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ude, and have often been miraculously aved by il inches long and half an inch in diem.cer is fastdinging to ropes.
ened to the front of the girdle by a tape or cort, Upsetting of a boat.
about three inches long. To use the spencer, it If a person should fall out of a boat, or he boat should be slidden from the feet close up to the arms, upset by going foul of a cable, &c. or should he the tapes or cords are to be brought one over each fall off the quays, or indeed fall into any water, shoulder, and fastened by the loops to the pin: from which he cannot extricate himself, but must those between the legs are to be fastened to the wait some little time for assistance--had he pre- other pin. A person thus equipped, though unacsence of mind enough to whip off his hat, and hold | quainted with swimming, may safely trust himself it by the brim, placing his fingers within side of to the waves; for he will float, head and shoulders the crown, (top upwards) he would be able, by || above water, in any storm, and by paddli: g witn this method, to keep his 'mouth above water till his hands, may easily gain the shore. Such a spenassistance should reach him. It often happens that cer may also be made of cork shavings put into a danger is apprehended long before we are involved long canvass bag. in the peril, although there may be time enough li has also been suggested, that every part of the to prepare this, or adopt any other method. Tras usual dress of the sailor should be made with a vellers, ir fording rivers at unknown fords, or view of preserving his life, in cases of accident; and where shallows are deceitful, might make use of for this purpose that a quantity of cork shavings this method with advantage.
or clippings should be quilted into his jacket about Cork waistcoats.
the collar and neck, between the outside and inProvide a cork waistcoat, composed of four side lining: or as a belt, of considerable breadtha pieces, two for the breast and two for the back, || across the back and shoulders, then principally each pretty near in length and breadth to the quar-il omitted under the arms, and resumed over the ters of a waistcoat without flaps; the whole is to be chest and stomach, yet not so much as to create incovered with coarse canvass, with two holes to put convenience. If in these, and other parts of his the arms through. There must be a space left be- dress, so much cork could commodiously be worktween the two back pieces, and the same betwixt | ed, as would give the sailor an opportunity of reeach back and breast piece, that they may fit the covering himself, and making use of his own pow. easier to the body. By this means the waistcoaters in cases of contingency, many valuable lives is open only before, and may be fastened on the might be saved. 'wearer by strings; or if it should be thought more
Bamboo habil. secure, with buckles and leather straps. This The bamboo habit is an invention of the Chines, waistcoat may be made up for five or six shillings. || by the use of which, a person unskilled in the art
If those who use the sea occasionally, and espe- of swimming, may easily keep himself above water. cially ihose who are obliged to be almost con- The Chinese merchants, when going on a voyage, stantiy there, were to use these waistcoats, it are said always to provide themselves with this would he next to impossible that they should be simple apparatus, to save their lives in cases of drowned.
danger from shipwreck. It is constructed by placFurther meuns.
ing four bamboos horizontally, two before, and two It will likewise be proper to prepare an oil skin behind the body of each person, so that they probag, on going to sea, for a temporary supply of hject about twenty-eight inches; these are crossed on provisions, in case of shipwreck. If suddenly I each side by two others, and the whole properly plunged into the water, and unable to swim, it will secured, leaving an intermediate space for the be necessary to keep the hands and arms under body. When thus forided, the person in danger the water-few animals being capable of drowning, slips it over his head, and ties it securely to the owing to their inability to lift their fore legs over waist, by which simple means he cannot possibly their heads.
sink. The legs, therefore, being necessarily immersed i To extricate persons from broken ice. in the water, the difference between the specific Let two or more persons hold a rope or ropes, gravity of the animal and the water, is sufficient to at buth endis, stretcheel over the broken ice; so thai enable it to keep ils nostrils and mouth above the the drowning person may catch hold of it. water, and therefore it is not suffocated by the
The life boat. fluid, but breathes freely. But man, on the con- The life-boat is generally thirty feet long, and frary, being able to lift his hands over his head, il in form much reseir bling a common Greenland and generally doing so in case of this accident, his boat, except the bottom, which is much fatter. She hands and arms make up the difference in specific || is lined with cork, inside and outside of the gungravity, and his head, impelled by the weight of wale, about two feet in breadth, and the seats un his hands and arms below the water, his body fills, derneath are filled with cork also. and he is consequently choked and suffocated. The She is rowed by ten men, double banked, and remedy therefore is, in all such cases, to keep || steered by two men with oars, one at each end, down the hands and arms, and as a furiher secu. both ends being alike. Long poles are provided rity, to act with them under and against the water. for the men, to keep the boat from being driven It will then be impossible to sink, unless the weight broadside to the shore, either in going off or laudof clothes or other circumstances operate to the ing. About six inches from the lower poles, it contrary.
