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*d a battle, he preferred the safe and speedy navigation of go five days from the coast of Epirus to the mouth of the J.J. Tyber. After reducing, by force or treaty, the towns of infe- Rome berior note in the midland provinces of Italy, Totila pro- too, ceeded, not to assault, but to encompass and starve, the ...A. D. ancient capital. Rome was afflicted by the avarice and 546, May. guarded by the valour, of Bessas, a veteran chief of Gothic extraction, who filled, with a garrison of three thousand soldiers, the spacious circle of her venerable walls. From the distress of the people he extracted a profitable trade, and secretly rejoiced in the continuance of the siege. It was for his use that the granaries had been replenished: the charity of Pope Vigilius had purchased and embarked an ample supply of Sicilian corn; but the vessels which escaped the Barbarians were seized by a rapacious governor, who imparted a scanty sustenance to the soldiers, and sold the remainder to the wealthy Romans. The medimnus, or fifth part of the quarter of wheat, was exchanged for seven pieces of gold; fifty pieces were given for an ox, a rare and accidental prize; the progress of famine enhanced this exorbitant value, and the mercenaries were tempted to deprive themselves of the allowance which was scarcely sufficient for the support of life. A tasteless and unwholesome mixture, in which the bran thrice exceeded the quantity of flour, appeased the hunger of the poor; they were gradually reduced to feed on dead horses, dogs, cats, and mice, and eagerly to snatch the grass, and even the nettles which grew among the ruins of the city. A crowd of spectres, pale and emaciated, their bodies oppressed with disease, and their minds with despair, surrounded the palace of the governor, urged, with unavailing truth, that it was the duty of a master to maintain his slaves, and humbly requested, that he would provide for their subsistence, permit their flight, or command their immediate execution. Bessas replied, with unfeeling tranquisitv, that it was impossible to feed, unsafe to dismiss, and unlawful to kill, the subjects of the emperor. . Yet the example of a private citizen might have shewn his countrymen that a tyrant cannot withhold the privi

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lege of death. Pierced by the cries of five children, whe vainly called on their father for bread, he ordered them to follow his steps, advanced with calm and silent despair to one of the bridges of the Tyber, and, covering his face, threw himself headlong into the stream, in the presence of his family and the Roman people. To the rich and pusillanimous, Bessas” sold the permission of departure; but the greatest part of the fugitives' expired on the public highways, or were intercepted by the flying parties of Barbarians. In the mean while, the artful governor 'soothed the discontent, and revived the hopes of the Romans, by the vague reports of the fleets and armies which were hastening to their relief from the extremities of the East. They derived more rational comfort from the assurance that Belisarius had landed at the port; and, without numbering his forces, they firmly relied on the humanity, the courage, and the skill of their great deliverer. The foresight of Totila had raised obstacles worthy of such an antagonist. Ninety furlongs below the city, in the narrowest part of the river, he joined the two banks by strong and solid timbers in the form of a bridge; on which he erected two lofty towers, manned by the bravest of his Goths, and profusely stored with missile weapons and engines of offence. The approach of the bridge and towers was covered by a strong and massy chain of iron; and the chain, at either end, on the opposite sides of the Tyber, was defended by a numerous and chosen detachment of archers. But the enterprise of forcing these barriers, and relieving the capital, displays a shining example of the boldness and conduct of Belisarius. His cavalry advanced from the port along the public road, to awe the motions, and distract the attention, of the enemy. His infantry and provisions were distributed in two hundred large boats; and each boat was shielded by an high rampart of thick planks, pierced with many small holes for the discharge of missile weapons. In the front, two large vessels were linked together to sustain a floating castle, which commanded the towers of the bridge, and contained a magazine of fire, sulphur, and bitumen. The whole fleet, which the generalled in person, was laboriously moved against the current of the river. The chain yielded to their weight, and the enemies who guarded the banks were either slain or scattered. As soon as they touched the principal barrier, the fire-ship was instantly grappled to the bridge; one of the towers, with two hundred Goths, was consumed by the flames; the assailants shouted victory; and Rome was saved, if the wisdom of Belisarius had not been defeated by the misconduct of his officers. He had previously sent orders to Bessas to second his operations by a timely sally

Attempt of

12 The avarice of Besas is not dis-embled by Procopius (I iii, c. 17. 20). He expiated the loss of Rome by the glorious conquest of Petraea (Goth. l. iv. c. 12); but the same vices followed him from the Tyber to the Phais (c. 15); and the historian is equally true to the merits and defects of his character. The chastisement which the author of the romance of B-*ioc has indicted on the oppressor of Rome, is more agreeable to justice than to history.


