« السابقةمتابعة »
•Kit, and hare often been miraculous!} (Ted by
clinging to ropes.
UptetHnr of a boat. If * person should tall out of * boat, or Jieboat upset by going fool of a cable, tec. or should he fall off the quays, or indeed fall into any water, from which ne cannot extricate himself, but must wait some little time for assistance—had he presence of mind enough to whip off his hat, and hold it by the brim, placing his fingers within aide of the crown, (top upwards) he would be able, by this method, to keep his mouth above water till assistance should reach him. It often happens that danger is apprehended long before we are involved in the peril, although there may be time enough to prepare this, or adopt any other method. Travellers, in fording rivers at unknown fords, or where shallows are deceitful, might make use of this method with advantage.
Provide a cork waistcoat, composed of (bur pieces, two for the breast and two for the back, each pretty near in length and breadth to the quarters of a waistcoat without flaps; the whole is to be covered with coarse canvass, with two holes to put the arms through. There must be a space left between the two back pieces, and the same betwixt each back and breast piece, that they may fit the easier to the body. By this means the waistooat it open only before, and may be fastened on the wearer by strings; or if it should be thought more secure, with buckles and leather straps. This waistcoat may be made up for five or six shillings.
If those who use the sea occasionally, and especially those who are obliged to be almost constantly there, were to use these waistcoats, it would he next to impossible that they should be drowned.
Further meant. It will likewise be proper to prepare an oil skin bag, on going to sea, for a temporarr supply of j (wovisions, in case of shipwreck. If suddenlv plunged into the water, and unable to swim, it wifl be necessary to keep the hands and arms under the water—few animals being capnble of drowning, owing to their inability to lift their fore legs over their beads.
The legs, therefore, being neceasarily immersed | in the water, the difference between the specific praviiy of the animal ami the water, is sufficient to enable it to keep its nostrils and mouth above the water, and therefore it is not suffocated by the fluid, but breathes freely. But man, on the contrary, being able to lift his hands over his head, and generally doing so in case of this accident, his hands and arms make up the difference in specific
Cvity, and his head, impelled b_\ the weight of hands and arms below the water, his body fills, and lie is consequently choked and suffocated. The remedy therefore is, in all such eases, to keep down the hands and arms, and as a further security, to act with them under and against the water. It will then be imfioasible to sink, unless the weight of clothes or other circumstances operate to the sonliary.
The marine $pencer. Tlie marine spencer is made in the form of a girdle, of a proper diameter to fit the body, and si \ inches broad, eom|Hised of about 500 old tavern t«rka, strung upon a strong twine, well lashed toplher with lay-eord, covered with canvass, and pointed in oil so as to make it water-proof. Two Li|ies of cords, about two feet long, are fastened I to the back of the girdle with loops at the ends. I Another tape or cord of the same length, having a t fc w corks strung to the middle of it, is covered \ v All canvass painted. A pin of hard wood, three' a) H
| inches long and half an inch in nVanKter is fastened to the front of the girdle by a ta^c or conl, about three inches long. To use the spencer, it should be slidden from the feet close up to the arms, the tapes or cords are to be brought one over each shoulder, ami fastened by the loops to the pin: those between the legs are to be fastened to the other pin. A person thus equipped, though unacquainted with swimming, may safelv trust himself to the waves; for he will float, head and shoulders above water, in any storm, and by paddli'v witn his hands, may easily gain the shore. Such a spencer may also be made of cork shavings put into a long canvass bag.
It has also been suggested, that every ]au-t of the usual dress of the sailor should be made with a view of preserving his life, in eases of accident; and for this purpose that a quantity of cork shavings or clippings should be quilled into his jacket about the eollar and neck, between the outride and inside lining: or as a belt, of considerable breadth across the back and shoulders, then principally omitted under the arms, and resumed over the chest and stomach, yet not so much as to create inconvenience. If in these, and other (tails of his dress, so much cork could commodiously be worked, as would give the sailor an opportunity of recovering himself, and making use of his own powers in cases of contingency, many valuable lives might be saved.