increases in diameter, so as to form a flat surface The marine spencer.
against the sand. The weight of the cork used in The marine spencer is made in the form of a the boat is about seven cwt. girdle, of a proper diameter to fit the body, and She draws very little water, and when full is able Bix inches broarl, composed of about 500 old tavern lo carry twenty people. The boat is able to concurks, strung upon a strong (wine, well lashed to-tend against the most tremendous sea and broken gether with lay-cord, covered with canvass, and water; and never, in any one instance, las she pointed in oil so as to make it water-proof. 'Two failed in bringing the crew in distress into a place tapes of cords, about two feet long, are fastened || of safety. The men have no dread in going off to the back of the girdle with loops at the ends. 1 with ber in the highest sea and broken water: cork Another tape or cord of the same length, having a jackets were provided for them; but their contifew corks 'strung lo the middle of it, is covered fidence in the boat is so greut, Heat they do not use with canvass painted. A pin of hard wood, three i thens.
The success attending this expedient for dimin- 1 methods have been invented and pointed out for ishing the number of unhappy individuals almost this purpose. daily lost in a watery grave, appears to have been A common paper kite launched from the vessel, more than equal to the most sanguine expectations and driven by the wind to the shore has been su formed of its utility; and the great object in view, | posed capable of conveying a piece of pack threasi
, viz. the safety of those persons who hazard their to which a larger rope might be attached and drawn own security to preserve others, has been fully ac- on board. eomplished.
A small balloon, raised by rarified air might be Safe and readily constructed life-boat. made to answer the same purpose. In April, 1806, a model of a life-boat was eshi- A sky rocket, of a large diameter, has also been bited before the Royal Humane Society, which may considered as capable of an equal service, and, inbe put together in the space of half an hour, in any deed, this method seems the best; for besides tie case of shipwreck, and which cannot sink or over- velocity of the discharge, could it be brought to act sel, let the sea run ever so high. All that is neces- || during the night, it must both point out the situr sary to be provided is, a keel or plank of any con- tion of the ship, and the direction that the line venient length, and a few pigs of iron, such as took in Aying ashore. vessels usually carry out for ballast. The officers Useful hints when a leak is spring: of the ship are to take care to keep two or three When a vessel springs a leak near her bottom, empty water-casks, perfectly tight, the bung-holes the water enters with all the force given by the corked up, and a piece of tin or leather nailed weight of the column of water without, which force over them. These casks are to be lashed with is in proportion to the difference of the level be. ropes to the keel, along with the pigs of iron for tween the water without and that within. Il entera ballast; and any spare poles or spars may be also therefore with more force at first, and in greater lashed to the sides, so as to give the raft the form quantity than it can afterwards, when the water of a vessel, and at each end to make a lodgement within is higher. The bottom of the vessel, 100, for the men.
Any of the square sails of the ship is narrower, so that the syme quantity of water will form a lug-sail, and may speedily be adapted coning into that parrow part, rises faster than to the new life-boat, and a strong and broad spar when the space for it is larger. This helps lo may be lashed on as a rudder.
