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had before this time been employed us the place where the rhapsodi and musicians exercised their art'. The name alone, derived from y'Si), a song, implies a priority of date to the OtaTpov, or place of spectacle, as, in the dramatic art, song and monological recitation preceded dialogue and scenery. The combination of all these, in the form of the regular drama, caused the invention of the theatre, the design and construction of which was a natural improvement upon the Odeium, which itself had been an improvement upon the simplest form of a place of public assembly, as exemplified in the Pnyx2. The theatre had the advantage of containing the greatest possible number in the smallest space, and at the shortest possible distance of each person from the stage: and being open to the sky, it had not any of those interruptions to the eye or ear which, in every Odeium of large dimensions, were opposed by the columns supporting the roof or galleries3.

ro7TO£ tort Otarpoticiit, iv j? ilwdatri 7roti//iara airayyiXKav, n-piy Tijg tic To Qiarpov aVnyycX./ac" Schol. Aristoph. Vesp. 1104. ro7roc, kv t> irplv To Oiarpov KaTUontvaodrjvai, o't pascal Ka\ oi KiBapycoi iiy<i)vi(ovTO. Jlesych. in 'Cltcuov. See above, p. 246, n. 2.

2 We find the Odeium described as a sort of theatre, wairip Oiarpov (Suidas in v.), or as resembling the thymele of a theatre (Odeium pars quasdam theatri, quas nunc thymele vocatur, Alexand. Aphrod. in Metaph. 3, ex vers. J. Genesii), which suggests exactly the idea of the pit of a modern theatre, and seems to show that the original Odeium was constructed nearly on the same plan as the Pnyx, but on a smaller scale, and covered with a roof.

3 Odeia appear to have been generally remarked for their numerous columns. Ttobvi itat Kioviq rov 'ilitfti'ov. Theophr.

Other cities of Greece soon followed the example of Athens in the construction of Odeia and Theatres, and these words were in process of time universally applied, Qiarpov to the open semicircular edifice, commonly constructed on the side of a hill, which each city possessed for its larger assemblies of every kind, and ^Suov to a smaller roofed building of the same kind, chiefly destined to music, but, like the theatre, often employed also for meetings upon public affairs. At length there was scarcely a town, however small, in any of the countries in which Grecian civilization prevailed, that did not possess a theatre, while all the larger cities had two or three. Hundreds of these, more or less preserved, still attest in all the Greek or Roman countries of Europe, Asia, and Africa, the obligations of the ancient world to the Athenians for these inventions.

In passing immediately from the mention of Enneacrunus to that of the temple of Demeter and Core, with the simple remark that the temple was beyond the fountain (un-tp ryv /cprjvjjv)1, Pausanias has left us to discover that the Ilissus flowed between them. Of this there can be no question, for we

Caract. 3. The Odeium of Pericles was iroXvtlpov cat no\vcrrv\oy. Plutarch Pericl. 13. Diodorus (1,48) describes the tomb of Osymandyas as supported by columns and built like an Odeium, otKov viroarvXoy, ui tinu rpoiroy Kartotcivaofiiyoy. The numerous seats and columns, in the tent-shaped building of Pericles, leave little or no doubt that in this improved Odeium there was, as in that of Herodes and others, a rising succession of seats, like those of a theatre, and a gallery, as well as a roof, supported by columns. 1 See above, p. 119.

know that the lesser Eleusiniau mysteries were celebrated in Agrse, and were hence called ra

'Aypatf) 01' ra kv AypaQ, or ra 7rpoc Aypav ' : that Agrae

was a suburb of Athens, to the left of the Ilissus2, the water of which was employed in the sacred lustrations of those mysteries \ and that there was a sanctuary of Ceres in Agra? \ near the river. It can scarcely be doubted, therefore, that the temple of that deity near Enneacrunus was the scene of the mysteries, and it becomes highly probable that some foundations, which were observed by Stuart on the left bank of the river nearly opposite to Enneacrunus, were those of the temple of Ceres in Agrae. Temple of The words of Pausanias seem equally to show that mus. the temple of Triptolemus was that beautiful little Ionic building which, in the time of Stuart, formed a church, called that of Panaghia on the Rock {Ylavayla Ottjv wtTpav), but which has now totally disappeared, and has been preserved only from oblivion by the drawings of his Antiquities of Athens *.

1 Plutarch. Demetr. 26. Cleideraus in "Aypai ap. Bekker. Anecd. Gr. I. p. 326. Dionys. Perieg. 424. Himer. ap. Phot. Myriobibl. p. 1119. Stephan. in 'Aypcu. Eustath. ad II. B. 852.

'Plato Phaedr. 6. Pausan. Att. 19, 6. 7.

jfuplov rijt 'attuci/c irpo rijc Itoxewc. Stephan. 1. 1.

A 'Tavra fiiv S>) ovviBivro irapa Toy 'liiaabv, oZ Tov Kadapfibv

rtXovai vols IXaTToat fivoriipLoit. Polyaen. Strateg. 5,17. Himer. Orat. 3, p. 432, Wernsdoif.

4 \iifirjrpo( tepov t£ai r»;c TroXtwc Trpoc ry 'IXiao-p. Suid. in "Aypa. V. et Hesych. in "Aypat. Phavorin., Etym. M. in "Aypa.

1 I. 2. It was an arnphiprostyle forty-two feet long, and twenty broad, on the upper step of the stylobate. There were

AsPausanias, having first spoken of theEleusinium, Temple of and then described the temple of Triptolemus, places Eucleiathat of Eucleia "still further (in an-oiTtpw)," in the same direction1, we may infer that it was near the left bank of the Uissus, to the south-west of the site of the church of Panaghia on the rock, probably at the church of Aghia Marina, which stands a little to the left of the place where the modern road from Athens to Sunium crosses the Ilissus; for both Wheler and Stuart considered this church to have been the site of an ancient building2.

four columns at either end, one foot nine inches in diameter above the spreading basis. Those at the eastern end stood before a pronaos of ten feet in depth, leading by a door seven feet wide into a crijKos of fifteen and a half feet; the breadth of both twelve feet.

1 See above, p. 119.

2 Wheler's Travels, p. 379. Stuart's Antiq. of Athens, III. v.

SECTION V.

Second Part of the Route of PausaniasFrom the
Stoa Basileius to the Prytaneium.

After having finished the first branch of his tour

through Athens, and resumed his original situation

at the Stoa Basileius, Pausanias proceeds to describe

the parts of the city to the northward of the ridges

of Areiopagus and Acropolis '.

Hephies- The first building which he encounters beyond the

Temple of Stoa Basileius, and beyond the limits of the Cera

UranL meicus, is the Hephaesteium, or temple of Vulcan and

Astic Gate. Minerva, near which was that of Venus Urania.

Poecile.

He then proceeds to the Stoa Poecile, and states that, in approaching it, there was a gate surmounted by a trophy. He then describes the Poecile, notices a few objects in the Agora, and shows that the Gymnasium of Ptolemy was not far from the Agora, and that the Theseium was near that gymnasium. He then describes the Anaceium, or temple of the Dioscuri; the Agraulium, which was above that temple, and the Prytaneium, which was near the Agraulium.

Of these places the Theseium alone remains to give evidence of its position; but as the Agraulium

1 See above, p. 119—12G.

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