Bamboo habit. The bamboo habit is an invention of the Chines % by the use of which, a person unskilled in the art of swimming, may easily keep himself above water. The Chinese merchants, when going on a voyage, are said always to provide themselves with this simple apparatus, to save their livea in eases of danger from shipwreck. It is constructed by placing four bamboos horizontally, two before, and two behind the body of each person, so that they project about twenty-eight inches; these are crossed on each side by two others, and the whole properiv secured, leaving an intermediate space for the body. When thus formed, the person in danger slips it over his head, and ties it securely to the waixt, by which simple means he cannot possibly sink.
I To extricate prrmmt from broken ice.
Let two or more persons hold a rope or ropes, at both ends, stretched over the broken ice; so Ilia! the drowning person mav catch hold of it.
The ofc boat. The life-boat is generally thirty feet long, and in form much reseirbliog a common Greenland boat, except the bottom, which is much flatter. She is lined with cork, inside and outside of the gunwale, about two feet in breadth, and the seals underneath are filled with cork also.
She is rowed by ten men, double banked, and steered by two men with oars, one at each end, both ends being alike. Long poles are provided for the men, to keep the boat from being driven broadside to the shore, either in going off or landing. About six inches from the lower poles, it increases in diameter, so as to form a flat surface against the sand. The weight of the cork Owed is) the boat is about seven ewL
She draws very little water, and when full is able to carry twenty people. The boat is able to contend against the most tremendous sea and broken water; and never, in any one instance. Las she failed in bringing the crew in distress into a place of safety. The men have no dread in going off with her in the highest sea and broken water: cork jackets were provioed for them; but tlieir eonlifidence in the boat is so great, that they do not Im The sneers* rv^';nj'!in expedient for diminishing the nnmtwr of unhappy individuals almost ■' ..'s> i- -tf in a watery grave, appears to have been *«ore than equal-tn the mn< sanguine expectations formed of its utility; and thr great object in view, * / the safety of those permna who nazard their n»n security to preserve others, has been folly ac
ftttfe «uf readily cnnstrncted hfe-Soat. In April, IV**, * model of a life-boat was evhihited before the Royal Humane Society, which may ti p*it rofrether in the space of half an hoar, in any ease of shipwreck, and which cannot sink or overset, let the aea rnn ever to high. AH that la necessary to be provided it, a keel or plank of any eonfmrnf length, and a few pip of iron, such aa venneh usually carry ont for ballast. The officers *f the ship are to take care to keep two or three empty water-cask*, perfectly tight, the bung-holes eorfced up, and a piece of tin or leather Railed over them. fheae casks are to be lashed with ropes to the Keel, along with the pigs of iron for ballast; and any spare poles or spars may be alto I a died lo the sides, to as to give the raft the form of a vcaael, and at men end to make a lodgement for the men. Any of the square sails of the ship will form a Ing-sail, and may speedily be adapted t'i the new hfe-hoat, and a strong and broad spar may he la*h'*d on as a rudder.
jimtltcT.—Let a quantity of ballast, even more than what is commonly used for tailing, be laid in the bottom of the boat, over this lay bags tilled with c-ork, prepared for the purpose, and numbered ■reording to their places, and if considerably higher than the gunwales to much the better; a sail or part of one folded may be thrown over from stem tn Kern, lo combine and unite the several purity and lastly, the whole it to be secured together hy patting ropes by so many turns as may
be deemed --.Hi round and round over the
gUMWsles and under the keel, and theae, if accessary, may he .litvhed by a turn or two taken
Krery person either on board or holding by the lifint, N prepared, may be absolutely certain of being eartled aafe through any breach whatever.
When no ttirh preparation of cork has been inndr, the following is proposed aa a anbatitute:
I jet it »|«w»»iit of ballast, as coals in canvass, be •retired *« pin**, as well aa circumatancea will admttt lafconn empty water cask (beer cask,
Mr ftftr tdhert tlwt are tight) and fill the boat with
It i. «|umtly happens that after men have gained Him •ii'ire, they perish of cold tor want of dry •I itbt-s As a remedy for this, every man should My I'* secure one or two flannel or woollen shirts, MV wrsp|»ii»g them up tightly in a piece of oiled tJifth or silk; and to guard against tearing, the last mi|(ht be covered with canvass, or inclosed in a tin
/ .W"' method of preservation in cases of shipwreck*.