terrify. But as the quantity entering is less and Another.-Let a quantity of ballast, even more less, as the surfaces without and within becomie than what is commonly used for sailing, be laid in more nearly equal in height, the pumps that could the bottom of the boat, over this lay bags filled not keep the water from rising at first, might after. with cork, prepared for the purpose, and numbered | wards be able to prevent its rising bigher, and the according to iheir places, and if considerably people might have remained on board in safety, higher than the gun wales so much the better; a sail without hazarding themselves in an open boat o or part of one folded may be thrown over from
the wide ocean. stem to stern, to combine and unite the several Besides the greater equality in the height of the parts; and lastly, the whole is to be secured to- two surfaces, there may sometimes be other causes gether by passing ropes by so many turns as may that retard the farther sinking of a leaky vessel, be deenied sufficient, round and round over the The rising water within may arrive at quantities of gunwales and under the keel, and these, if neces- light wooden works, empty chests, and particularl! sary, may be witched by a turn or two taken empty water casks, which, fixed so as not to float lengthwise.'
themselves, may help to sustain her. Many bodies Every person either on board or holding by the which compose a ship's cargo may be specifically boat, so prepared, may be absolutely certain of lighte: than water: all these, when ow of water, being carried safe through any breach whatever. are an additional weight to that of the ship, and site
When no such preparation of cork has been is in proportion pressed deeper in the water, but made, the following is proposed as a substitute: as soon as these bodies are immersed, they weight
Let a quantity of ballast, as coals in canvass, be no longer on the ship: but, on the contrary, if fixed, secured in its place, as well as circumstances will they help to support her in proportion as they are almit; then take an emply water cask (beer cask, specifically lighter than the water. or any others that are tight) and fill the boat with
Temporary nautical pump. them, and if the bilge of the cask rises considerably Captain Leslie, of the George and Susan, in a higher than the gun wales, it will be so much the voyage from North America to Stockholm, adop! better; let a sail then be thrown in to jam the cask ed an excellent mode of emptying water from his and ballast in their places, as well as to combine ship’s hold, when the crew were insufficient to per and unite the several parts by covering all fore and form that duty. About 10 or 12 feet above the att; and lastly, let the whole be lashed aud secured pump, he rigged out a spar, one end of which pro together, in the manner above stated. It is be-jected overboard, while ihe other was fastened, as lieved the boat in this trim would always continue a lever, to the machinery of the pump. To the upright on her keel, be lively and buoyant on the end which projected overboard, was witer, and have sufficient efficacy to support the water-butt,'haif full, but corked down so that crew of any ordinary vessel, till drified within their when the coming wave raised the butt-end, the own depth.
other end depressed the piston of the pump; but It frequently happens that after men have gained at the retiring of the wave, this was reversed, for, the shore, they perish of cold for want of dry by the weight of the butt, the piston came up again clothes. As a remedy for this, every man should and with it the water. 'Thus, without the aid of try to secure one or iwo flannel or woollen shirts, the crew, the ship's hold was cleared of the walet by wrapping them up tightly in a piece of oiled in a few hours. cloth or silk; and to guard against tearing, the last Another. When a vessel springs a leak at stå, Inight be covered with canvass, or inclosed in a tin which cannot be discovered, instead
the crew by continual working a. the punops, they Fixther method of preservation in cases of ship- may form, with very little trouble, a machine to wrecks.