from the town; and he had fixed his lieutenant, Isaac, by

a peremptory command, to the station of the port. But
avarice rendered Bessas immoveable; while the youthful
ardour of Isaac delivered him into the hands of a superior
enemy. The exaggerated rumour of his defeat was has-
tily carried to the ears of Belisarius: he paused; betrayed
in that single moment of his life some emotions of surprise
and perplexity; and reluctantly sounded a retreat to save
his wife Antonina, his treasures, and the only harbour
which he possessed on the Tuscan coast. The vexation
of his mind produced an ardent and almost mortal fever;
and Rome was left without protection to the mercy or in-
dignation of Totila. The continuance of hostilities had
embittered the national hatred, the Arian clergy was ig-
nominiously driven from Rome; Pelagius, the archdeacon,
returned without success from an embassy to the Gothic
camp; and a Sicilian bishop, the envoy or nuncio of the
pope, was deprived of both his hands, for daring to utter
falsehoods in the service of the church and state.
Famine had relaxed the strength and discipline of the
garrison of Rome. They could derive no effectual service
from a dying people; and the inhuman avarice of the mer-
chant at length absorbed the vigilance of the governor....
Four Isaurian centinels, while their companions slept, and
their officers were absent, decended by a rope from the

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wall, and secretly proposed to the Gothic king to introduce


his troops into the city. The offer was entertained with

J.--, coldness and suspicion; they returned in safety; they twice

repeated their visit; the place was twice examined; the conspiracy was known and disregarded; and no sooner had Totila consented to the attempt, than they unbarred the Asinarian gate, and gave admittance to the Goths.... Till the dawn of day, they halted in order of battle, apprehensive of treachery or ambush; but the troops of Bessas, with their leader, had already escaped; and when the king was pressed to disturb their retreat, he prudently replied, that no sight could be more grateful than that of a flying enemy. The patricians, who were still possessed of horses, Decius, Basilius, &c. accompanied the governor; their brethren, among whom Olybrius, Orestes, and Maximus, are named by the historian, took refuge in the church of St. Peter: but the assertion, that only five hundred persons remained in the capital, inspires some doubt of the fidelity either of his narrative or of his text. As soon as daylight had displayed the entire victory of the Goths, their monarch devoutly visited the tomb of the prince of the apostles; but while he prayed at the altar, twenty-five soldiers, and sixty citizens, were put to the sword in the vestibule of the temple. The archdeacon Pelagius" stood before him with the gospels in his hand. “O Lord, be “merciful to your servant.” “Pelagius,” said Totila, with an insulting smile, “your pride now condescends to “become a suppliant.” “I am a suppliant,” replied the prudent archdeacon ; “God has now made us your sub“jects, and as your subjects, we are entitled to your clemency.” At his humble prayer, the lives of the Romans were spared; and the chastity of the maids and matrons was preserved inviolate from the passions of the hungry soldiers. But they were rewarded by the freedom of pillage, after the most precious spoils had been reserved for the royal treasury. The houses of the senators were plen

13 During the long exile, and after the death of Vigilius, the Roman church was governed, at fret by the archdeacon, and a longth (A. D. 555)

by the pope Pelagius who was no hot gures of the sullerings of his predecess r. See the original inves of . ropes under he majore of Anastasius (Moira ori, Script. Rer. Italicarum, tom is . P. i. p. 139, 131), who re

lates several curious incidents of the sieges of Rome and the wars of Italy.


tifully stored with gold and silver; and the avarice of Bessas had laboured with so much guilt and shame for the benefit of the conqueror. In this revolution, the sons and daughters of Roman consuls tasted the misery which they had spurned or relieved, wandered in tattered garments through the streets of the city, and begged their bread, perhaps without success, before the gates of their hereditary mansions. The riches of Rusticiana, the daughter of Symmachus and widow of Boethius, had been generously devoted to alleviate the calamities of famine. But the Barbarians were exasperated by the report, that she had prompted the people to overthrow the statues of the great Theodoric; and the life of that venerable matron would have been sacri

ficed to his memory, if Totila had not respected her birth,

her virtues, and even the pious motive of her revenge.... The next day he pronounced two orations, to congratulate and admonish his victorious Goths, and to reproach the senate, as the vilest of slaves, with their perjury, folly, and ingratitude; sternly declaring, that their estates and honours were justly forfeited to the companions of his arms. Yet he consented to forgive their revolt, and the senators repaid his clemency by dispatching circular letters to their tenants and vassals in the provinces of Italy, strictly to enjoin them to desert the standard of the Greeks, to cultivate their lands in peace, and to learn from their masters the duty of obedience to a Gothic sovereign. Against the city which had so long delayed the course of his victories he appeared inexorable: one-third of the walls, in differ

ent parts, were demolished by his command; fire and en

gines prepared to consume or subvert the most stately works of antiquity: and the world was astonished by the fatal decree, that Rome should be changed into a pasture for cattle. The firm and temperate remonstrance of Belisarius suspended the execution; he warned the Barbarian not to suily his same by the destruction of those monuments which were the glory of the dead, and the delight of the living; and Totila was persuaded by the advice of an enemy, to preserve Rome as the ornament of his kingdom, or the fairest pledge of peace and reconciliation.... When he had signified to the ambassadors of Belisarius,

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