It being tl»e great object, in cases of shipwreck, to establish a communication betwixt the vessel • ■■ the shore with Uie least possible delay, various
methods have been invented and pointed ■
A common ^aper kite launched from the 1
, posed capable of conveying a piece of \
to which a larger rope might be attached and drawn on board.
A small balloon, raised by rarmed air might be made to answer the same purpose.
A sky rocket, of a large diameter, ban also been considered aa capable ot an equal service, and, indeed, this method seems the best; tor besides the velocity of the discharge, could it be brought to act daring the night, it must both point out the sstuae tion of the ship, and the direction that the line took in frting ashore.
Useful kinU when a leak is sprunsj. When a vessel springs a leak near her bottom, the water enters with ail the force given by the; weight of the column of water without, which lore*; is in proportion to the difference of the Level beI tween the water without and that within. It enters *| therefore with more force at first, awl in greater 'quantity than it can afterwards, when the water within is higher. The bottom of the vessel, toa, is narrower, so that the xme quantitv of sssaxer coming into that narrow part, riaes mater tluua when the space for it is larger. This helps to ; terrify. Bat as the quantity entering is leas ana lean, as the surfaces without and within r
more nearly equal m height, the psmapa that cawaitft
Besides the greater equality in the height of die two surfaces, there may sometimes be other snasssesi that retard the farther sinking of a leaky vessel. The rising wafer within may arrive at quantities oc" light wooden works, empty chests, and particularly empty water casks, which, fixed so as not lo flout themselves, may help to sustain her. Many bodies which compose a ship's cargo may be specifically lighte' than water: all these, when out of water, [J are an additional weight to that of"the ship,and si* B is in proportion pressed deeper in ihe *ater, hut as soon aa theae bodies are immersed, they wea^£ no longer on the ship: but, on the contrary, if fixed, they help to support her in proportion aa they arc specifically lighter than the water.
Temporary nautical pump. Captain Leslie, of the George and Susan, in a voyage from North America to Slock.holm, adopted an excellent mode of emptying water from his , ship's hold, when the crew were insufficient to perform that duty. About 10or IS feet above the pump, he rigged out a spar, one end of which projected overboard, while the oiner was fastened, as a lever, to the machinery of the pump. To the end which projected overboard, was suspended a water-butt, had' full, but corked down: so lh*t when the coming wave raised lite butt-end, ti* other end depressed the piston of the pump; but at the retiring of the wave, this was reversed, fur, by the weight of the butt, the piston came up again, and with it the water. Thus, without the aid ot' the crew, tbe^hip'» hold was cleared of the water iu a few hours.
Another.—When a vessel springs a leak at sea, which cannot be discovered, instead of exhausting the crew by continual working *. the | Hi nips, they may form, with very little trouble, a machine to discharge the water, which will work itself, without any assistance from the liands on bo*u-d.
Let a spar, or spare top-mast, he cut to the leugth of eight or ten feet, or wore, accord mg u
the size of the vessel; mortice four holes through the thickest end, through which run four oars, fixing them tight, exactly in the middle. To the four handles nail on four blades, (made of staves) the size of the other ends, which will form a very good water wheel if the oars be strong: then fix iuto the opposite end what is commonly called a crank: the iron handle of a grindstone would suit extremely well: if this is not to he had, any strong bar of iron mav be bent into that form, wedging it tight to prevent its twisting round. Then nail up a new pair of chaps on the fore part of the pump, for a new handle to be fixed in, which will point with its outer end to the bow of tlie vessel; this handle wil1 be short on the outside, but as long on the inside as the diameter of the bore of the pump will admit, in order that the spear may be plunged the deeper, and of course the longer stroke. The handle must be large enough toliave a #it sawed up it, sufficient to admit a stave edgeways, which must be fastened with a strong iron pin, on which it may work. The lower end of the stave must be bored to admit the round end of the crank; then fix the shaft, with the oars (or arms) over the gunwale, on two crotchets, one spiked to the gunwale, and the other near the pump, cutting in the shaft a circular notch, as well to make it run easier, by lessening the friction, as to keep the whole steady. A bolt is now to be fixed in each crotchet close over the shaft, to keep it from rising. As soon as the wheel touches the water it will turn round, and the crank, by means of the stave fixed tin its end, will work the handle of the pump. To render the sinking of a ship impossible.