discharge the water, which will work itself, wide It being the great object, in cases of shipwreck, || out any assistance from the hands on board. to establish a communication betwixt the vessel Let a spar, or spare lop-mast, be call to the nud the shore with the least possible delay, various length of eight or ten feet, or laore, according us
the size of the vessel; mortice four holes through | turally. When a man therefore falls into deep the thickest end, through which run four oars, fix- water, he will rise to the surface, and continue ing them tight, exactly in the iniddle. To the four there if he does not elevate his hands. If he move handles nail on four blades, (made of staves) the his hands under the water in any manner he pleases, size of the other ends, which will form a very good his head will rise so high as to allow him liberty water wheel if the oars be strong: then fix into the to breathe; and if he move his legs, as in the act opposite end what is commonly called a crank: 1 of walking, (or rather of walking up stairs), his the iron handle of a grindstone would suit extreme-shoulders will rise above the water, so that he may ly well: if this is not to be had, any strong bar of use less exertion with his hands, or apply them to iron may be bent into that form, wedging it tight other purposes. These plain directions are recomto prevent its twisting round. Then nail up a new mended to the attention of those who have not pair of chaps on the fore part of the pump, for a learned to swim in their youth, and they will, if new handle to be fixed in, which will point with attended to be found highly advantageous in preits outer end to the bow of the vessel; this handle || serving life. will be short on the outside, but as long on the in- If a person falls into the water, or gets out of side as the diameter of the bore of the pump will his depth, and cannot swim-and if he wishes 10 admit, in order that the spear may be plunged the drowo himself, let him kick and splash as viodeeper, and of course the longer stroke. The || lenty as possible, and he will soon siok. On the handle must be large encugh to have a Oit sawed contrary, if impressed with the idea that he is up it, sufficient to admit a stave edgeways, which | lighter than the water, he avoills all violent action, must be fastened with a strong iron pin, on which and calmly but steadily strives to refrain from it may work. The lower end of the stave must || drawing in his breath whilst under the water, and be bored to admit the round end of the crank; || keeps his head raised as much as possible; anıl then fix the shaft, with the oars (or arms) over the gently, but constantly, moves his hands and feet gunwale, on two crotchets, one spiked to the gun- in a proper direction, there will be a great probawale, and the other near the pump, cutting in the bility of his keeping afloat until some aid arrives. shaft a circular notch, as well to make it run ea
Cramp in bathing. sier, by lessening the friction, as to keep the whole For the cure of the cramp, when swimming, Dr steady: A bolt is now to be fixed in each crotchet | Franklin recommends a vigorous and violent shock close over the shaft, to keep it from rising. As of the part affected, by suddenly and forcibly soon as the wheel touches the water it will turn | stretching out the leg, which should be darted out round, and the crauk, by means of the stave fixed of the water, into the air, if possible. on its end, will work the handle of the pump.
Precautions in bathing. To render the sinking of a ship impossible. Never venture into cold water, when the body
According to the present plan of ship-building, is much heated. in case of leaks at sea, which cannot be kept under Dr Franklin relates an instance, within his own by puinping, the ships and crews must inevitably | knowledge, of four young men, who, baving workbe lost, to the great affliction and loss of thousands ed at harvest in the heat of the day, with a view of families. In order to prevent such accidents in of refreshing themselves, plunged into a spring of future, which hitherto have been too common, a cold water; two died upon the spot, a third the gentleman, of the name of Williams, suggests an next morning, and the fourth recovered with great easy arrangement, which, if universally adopted, difficulty. even under the worst circumstances, will enable Be very careful where you bathe, even though the crew to save not only themselves, but the ship | ever so good a swimmer, lest there should be weeds and cargo likewise:
to entangle the feet, or any thing else to endanger It is, ihat every ship should be divided into four | life. It is by the neglect of this precaution that equal compartments, with partitions of sufficient many good swimmers expose themselves to greater strength; the probability, in case of a leak is, that danger than those who cannot swim at a:; their it would take place in one of them; and allowing very expertness thus becoming fatal to them, by it to fill, the safety of the ship would not be endan- | tempting them into places where their destruction gered, for 3-4 of the cargo would remain undam- ) is inevitable. age. To prove this, we will suppose a vessel of
Sea-bathing. one hundred tons so divided, (though the plan is The use of the tepid salt water bath, or mdeer as applicable to a ship of one thousand tous as a of sea-bathing itselt, when the water is warm, canal boat) and, that one of the compartments fill- || (that is,) between 60 and 80 degrees of heat, is in ed with water: This would not increase her weight many cases beneficial, when a colder temperature more than from six to eight tons, from the cargo would be decidedly injurinus. previously occupying the space, and reducing her It may be satisfactory to know, that in situations buoyaney'about one-third.' The same effect would | distant from the shore, where sea-water cannot be take place, was she sent out of port with only one- had, artificial sea-water, made by dissolving 4 llis. Suurth of her hull above water, though vessels are of bay-salt in 16 gallons of fresh water, possesses more commonly sent out with one-third, and even all the properties of the water of the sea, a smuld more. Packels, as they carry little or no cargo, portion of sulphate of magnesia excepted. may with safely be divided into three compart
The shower-bath. ments. In cases of fire the advantage is equally The cold shower-bath is less alarming to nere obvious, as any of the quarters might be inundated vous persons, and less liable to produce cramps, with safety
than cold immersion; it may be considered as the best and safest mode of cold bathing, and is ross
commended in many nervous complaints. BATIUNG,
It has also afforded relief in some cases of in
sanity. Art of swimming.
