docente tragoediam, scenam fecit, et de ea coromentarium reliquit. Ex eo moniti Democritus et Anaxagoras de eadem re scripserunt, quemadmodum oporteat ad aciem oculorum radiorumqne extensionem, certo loco centro constitute, ad lineas ratione naturali respondere, uti de incerta re certas imagines sedificiorum in scenarum picturis redderent speciem, et quae in directis planisque frontibus sint figurata, alia abscedentia, alia prominentia esse videantur. Vitruv. 7. in praef.
2 This accident happened, according to Suidas (in Upariyat), in the 70th Olympiad, during the representation of a piece by Pratinas: imticucwfilvov Be Tovtov, Bvve[3ti Tci iKpia, i<f> lav tOTTiKioav ol Otarai, ntaeiv, Ka\ Ik Tovtov To Biarpov «voco/ji'/oi; 'A6r)vaioiQ.
'Kp/a . . . a<f i3v edtuvTO, lrporoi/ iv Atoyioov diarpov ytvioQai. Hesych. in v. See the same in Photius, who adds erroneously iv Tij (Vyopy.
Pratinas, according to Suidas, was of Phlius, contended in tragedy with jEschylus and Choerilus, and was the first to write satires. Many persons are said to have been killed on this occasion.
'This construction was perhaps a contrivance for giving, by means of wooden benches, a semicircular continuity to the natural form of that part of the hill which afterwards, by means of excavations in the rocks, formed the middle part of the theatre.