According to the present plan of ship-building, in case of leaks at sea, which cannot be kept under by pumping, the ships and crews must inevitably be lost, to ine great affliction and loss of thousands nf families. In order to prevent such accidents in future, which hitherto have been too common, a gentleman, of the name of Williams, suggests an easy arrangement, which, if uuiversally adopted, even under the worst circumstances, will enable the crew to save not only themselves, but the ship and cargo likewise:—
It is, that every ship should be divided into four equal compartments, with partitions of sufficient strength; the probability, in case of a leak is, that it would take place in one of them; and allowiug it to till, the safety of the ship would not be endangered, for 3-4 of the cargo would remain undamaged. To prove this, we will suppose a vessel of one hundred tons so divided, (though the plan is as applicable to a ship of one thousand tons as a canal boat) and, that one of the compartments filled with water: this would not increase her weight more than from six to eight tons, from the cargo previously occupying the space, and reducing her buoyancy about one-tlfpd. The same effect would take place, was she sent out of port with only one£ourth of her hull above water, though vessels are more commonly sent out with one-third, and even more. Packets, as they carry little or no cargo, may with safety be divided into three compartments. In cases of fire the advantage is equally obvious, us any of the quarters might be inundated wiili safety
Jlrt of rwimming. It has been observed before, that men are drowned by raising their arms above the water; the unbuoyed weight of which depresses the head: all other animals have neither motion nor ability to act in u siiail-u* maimer, and, therefore, swim na
turally. When a man therefore falls into deep water, he will rise to the surface, and continue there if he does not elevate his hands. If he move his hands under the water in any manner he pleases, his head will rise so high as to allow him liberty to breathe; and if he move his legs, as in the act of walking, (or rather of walking up stairs), his shoulders will rise above the water, so that he may use less exertion with his hands, or apply them to other purposes. These plain directions are recommended to the attention of those who have not learned to swim in their youth, and they will, if attended to, be found highly advantageous in preserving life.
If a person falls into the water, or gets out of his depth, and cannot swim—and if he wishes to drowu himself, let him kick and splash as violently as possible, and he will soon sink. On the contrary, if impressed with the idea that he is lighter than the water, he avoids all violent action, and calmly but stead;,y strives to refrain from drawing in his breath whilst under the water, and keeps his head raised as much as possible; and gently, but constantly, moves his hands and feet in a proper direction, there will be a great probability of his keeping afloat until some aid arrives. Cramp in bathing.
For the cure of the cramp, when swimming, Pr Franklin recommendsa vigorous and violent shock of the part affected, by suddenly and forcibly stretching out the leg, which should be darted out of the water, into the air, if possible. JPre^autions in bathing.
Never venture iuto cold water, when the body is much heated.
l.)r Franklin relates an instance, within his own knowledge, of four young men, who, having worked at harvest in the heat of the day, with a view of refreshing themselves, plunged into a spring of cold water; two died upon the spot, a third the next morning, and the fourth recovered with great difficulty.
Be very careful where you bathe, eTen though ever so good a swimmer, lest there should be weeds to entangle the feet, or any thing else to endanger life. It is by the neglect of this precaution that many good swimmers expose themselves to greater danger than those who cannot swim at a!i; their very expertuess thus becoming fatal to them, by templing them into places where their destruction is inevitable.
The use of the tepid salt water bath, or indeed of sea-bathing itself, when the Water is warm., (that is,) between 60 and 80 degrees of heat, is in many cases beneficial, when a colder temperature would be decidedly injurious.