Substitute for a shower balls. It has been observed before, that men are drown- Where the saving or expense is an object, it may ed by raising their arins above the water; thc un- l be eftctually answered by filling a common water buoyed weight of which depresses the head: all || ing pot with cold water. Let the patient sit une other animals have neither molion nor ability to dressed upon a stool, which may be placed in a act in a sicuilar manner, and, therefore, swim na- ll large tub, and let the hair, if not cut short, le spread over the shoulders as loosely as possible. 8. Never eat a hearty supper, especially of ani Now pour the water from the pot over the patient's mal food; and driuk wine, spirits, and beer, if
ead, face, neck, shoulders, and all parts of the these are necessary, only after dinner. wody, progressively down to the feet, until the
Dr Boerhaave's ruler. whole has been thoroughly wetted.
This great man left, as a legacy to the world, A large sponge may, in some measure, be sub- the following simple and unerring directions for stituted for the shower bath; particularly in affec- | preserving health; they contained the sum and suim tions of the head, which arise from intemperance, stance of his vast professional knowledge, during night watching, study, or other perplexity. Head- a long and useful life:—"Keep the feet warm; the ache, from these causes, will be greatly alleviated head cool; and the body open."-f these were by wiping the top and fore-part of the .ead with | generally attended to, the physician's aid would a sponge frequently dipped in water. The cold seldom be required. thus produced will check the determination of
Clothing. blood to the head, and bas often broen known to To adapt the dress with a scrupulous nicety to the prevent delirium and insanity.
fluctuations of temperature every day, would inThe tepid-bath.
deed require such minute attention as hardly any On immersing the body in a tepid-bath, which || person can bestow: but every person may comply takes its range from 85 to 95 degrees, no strining with the general rules of clothing, as far as not to sensation either of heat or cold is felt. But a per-| lay aside too early the dress of the winter, nor to son much chilled, will, on entering the tepid-bath, || retain that of the summer too late; from a neglect feel the water warm, while another, who had been of which precaution thousands of lives are every heated by exercise, will find it insensibly cold. year sacrificed to mortality. The perfection of
The tepid-bath is attended with several adran- | dress, considered merely as such, is to fit without tages: the surface of the skin is, by it, freed from fettering the body. that scaly matter, which always collects more or
fir. less in the healthiest person; the pores of the skin, Nothing is more pernicious than the air of a thus being free, the natural perspiration is pro- | place where a numerous body of people are col. moted, the limbs are rendered supple, and any || lected together within doors; especially if to the stiffness, which may have been produced by exer- breath of the crowd there be added the vapours of tion, or fatigue, is removed. Such immersion has a multitude of candles, and the consumption of the been found to allay thirst; a proof that a quantity || vital air by fires in proportion. Hence it happens, ot' water is absorbéd, and enters the body through that persons of a delicate constitution are liable to the skin.
become sick or raint in a place of this kind. These The tepid-bath seems the best adapted to the ought to avoid, as much as possible, the air of greai purposes of cleanliness and healthy exercise. To towns; which is also peculiarly hurtfal to the asth. ilelicate females, and young children, it is of pri- | malic and consumptive, as it is likewise to hysteric mary importance. Nothing can be more absurd women, and men of weak nerves. Where such than the common practice of mothers and nurses | people cannot always live without the verge of in washing children, no matter how sickly or un- great towns, they ought, at least, to go out as ofter well, with cold water, under the idea of bracing as they can into the open air, and, il possible, pass the constitution: whereas, the use of tepid water || the night in the wholesome situation of the suburbs alone, is not only the most agreeable, bui the most
Ventilation proper fluid to excite the energies of the system Air that has long stagnated becomes extremely in young children.
un wholesome to breathe, and often immediately Affusion with tepid water has generally the fatal. Such is that of mines, wells, cellars, &e. same result, except, that if the body continue ex- People ought therefore to be very cautious in en. prosed to the air after the affusion, a sensation of tering places of this description which have been old is produced, which ought to be avoided, by long shut up. The air of some hospitals, jails, wiping dry the upper part of the body, whilst the ships, &c. partakes of the same unwholesome and lower extremities are still covered with water. pernicious nature; and they o'ght never to be des
There can be little doubt, that human existence, || titute of ventilators--those useful contrivances for by tepid bathing, temperance, and proper exercise, expelling foul, and introducing fresh air into its inay be made more agreeable, and also be pro- || place. The same may be said of all places where longed.
numbers of people are crowded together.
It is tound that most plants have the property
of correcting bad air within a few hours, whec GENERAL RULES FOR PRESERVING LIFE AND HEALTH. they are exposed to the light of the sun; but that,
on the contrary, during the night, or in the shade, Sir R. Phillips's rules.
they corrupt the common Nr of the atmosphere 1. Rise early, and never sit up late,
Hence it is a dangerous practice to have shrubs in 2. Wash the whole body every morning with an apartment that is slepi in. cold water, by means of a large sponge, and rub
Ventilation of churches. it dry with a rough towel, or scrub the whole body Both in public and private buildings there are fur ten or fifteen minutes with flesh brushes. errors committed, which affect in an extraordinary
3. Drink water generally, and avoid excess of degree the salubrity of the air. Churches are sel spirits, wine, and fermented liquors.
dom open above once a week; they are never ven4. Keep the body open by the free use of the tilated by fires, and rarely by opening the windows: syringe, and remove superior obstructions by ape- || while, to render the air of them yet more unwholerient pills.
some, little or no attention is paid to keeping them 5. Sleep in a room which has free access to the clean. The consequence of which is, that they
are damp, musty, and apt to prove hurtful to pea 6. Keep the head cool by washing it when neces-ple of weak constitutions; and it is a common re sary with cold water, and abate feverish and in- | mark, that a person cannot pass through a large Aainmalory symptoms when they arise by perse-church or cathedral, even in summer, without a vering stillness.
strong sense of coolness. 7. Correct symptoms of plethora and indigestion
Ventilation of houses. ny eating and drinking less per diem for a few days. The great attention paid to making houses close
mid warm, though apparently well adapted to the || the vapours of charcoal, particularly gilders, jaw. comfort of the inhabitants, is by no means favoura- ellers, refiners of metals, &c. to place a flat vessel, ble to health, unless care be taken every day to filled with lime-water, near the stove in which the admit fresh air by the windows. Sometimes it mav charcoal is burnt. be proper to make use of what is called pumping The lime strongly attacks the mephitic gas the room, or moving the door backward and for- evolved by the ignited charcoal, and preserves the vard for some minutes together. The practice of purity of the air. When the surface of the water making the beds early in the day, however it may becomes covered with a film, or pellicle, it must suit convenience or delicacy, is doubtless impro- be changed for a fresh quantity, per. at would be much better lo turn them down, | To prevent lamps from proving pernicious to astho and expose them to the influence of the air admit.
matic persons. ved by the windows.
The smoking of lamps is frequently disregarded For many persons to sleep in one room, as in in domestic life; but the fumes ascending from oil, the ward of a hospital, is hurtful to health; and especially if it be tainted or rancid, are highly it is scarcely a less injurious customi, though often pernicious, when inhaled into the lungs of nothporactised by those who have splendid houses, for matic persons. To prevent this, let a sponge, two or more to sleep in a small apartment, especi-three or four inches in diameter, be moistened ally if it be very close.
with pure water, and in that state be suspended by Houses situated in low marshy ajuntries, or near a string or wire, exactly over the flame of the lemp, lakes of stagnating water, are likewise unwhole- at the distance of a few inchu s; this substance will some; as they partake of the putrid vapours ex- absorb all the smoke emitted during the evening haled in such places. To remedy this evil, those or night, after which it should be riused in warm who inhabit them, if they study their health, ought water, by which means it will be again rendered to use a more generous diet ihan is requisite in fit for use. more dry and elevated situations.