It may be satisfactory to know, that in situations distant from the shore, where sea-water cannot be had, artificial sea-water, made by dissolving % lbs. of bay-salt in 16 gallons of fresh water, possesses all the properties of the unter of the sea, a small portion of sulphate of magnesia excepted. The shoroer-batL
The cold shower-bath is less alarming lo nervous persons, and less liable to produce cramps, than colli immersion; it may be considered as the best and safest mode of cold bathing, and is recommended in many nervous complaints.
It has also afforded relief in some cases of in* sanity.
Substitute for a shower bath.
Where the saving of expense is an object, it may be effectually answered by filling a common watering pot with cold water. Let the patient sit undressed upon a stool, which may »e placed in a large tub, and let the hair, if not cut moil, lie
spread over the ihoutders as loosely as possible. Now pour the water from the pot over the patient's ■ I, face, neck, shoulders, and all parts of the u.nly, progressively down to the feet, until the whole has been thoroughly wetted.
A large sponge may, in some measure, be substituted for the shower bath; particularly in affections of the head, which arise from intemperance, iiijiht watching, study, or other perplexity. Heade, from these causes, will be greatly alleviated by wiping the top and fore-part of the „ead with Jl sponge frequently dipped in water. The cold (litis produced will check the determination of blood to the head, and has often b.*en known to prevent delirium and insanity*
On immersing the body in a tepid-bath, which takes its range from 85 to 95 degrees, no striding sensation either of heat or cold if felt But a person much chilled, will, on entering the tepid-bath, feel the water warm, while another, who had been heated by exercise, wilt find it insensibly cold.
The tepid-bath is attended with several advantages: the surface of the skin is, by it, freed from that scaly mutter, which always collects more or less in the healthiest person; the pores of the skin, thus being free, the natural perspiration is promoted, the limbs are rendered supple, and any stiffness, which may have been produced by exertion, or fatigue, is removed. Such immersion has Been found to allay thirst; a proof that a quantity of water is absorbed, and euters the body through llic skin.
The tepid-bath seems the best adapted to the purposes of cleanliness and healthy exercise. To delicate females, and young children, it is of primary importance. Nothing can be more absurd tliau the common practice of mothers and nurses ■n washing children, no matter how sickly or unwell, with cold water, under the idea of bracing the constitution: whereas, the use of tepid water
ne, is not only the most agreeable, but the most proper fluid to excite the energies of the system Hi young children.
Affusion with tepid water has generally the Mum result, except, that if the body continue exposed to the air after the affusion, a sensation of o >ld is produced, which ought to be avoided, by piping dry the upper part of the body, whilst the lower extremities are still covered with water.
There can be little doubt, that human existence, by tepid bathing, temperance, and proper exercise, may be made more agreeable, and also be prolonged.
MtlUL RULES FOR PRESERVING LIFE AMI HELLTH.
Sir R. PhittifrfB rule:
1. Rise early, and never sit up late.
2. Wash the whole body every morning with i old water, by means of a large sponge, and rub it dry with a rough towel, or scrub the whole body lor ten or fifteen minutes with flesh brushes.
3. Drink water generally, aud avoid excess of spirits, wine, and fermented liquors.
4. Keep the body open by the free use of the ivringe, and remove superior obstructions by aperient pills.
5. Sleep in a room which has free access to the i)pen air.
6. Keep the head cool by washing it when necesrary with cold water, and abate feverish and in(1 (minatory symptoms when they arise by persevering stillness,
/. Correct symptoms of plethora and indigestion ny eating and drinking lets per diem for a few days.
8. Never eat a hearty supper, especially of animal food; and drink wine, spirits, and beer, if these are necessary, only after dinner.
J}r Bo£rhaavey9 rule*.
This great man left, as a legacy to the world, the following simple and unerring directions for preserving health; they contained the sum and sunstance of his vast professional knowledge, during a long and useful life:—" Keep the feet warm; the head cool; and the body open."—If these were generally attended to, the physician's aid would seldom be required.