To disinfect substances of the plague.
Chlorine has been successfully used in Spain for It is almost every where too common to have this purpose, in the following inanner. church-yards in the middle of populous towns. Expose four ounces of meat in a saucer, until it This is not only reprehensible in point of taste, becomes nearly putrid: suspend bits of paper, fur, but, considering how near to the surface of the feathers, cotton, silk, and wool, upon hooks fixed earth the dead bodies in many places are deposited, in a horizontal piece of wood, attached to a perpenthere must necessarily arise putrid vapours, which, dicular one, which is supported by a pedestal of however imperceptible, cannot fail to contaminate lead; cover the whole with a bell-glass fixed in the the air. The practice of burying in churches is rim of a piece of wood on which the saucer is still more liable to censure; and not many years is placed. The edges of the rim should be pattied. ago, the pernicious effects of this custom were so Fix a cork very light in the top aperture of the severely felt in France, as to occasion a positive y bell-glass, and let the whole rest in a warm room edict against it.
for a fortnight. On withdrawing the cork, the deTo dissipale noxious vapours in wells, &c. gree of putrefaction may be easily ascertained.
Procure a pair of smith's bellows, affixed on a When sufficiently impregnated, let each substance wooden frame, so as to work in the same manner be taken out in succession, and enveloped in a sheet as at the forge. This apparatus being placed at of paper folded like a letter; and suspended on a the edge of the well, one end of a leathern tube, hook in another bell-glass, under which materials (the nose of a fire engine) should be closely adaplo | for producing chlorine are placed in a saucer or ed to the nose of the bellows, and the other end cup. These materials are muriatic acid poured thrown into the well, reaching within one foot of over red oxide of lead, or pulverized oxide of the bottom.
manganese. In a short time the putrid odour will If the well be even so infected, that a candle be dispersed, and the papers, which are intended will not burn at a short distance from the top; af. to imitate letters supposed to be infected, will smell ter blowing with the bellows only half an hour, | only of chlorine. Each lelter should have three or the candle will burn bright at the botlom; then, four parallel incisions made iu it with a sharp without further difficulty, proceed in the work. knife, to admit the disinfecting gas more readily.
It is obvious, that in cleaning vaults, or working To protect gilders from the pernicious effects of in any subterraneous place subject to damps, the
mei cury. same method must be attended with the like bene- They should have two doors in their work room, fioial effects.
opposite to each other, wbich they should keep Persons, whose business requires them to attend open, that there may be a free circulation of air. upon large quantities of fermenting liquors, or to They should likewise have a piece of gold applied work in close places with lighted charcoal, fre- to the roof of the mouth, during the whole time quently experience head-ache, giddiness, and other of the operation. This plate will attract and indisagreeable effects from the noxious vapours tercepe ihe mercury as they breathe, and when it which these exhale, and often have their nealthgrows white they must cast it into the fire, that impaired, or their lives endangered by a continue the mercury may evaporate, and replace it when ance in the employment. In some cases, the dan- | it is cool again. They should, indeed, have two ger, perhaps, cannot be avoided, except by going pieces of gold, that one may be put into the mouth into the open air, as soon as head-ache or giddiness whilst the other is purifying and cooʻng; by these begins, and drinking a glass of cold water, or means they will preserve themselves from the washing the face and neck with the same. In the diseases and infirmities which mercury occasious. case of persons whose work requires charcoal fires,
Riding and walking the dangerous effects of it may be prevented, by For preserving health, there is no kind of exertaking care not to sit near it when burning, or to cise more proper than walking, as it gives the most buro it in a chimney, and when there is none, to general action to the muscles of the body; but, for kup the door open, and place a large tub of lime- valetudinarians, riding on horseback is preferable water in the room.
It is almost incredible how much the constitution 16 protect gilders, jewellers, and others from the may be strengthened by this exercise, whes contipernicious effects of charcoal.
pued for a considerable time; not so much in the It is advisable for all those who are exposed to cashionable way of a morning ride, but of making