To adapt the dress with a scrupulous nicety to th« fluctuations of temperature eveiy day, would indeed require such minute attention as hardly any person can bestow: but every person may comply with the general rules of clothing, as far as not to lay aside Too early the dress of the winter, nor to retain that of the summer too late; from a neglect of which precaution thousands of lives are everr year sacrificed to mortality. The perfection of" dress, considered merely as such, is to fit without fettering the body.
Nothing is more pernicious than the air of a place where a numerous body of people are collected together within doors; especially if to the breath of the crowd there be added the vapours of a multitude of candles, and the consumption of the vital air by fires in proportion. Hence it happens, that persons of a delicate constitution are liable to become sick or taint in a place of this kind. These ought to avoid, as Much as possible, the air ofgrrai towns; which is also peculiarly hurtful to the asrhmaiic and consumptive, as it is likewise to hysteric women, and men of weak nerves. Where such people cannot always live without the verge of great towns, they ought, at least, to go out as often as they can into the opeu air, and, if possible, pa*» the night in the wholesome situation of the suburbs Ventilation.
Air that has long stagnated becomes extremely unwholesome to breathe, and often immediately fatal. Such is that of mines, wells, cellars, etc. People ought therefore to be very cautious in entering places of this description which have been long shut up. The air ot some hospitals, jails, ships, fee. partake8of the same unwholesome aru* pernicious nature; and they o'ight never to be destitute of ventilators—those useful contrivances for expelling foul, and introducing fresh air into its place. The same may be said of all places where numbers of people are crowded together.
It is found that moat plants have the property of correcting bad air within a few hours, when they are exposed to the light of the sun; but that, on the contrary, during the night, or in the shade, they corrupt the common Hr of the atmosphere. Hence it is a dangerous practice to have shrubs in an apartment that is slept in.
Ventilation of churchet.
Both in publio and private buildings there are errors committed, which affect in an extraordinary degree the salubrity of the air. Churches are aefdom open above once a week; they are never ventilated by fires, and rarely by opening the windows: while, to render the air of them yet more unwholesome, little or no attention is paid to keeping them clean. The consequence of which is, that they are damp, musty, and apt to prove hurtful to people of weak constitutions; and it is a common remark, that a person cannot pass through a large church or cathedral, even in summer, without a strong sense of coolness.
Ventilation of houses.
The great attention paid to making houses olossj aod warm, though apparently well adapted to the
com tort of *l
t of the inhabitants, is by no means ble to health, unless care be taken every day to admit fresh air by the windows. Sometimes it may be proper to make use of what is called pumping the room, or moving the door backward and forward for some minutes together. The practice of making the beds early in the day, however it may suit cunveniet.ee or delicacy, is doubtless improper. >t would be mi;th better to turn them down, «nd expose them to the influence of the air admil•ed by the windows.
For many persons to sleep in one room, as in the ward at a hospital, is hurtful to health; and
it la scarcely a less injurious custom, though often practised by those who have splendid houses, for * wo or more to sleep in it small apartment, especially if it be very close.
Houses situated in low marshy countries, or near' lakes of stagnating water, are likewise unwholesome; as they partake of the putrid vapours exhaled in such places. To remedy this evil, those who inhabit them, if they study their health, ought to use a more generous diet than is requisite in more dry and elevated situations.
Burying in churches, &c. It is almost every where too common to have church-yards in the middle of populous towns. This is not only reprehensible in point of taste, but, considering how near to the surface of the earth the dead bodies in many places are deposited, there must necessarily arise putrid vapours* which, however imperceptible, cannot fail to contaminate the air. The practice of burying in churches is still more liable to censure; and not many yearsI ago, the pernicious effect* of this custom were so | severely felt in France, as to occasion a positive > edict against it,
To dissipate noxious vapours in wells, &c. Procure a pair of smith' s bellows, affixed on a wooden frame, so as to work in the same manner as at the forge. This apparatus being placed at the edge of the well, one end of a leathern tube, (the nose of a fire engine) should be closely adapted to the nose of the bellows, and the other end thrown into the well, reaching within one foot of
the vapours of charcoal, particularly gilders, dwellers, rt6ners of metals, tec. to place a flat vessel, filled with lime-water, near the stove in which the charcoal is burnt.
If the well be even so infected, that a candle will not burn at a short distance from the top; after blowing with the bellows o/dy half an hour, the candle will burn bright at tne bottom; then, without farther difficulty, proceed in the work.
It is obvious, that in cleaning vaults, or working in any subterraneous place subject to damps, the
same method must be attended with the like beneficial effects.
Persons, whose business requires them to attend upon large quantities of fermenting liquors, or to work in close places with lighted charcoal, frequently experience head-ache, giddiness, and other I disagreeable effects from the noxious vapours 1 which these exhale, and often have their health 1 impaired, or their lives endangered by a continuance in the employment. In some cases, the danger, perhaps, cannot be avoided, except by going into the open air, as soon as headache or giddiness begins, and drinking a glass of cold water, or washing the face and neck with the same. In the case of persons whose work requires charcoal fires, the dangerous effects of it may be prevented, by taking care uot to sit near it when burning, or to bum it in a chimney, and when there is none, to kmp the door open, and place a large tub of limewater in the room.
io protect gilders, jewellers, and others from the pernicious effects of charcoal. It is advisable for all those who are exposed to
The lime strongly attacks the me phi tic gas evolved by the ignited charcoal, and preserves the purity of the air. When the surface of the water becomes covered with a film, or pellicle, it tuust be changed for a fresh quantity. To prevent lamps from proving pernicious to asthmatic persons.
The smoking of lamps is frequently disregarded in domestic life; but the fumes ascending from oil, especially if it be tainted or rancid, are highly pernicious, when inhaled into the lungs of r.sthmatic persons. To prevent this, let a sponge, three or four inches in diameter, be moistened with pure water, and in that state be suspended by a string or wire, exactly over the flame of the lamp, at the distance of a few inches; this substance will absorb all the smoke emitted during the evening or night, after which it should be rinsed in warm water, by which means it will be again rendered fit for use.
To disinfect substances of the plague.
Chlorine has been successfufly used in Spain for this purpose, in the following manner.
Expose four ounces of meat in a saucer, until it becomes nearly putrid: suspend bits of paper, fur, feathers, cotton, silk, and wool, upon hooks fixed in a horizontal piece of wood, attached to it perpendicular one, which is supported by a pedestal of lead; cover the whole with a bell-ghss fixed in the rim of a piece of wood on which the saucer is placed. The edges of the rim should be puttied. Fix a cock very tight in the top aperture of the bell-glass, and let the whole rest in a warm room for a fortnight. On withdrawing the cork, the degree of putrefaction may be easily ascertained. When sufficiently impregnated, let each substance be taken out in succession, and enveloped in a sheet of paper folded like a letter; and suspended on a hook in another bell-glass, under which materials for producing chlorine are placed in a saucer or cup. These materials are mariatic acid poured over red oxide of lead, or pulverized oxide of manganese. In a short lime the putrid odour will be dispersed, and the papers, which are intended to imitate letters supposed to be infected, will smell only of chlorine. Each letter should have three or four parallel incisions made iu it with a sharp knife, to admit the disinfecting gas more readily. To protect gilders from the pernicious effects of mercury
They should have two doors in their work room, opposite to each other, which they should keep open, that the, e may be a free circulation of air. They should likewise have a piece of gold applied to the roof of the mouth, during the w hole time of the operation. This plate will attract and intercept the mercury as they breathe, and when it grows white they must cast it into the fire, that the mercury may evaporate, and replace it when it is cool again. They should, indeed, have two pieces of gold, that one may be put into the mouth whilst like other is purifying and coo' ng; by these means they will preserve themselves from the diseases and infirmities w hich mercury occa&ious. Hiding and valh:nj.
For preserving health, there is uo kind of exercise more proper than walking, as it goes the most general action to the muscles of the body; but, for valetudinarians, riding on horseback is preferable It is almost incredible how much the constitution may be strengthened by thisexercise, w he i coniipued for a considerable time; not so much iu the fashionable way of a morning ride, but of making